Covers chapter 5 - 9 from Kottak.
Covers chapter 5 - 9 from Kottak. ANTH 100000
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Chapter 5 The Primates ● Primatology : the study of nonhuman primates aka fossil and living apes, monkey, and prosimians ● Two particular kinds of primates : ○ Those whose ecological adaptations are similar to our own, apps and terrestrial monkeys ■ Primates that live on the ground rather than in the trees ○ Those that are most closely related to us: great apes, chimpanzees Our Place among Primates ● Taxonomy : the assignment of organisms to categories according to their relatedness and resemblance ● Phylogeny : their genetic relatedness based on common ancestry ● At level kingdom, species are recognized from plants ● Homologies : similarities used to assign organisms to the same taxon Homologies and Analogies ● Human, chimpanzees, and gorillas have more than 98 percent of their DNA in common ● Analogies : when species experience similar selective forces and adapt to them in a similar ways ● Convergent evolution : process by which analogies are produced ● Hominid : refer to the zoological family that includes fossil and living humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and their common ancestors ● The orangutan is member of the pongid family Primate Tendencies ● Arboreal :primates that are tree dwellers ● Anthropoids : mokeys, apes, and humans, which consituse the suborder Anthropoidea ● Prosimii : suborder that include lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers ● Prosimians : more distant relatives of humans than are monkeys and apes ● Primate trends that consistuate what humans share with monkeys and apes : ○ Grasping having opposable thumbs ■ Bipedal : twofooted locomotion ○ Smell to sight we have excellect ability to see in depth ○ Nose to hand sense of touch, where our main touch organ is the hand ○ Brain complexity primate ratio of brain size to body size exceeds that of most mammals ○ Parental investment growing primates recieve more attention and more learning opportunites ○ Sociality Primates tend to be social animals Prosimians ● The primate order has two suborders: ○ Prosimians ○ Anthropoids Monkeys ● Anthropoid suborder has two infraorders: ○ Platyrrhines : New World monkeys (flatnosed) ○ Catarrhines : Old World monkeys, apes, and humans (sharpnosed) ● New World Monkeys... ○ Have grasping tails or prehensile ○ There's only one nocturnal animal the owl monkey ● Old World Monkeys... ○ Include both terrestrial and arboreal species ○ Arboreal primates tend to be smaller ○ Near the time of puberty, baboon and macaque males typically leave their home troop for another Apes ● Hominoid : superfamily made up of humans and the apes (orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees) ● Traits shared by with apes and humans ○ Bodies tend to be bigger ○ Life span longer ○ Longer interval between births of infants ● Brachiation : handoverhand movement through the trees ● Gibbons ○ Live just below the forest canopy ○ Preeminent arboreal specialist ○ Tend to live in primary groups ○ Diet mainly of fruits, with occasional insects and small animals ● Orangutans ○ There are two surviving species or orangutans... but deforestation has been deadly to them ○ Sexual dimorphism is mark in orange diet of fruit, bark, leaves, and insects ○ Tightest social units consist of females and preadolescent young ● Gorillas ○ There are three subspecies of gorillas ■ Eastern lowland, western lowland, and mountain gorillas ○ There is not a lot left ○ They usually walk on the ground and sleep in low trees ○ Diet of plants, leaves, bark and fruit ● Chimpanzees ○ Belong to the genus Pas ○ Live in tropical Africa ○ Prefer to eat fruit, but also capture to eat small mammals and birds’ eggs, and insects ○ Very social animal ● Bonobos ○ Females seem to rule strongest social bonds are among the females ○ male ‘s status reflects that of his mother ○ Frequent sex, and gives birth every 5 or 6 years Endangered Primates ● Deforestation is one of the biggest reason primates are disappearing ● Other reasons of endangerment includes hunting for food and poachers for their skin ● The primate populations are slow to recover Primate Evolution ● Key feature of science is to recognize the tentativeness and uncertainty of knowledge Chronology ● Paleozoic : the ear of ancient life fishes, amphibians and primitive reptiles ● Mesozoic : the era of middle life reptiles, including the dinosaurs ● Cenozoic : era of recent lifebird and mammals, contains two periods ○ Tertiary, includes 5 epochs : Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene ○ Quaternary, includes 2 epochs : Pleistocene and Holocene Early Primates ● Arboreal theory : primates became primates by adapting to arboreal life ● Eocene was the age of the prosimians with at least 60 genera in two main families ● Oligocene epoch anthropoids became the most numerous primates ○ Was a time of major geological and climatic change Miocene Hominoids ● Miocene ephon divided into three parts ● Proconsul : represents the most abundant and successful anthropoids of the early Miocene ○ Probably contained the last common ancestor shared by the Old World monkeys and the apes ● Gigantopithecus : the largest primate that ever lived, lived in Eaia ● Pierolapithecus : well adapted for tree climbing and knuckle walking Chapter 6 Early Hominins What Makes Us Human? ● Ardipithecus : the earliest widely accepted hominin genus ○ Have said to live in humid woodland habitats ○ Probably evolved into anamensis ○ Researchers know about it because it waipedal hominin with very apelike characteristics ● Bipedalism : upright two legged locomotion ○ Advantages : ability to see over long grass, carry items back home, reduce the body’s exposure to solar radiation ● Early hominins had very small brains ● Brain size has increased during hominin evolution, especially with genus Homo ● Big back teeth was an early hominin trait that was lost in human evolution Chronology of Hominin Evolution ● Hominin : used to designate the human line after its split from ancestral chimps ● Hominid : refers to the taxonomic family that includes humans and the African apes and their immediate ancestors ● First hominids appeared late in the Miocene epoch Who Were the Earliest Hominins? ● Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Toumai) : oldest possible fossil found ○ 67 million years old ○ Central Africa in savanna, forest, rivers ○ Blended apelike and human characteristics ○ With thick tooth enamel ○ Human like snout ○ But chimp sized brain ● Orrorin tugenensis : appears to have chimp sized stature but walked on two legs ● Six million years old ● Possible a female The Varied Australopithecines ● Australopithecines : group of PliocenePleistocene hominins, members of a distinct taxonomic subfamily, the “Australopithecinae” ○ Extinction suggesthe australopithecines ultimately were unsuccessful in competing with early Homo populations ○ Teeth and skull indicate a vegetarian diet ● Australopithecus has at least 7 species ○ Anamensis, afarensis, africanus, garhi, robustus, boisei, sediba ○ Lived from about 4 to 1 million years ago ● A. anamensis : a bipedal hominin from northern Kenya, fossil remains were reported first by Maeve Leakey and Alan Walker ● A. afarensis : hominid species that includes fossils found in northern Tanzania and Hadar in the Afar region of Ethiopia ○ Black teeth, had larger and sharper canine teeth ● Australopithecus africanus : describes the first fossil representative of this species, the skull of a juvenile that was found accidentally in a quarry at Taung, South Africa ● Lived between 3 and 1 m.y.a ● There were two groups of South African australopithecines: ○ Gracile ■ Members of A. africanus ● Had more sexual dimorphism than humans ■ Smaller and slighter, less robus ○ Robust ■ All called A. robustus ■ Obviously more robust than Gracile ○ Both descended from A. afarensis The Australopithecines and Early Homo ● A. boisei : East Africa, hyper robust australopithecines, mammoth back teeth ○ Females had bigger back teach that males ○ Diet concentrated of coarse vegetation ● Homo Habilis : describes the earliest members of the genus Homo ● A. sediba : most recent find, of late gracile australopithecine boy ○ Date of 1.95 to 1.78 m.y.a ○ Mosaic of primitive and modern features Oldowan tools ● Stone tools consist of flakes and cores ○ Core : piece of rock about the size of a tennis ball, from which flakes are struck ● Chopper : tool made by flaking the edge of such a core on one side and thus forming a cutting edge ● Oldowan pebble tools : oldest formally recognized stone tools ● Flakes are the most common tools ● Oldest known tools were around 2.6 m.y.a. Chapter 7 The Genus Homo Early Homo ● Homo rudolfensis (1470) : was unique for it’s huge brains size and large molars ● OH6 : dating to 1.8 m.y.a., small size and apelike, tiny as Lucy, female H. habilis ● Sister Species : two hominin fossils found from Kenya ○ Important because is shows overlap of H. habilis and H. erectus and sexual dimorphism in H. erectus was much greater than expected ○ Dates determined from volcanic ash deposits ● Habilis and erectus must have split from common ancestor prior to 2 m.y.a ● Oldest erectus may be 1.9 m.y.a ● With the change in tools, and converting to hunting and gathering, mouth sizes got smaller, jaws got a little weaker, and teeth also got smaller Out of Africa I: H. erectus ● H.erectus was the one to exploit new adaptive strategygathering and hunting ● H. erectus also pushed the hominin range beyond Africa ● Paleolithic : the stonetoolmaking technique that evolved out of the Oldowan tradition ○ It had three division: ■ Lower Paleolithic roughly associated with H. erectus ● Traditionally used by H. erectus and was called Acheulean ■ Middle Paleolithic archaic H. sapiens ■ Upper Paleolithic anatomically modern humans ● H.erectus also controlled some of the first fire ○ Fire gave many advantages including breaking down vegetable fibers, and meat, also providing protection in caves ● As hominins became more