Chapters 10-17 from Kottak
Chapters 10-17 from Kottak ANTH 100000
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Chapter 10 Language and Communication Language ● Linguistic anthropology : illustrates anthropology’s characteristic interest in diversity, compassion, and change ● Linguistic anthropologists : explore the role of language in colonization and globalization ● Language allows us to discuss the pass and future Nonhuman Primate Communication ● Call system : the natural communication system of other primates, consist of a limited number of sounds that are produced only when particular environmental stimuli are encountered ● Primest vocal tract is not suitable for speech ● Washoes the first chimpanzee to learn ASL, captured in West Africa ○ Lucy second chimp to learn ASL ○ Koko surpasses that of any cimp, employs 400 ASL, and uses 700 at least once ● Cultural transmissionis the way a group of people or animals within a society or culture tend to learn and pass on information ● They produced other words as well ○ Finger + bracelet = fingerbracelet > ring ○ Drinkfruit = watermelon ● Displacement : means that humans can talk about things that are not present, we are not limited to what we see, or where we are ○ Apes have demonstrated linguistic displacement ● FOXP2 > gene that explains why humans speak and chimps don’t Nonverbal Communication ● Communicate when we transmit information about ourselves to others and receive such information from them ● Women tend to face each other when they talk, men do not ● Kinesics : the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and expressions ● Culture plays a role in shaping the natural way to sign ○ “Uh huh” in America means “affirmation” how ever in Madagascar, it is meant to deny The Structure of Language ● Descriptive linguistics : scientific study of a spoken language, it involves several interrelated areas of analysis ● Phonology : the study of speech sounds, considers which sounds are present and meaningful in a given language ● Morphology : how sounds combine to form morphemes, words and their meaningful parts ● Lexicon : a dictionary containing all its morphemes and their meanings ● Syntax : refers to the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences ● Phoneme : sound contrast that makes a difference, that differentiates meaning ○ Minimal pairs : words that resemble each other in all but one sound ● Phonetics : study of speech sounds in general, what people actually say in various languages