carnivorous, they expanded their home ranges in accordance with those of the animals they hunted ○ Once they developed stronger bodies and high protein meat diets, they could expand into new places ● Java Man : found in Java, and Indonesian island, H. erectus, and dated back around 1.6 million years ● Largest group of H. erectus fossils was found in the Zhoukoudian cave in China Archaic H. sapiens ● Fossil evidence confirms that H. sapiens originated in Africa ○ Living heir for more than 100,000 years ● Archaic H. sapiens : encompasses the earliest members of our species, along with the Neanderthals of Europe and Middle East and their Neandertallike contemporaries in Africa and Asia ○ Brain size of was within the modern human range ● Pleistocene : considered the epoch of early human life, with its subdivisions being the Lower Pleistocene and the Middle Pleistocene and Upper Pleistocene ● Facials : major advances of continental ice sheets in Europe and North America ● Interglacials : long warm periods between the major glacials ● Interstadials : brief periods of relative warmth ● H. antecessor : found in northern Spain’s Atapuerca Mountains The Neandertals ● Neandertals were first discovered in Western Europe first on found in Germany ● Mousterian : Neandertal technology, improving considerably during the Wurm glacial ● Neanderthals were stocky, large trunks ○ They had long, broad noses, huge front teeth, broad faces, and large brow ridges ● Anatomically modern humans : refers in paleoanthropology to individual members of the species Homo sapiens with an appearance consistent with the range of phenotypes in modern humans ● Modern humans are believed to have evolved in Africa and colonized Europe Modern Humans ● Anatomically modern humans evolved from an archaic H. sapiens ● Herto : skulls are anatomically modernlong with broad mid faces, featuring tall, narrow nasal bones ● Denisovans : hominin group, that was a distance cousins to Neandertals ○ Gen their name from a cave in southern Siberia where their traces were found ○ Suggested the split from Neanderthals around 400,000 years ago ● Red Deer Cave has yielded a larger sample of human remains ○ Fossils have been called this based on the name of the cave sites and on evidence they cooked giant red deer ○ Differ from modern humans in their jutting jaws, large molar teeth, thick skulls ○ These fossils are important because there are few postIce Age human fossils from Asia that have been well described and reliably dated The advent of Behavioral Modernity ● Scientist agree on the following facts: ○ Around 6 million years ago, hominin ancestors originated in Africa, and became habitual bipeds ○ By 2.6 million year ago, hominins were making crude stone tools ○ 1.7 million years ago hominids had spread from Africa to Asia and eventually Europe ○ 200,000 year ago, anatomically modern humans evolved from ancestors from Africa ● Behavioral modernity : relying on symbolic thought, elaborating cultural creativity, and as a result become fully human in behavior as well as in anatomy ● Red ochre : pigment often used for body paint ● Early evidence for behavioral modernity in a cave site at Pinnacle POint, South Africa ○ Cave has small stone bladelets Advances in Technology ● Upper Paleolithic traditions all emphasized blade tools ● Trends observable through the archaeological record also mark the change over from the Mousterian to the Upper Paleolithic ○ Number of distinct tool types increased ■ Trend reflected functional specialization ○ The jobs tool are intended to perform, the physical properties of the raw materials from which they are made, and distinctive cultural traditions about how to make tools Glacial Retreat ● So much water froze during Ice Ages that most continental shelves were exposed ● Southwestern European economies became less specialized ○ Wider range of plant and animal life was being hunted,gathered, collected ect ○ This was called the broadspectrum revolution ■ Revolutionary because it led to food production Settling the Americas ● Beringia : Bering land bridge that once connected North America and Siberia ● Clovis tradition : a sophisticated stone technology based on a point that was fastened to the end of a hunting spear ○ Used by Paleoindians in the Central Plains, on their western margins, that is not eastern US ○ However this tradition laid no more that 200 years, using C dating Homo floresiensis ● Homo floresiensis were discovered in Flores, an Indonesian island ○ They were downsized versions of H. erectus ○ They were fairly tiny ○ Apparently controlled fire More notes from quiz & summary ● H. erectus skulls have been found in Kenya and Georgia dating back some 1.771.6 million years ● Fire allowed H. erectus to expand into cooler areas ● Neandertals were among the first hominin fossils found ○ They adapted well physically and culturally to bitter cold ○ Ancestors of AMSs were archaic H. sapiens groups ○ Humans probably entered the Americas no more than 18,000 years ago ● Eve Model suggest that the Neanderthals were replaced by a wave of anatomically modern humans ● According to the mtDNA analysis, the first modern humans left Africa around 135,000 years ago ● H. erectus was the first hominin species to expand outside of Africa, eventually colonizing Europe and Asia ● Evidence from the Israeli sites of Skh?l and Qafzeh suggests that AMHs were evolving from archaic H. sapiens populations in the region long before the Neanderthals died out in Europe Chapter 8 The First Farmers The Mesolithic ● Mesolithic Middle Stone Age, period in human development between the end of the Paleolithic period and the beginning of the Neolithic period ● Microlith : Mesolithic characteristic tool type... stook for small stone ● Once glaciers melted, human range extend to British ISles and Scandinavia ● Middle Easterner begun cultivating plants and breen animals by 10,000B.P. ● Jomon people made some of the earliest pottery, early as 15,500B.P. The Neolithic ● The Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution) is the widespread transition, beginning about 12,000 years ago, of human societies from lifestyles based on foraging to lifestyles based on food productionfarming and herding ● The transition from Mesolithic to Neolithic occurs when groups become dependent on domesticated food for more than 50 percent of their diet ○ Hapes after periods of experimenting and using domestic ● Term Neolithic originally referred to new techniques of grinding and polishing stone tools ● Old pottery found in Jiangxi Province, southern Chica The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East ● By 10,000b.p. Domesticates were an established part of the broad spectrum of resources used by MIddle Easterners ● Ear of seminomadic hunting and gather (12,00011,00b.p.) encompasses the last stages of broadspectrum foraging ○ Dry farming : farming without irrigation, depending on rainfall ○ Caprine : goats and sheep, which were domesticated during this era ○ Cattle and pigs were finally domesticated ● Middle Eastern food production had four environmental zones ○ High plateau ○ Hilly flanks : subtropical woodland zone that flanks those rivers to the north ■ Food production began here ○ Piedmont steppe ○ Alluvial desert : area watered by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers ■ Alluvial describes rich fertile soil deposited by rivers and streams ● Sedentism : sedentary life in villages ● Natufians : collected wild cereals and hunted gazelle, had yearround villages ● Mesoamerica : middle America, including Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize ● Vertical economy : exploits environmental zones that, although close together in space, contrast with one another in altitude, rainfall, overall climate, and vegetation ● Seeds of domesticated cereals were often larger ● Crops produce a higher yield ● Wild cereals that axis is brittle ○ This was annoying to people, so they only saved the seeds of tough axes from talks ● Wool from sheep could be used in the heat, is could keep them cool ● 7000bp simple irrigation systems had developed ● State : a social and political unit featuring a central government, extreme contrasts of wealth, and social classes ● Food production was also important to the increasing human population Other Old World Farmers ● Food production spread out from Middle East to other ears through trade ○ Crops and livestock first domesticated in Middle East and spread westward to northern Africa ● 9000bp people were living at Nabta Playa yeararound ○ To survive the desert they dug deep wells, and plans show millets, legumes, and fruits ○ The show making their own pottery as well ● Ancient huntergather DNA linked them to living northern Europeans (finns) while the farmer genome resembled that of contemporary southeastern Europeans ○ Concluded that migrating farmers had spread their crops and technology across Europe 8,500 years ago ● Early presence of domesticated goats, sheep, cattle, wheat, and barley in Pakistan China was one of the first world areas to develop farming, based on millet and rice ○ Millet : tall, coarse cereal grass grown in northern Chica ○ Studies suggest that millet domestications took place between 11,000 and 9,000 bp The First American Farmers ● Most significant contrast between Old and New World food production involved animal domestication ● Peruvians and Bolivians added animal protein to their diet raising guinea pigs, and ducks ● Turkey was domesticated my Mesoamerica ● Three key caloric staples : ○ Maize : or corn, first domesticated in the tropical lowlands of southwestern Mexia ● Root crop ○ Potatoes ○ Manioc: cassava, domesticated in South American lowlands ● Food production invent in Mesoamerican, eastern US, and south central Andes ● New World farming began in lowlands of South American and spread to Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean islands ● Farming in tropical lowlands of Central and South America began at about the same time as food production arose in the Middle East ( 10,000 years ago) ● Teosinte : native to Rio Balsa watershed of tropical southwestern Mexico, is a wild grain Explaining the Neolithic ● Domestication rested on a combination of conditions and resources ● Full Neolithic economy and sedentism did not develop in the east, southeast, and southwest of what is the US until maize diffused in from Mesoamerica ● Geography of the Old World facilitated the diffusion of plants, animals, technology ● Eurasia has a much broader eastwest expanse than do Arica and the Americas ○ This is important because climates are more likely to be similar moving across thousands of miles eastwest than northsouth.. Making plants and animals more easy to spread ○ This barrier kept Neolithic societies more separate and independent in the Americas that in Eurasia ○ Took 3000 years for maize to reach what is the US Cost and Benefits ● Neolithic advantages were discoveries and inventions ○ People learned to spin and weave, make bricks, smelts ○ The developed trade and commerce ● Neolithic economy also brought hardships ○ Food producers typically work may more hours than foragers do, and for a less adequate diet ○ More child is need so that there is child labor ○ Public health declines ● Social inequality and poverty increased ● Resources were no longer common goods open to all ● Rate at which human being degraded their environments also increased with food production More information from summary & quiz ● 15,000bp biggame supply diminished ● 7,500bp most Middle Easterners were moving away from broadspectrum foraging toward more specialized foodproducing economies ● In the New World, most important domesticates were maize, potatoes, and manioc ● Llama of the central Andes was the largest animal domesticated in the New World ● New World farming started in the lowlands of South America and then spread to Central America ● Factors such as diverse use of plant and animal and easily sedentism promoted early domestication in Middle East ● Barley was NOT domesticated in the New World ● The name of the wild ancestor of Maize is Teosinte ● Through the domestication of husks of wild cereal they become more brittle ● There were three independent centers of domestication in the New World. ● Goats and Sheep were the first to be domesticated in the Middle East ● Indus Valley was not one of the areas where food production was independently invented ● H. sapiens sapiens were the first hominin to arrive in the New World ● Domesticated plants lack natural seed dispersal mechanisms ● Unlike in the Old World, few large animals were ever domesticated in the New World. Chapter 9 The First Cities and States The Origin of the State ● State : is a form of social and political organization that has a formal, central government and a division of society into classes ● Chiefdoms : precursors to states, with privileged and effective leaders chiefsbut lacking the sharp class divisions that characterize states ● Neolithic economies could support larger and denser populations ● Primary states : states that rose on their own, and not through contact with other state societies ● Hydraulic agriculture spurs state formation because is has certain implications... feeds more people, while requiring more labor, irrigated agriculture sustains, and fuels population growth ○ States were the byproducts of the organizational requirements of large irrigation systems ● Growth in hydraulic systems is often but not always associated with state formation ● Regional trade as another key factor in primary state formation ● There are three key factors to produce state formation ○ Environmental Circumscription, these may be physical or social ○ Increasing Population ○ Warfar ● Key ingredients in state formation are changes in patterns of control over resources, resulting in social stratification, and increasing regulatory concerns, fostering management by state machinery The Urban Revolution ● Neolithic Revolution : describes the origin and impact of food production ● Urban Revolution : the major transformation of human life and social institutions ○ Key features were the institutions of government, including rulers with real power ● 10 key attributes of early cities and states ○ 1 The first cities were larger and more densely populated than previous settlements ○ 2 Within the city were fulltime specialist craftsmen, workers, merchants ect ○ 3 Each primary primary producer had to pay a tax to a deity or king ○ 4 Monumental buildings distinguished cities from villages while symbolizing the right of rulers to draw on the treasury and to command a labor force ○ 5 Supported by the treasury, priests, civil officials, and military leaders made up a ruling class ○ 6 Writing was used for record keeping ○ 7 Predictive sciences developed, including arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy ○ 8 Sophisticated are styles developed, expressed in sculpture, painting, and architecture ○ 9 There was a longdistance and foreign trade ○ 10 Society was reorganized on the basis of territorial divisions rather than kinships gro Attributes of States ● Following Attributes distinguish states from earlier forms of society: ○ A state controls a specific territory ○ Early states had productive farming economies, supporting dense populations often including cities ○ States had rulers, a military, and control over human labor, used taxation to accumulate resources ○ States are stratified into social classes ○ Have imposing public buildings and monumental architecture...temples, palaces ○ Developed some form of recordkeeping system State Formation in the Middle East ● In 6,000 bp population was increasing most rapidly in the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia ● First towns arose 10,000 years ago in the Middle East ● Tells : mounds ○ Earliest known town is Jericho.. Located in Israel ● Catal Huyuk, was located on a river, remains one of the largest settlements of the Neolithic age ○ Flourished between 8,000 & 7,000 bp ● Halafian : a pottery style first found at Tell Half in the mountains of norther Syria, refers to a delicate ceramic style ● Ubaid pottery is associated with advanced chiefdoms and perhaps the earliest states ● First Middles Eastern states developed between 6,000 and 5,500 bp ○ First chiefdoms emerged during the preceding 1,500 years ● Three different types of societies ○ Egalitarian ■ Typically found among foragers, lacks status distinction except for those based on age, gender, and individual qualities ■ But not everyone has the same social status ○ Ranked ■ Have hereditary inequality ○ Stratified ■ Sharp social divisions, based on unequal access to wealth and power, tend to be ranked in terms of their genealogical distance from the chief ● Had two different stratified society, one with a chiefdom and one without ■ Chiefdoms : societies in which relations among villages as well as among individuals were unequal ● There is always inequality ● The Uruk period, after the Ubaid period, established Mesopotamia as “ the cradle of civilization” ● The first writing originated in Sumer, southern Mesopotamia ● Cuneiform : writing that left a wedgeshaped impression on the clay ○ Sumerian and Akkadian wrote in this form ○ Writing and temples played key roles in the Mesopotamian economy ● Metallurgy : knowledge of the properties of metals ● Smelting : hightemperature process by which pure metal is produced from an ore ● Bronze Age began when alloys of arsenic and copper or time and copper became common and greatly extended the use of metal ● Iron ore is distributed more widely than is copper ore Other Early States ● Trade and the spread of writing from Mesopotamia may have played a role in the emergence of the Harappan state around 4600 bp ● The first Chinese state, dating to 3750 bp was that of the Shang dynasty ● Nok Nok Tha in northern Thailand, metalworking goes back 6,000 years State Formation in Mesoamerica ● The Olmec, build a series of ritual center on Mexico’s southern Gulf Coast ○ They were master sculptors ○ They were cheifdom ○ Famous for carved images ● Mesoamerica’s chiefdoms were linked by trade and exchange ● The intensity of competitive interaction, rather than the supremacy of any one chiefdom, that made social change so rapid ● State formation typically involves one chiefdoms incorporating several others into the emerging state in controls, and making changes in its own infrastructure as it acquires and retains new territories, followers and goods ● Zapotec was the first Mesoamerican stat and had emerged in the Oaxaca Valley by about 2100 bp ○ Developed a distinctive art style ○ At the same time as raiding increased to warfare for territory ● States have at least four levels of decision making ○ The center or capital ○ Secondary ○ Tertiary ○ Quaternary center ○ Chiefdoms have no more than three levels ● Teotihuacan : flourished between 1900 and 1300 bp, it was a huge city and state ○ Governed a territory of a few thousand square kilometers and about 50,000 people ● Settlement hierarchy : ranked series of communities that different in size, function, and building types ● Aztec period : several cities may have surpassed Teotihuacan at its height Why State Collapse ● States can cause for many reasons including : invasion, disease, famine, or prolonged drought ● The collapse to Maya cities have been found at Copan in western Honduras ○ Environmental factors implicated in Copan’s demise may have included erosion and soil exhaustion caused by over farming ○ Thier political organization turned out to be vulnerable More Information from Quizzes ● Teotihuacan was the capital of the first state to develop in the Valley of Mexico ● Ubaid was the name of the cultural period during which advanced chiefdoms and perhaps the earliest states emerged in Mesopotamia ● Copper was the first metal used by humans ● Chiefdoms first appeared in the Middle East around 7300 B.P. and in Mesoamerica around 3000 B.P. ● Knowledge of the properties of metals, including how to extract, process, and use them to make tools, is known as metallurgy ● State is divided in to social classes ● Bureaucracy allows a state to expand its territory much larger than a chiefdom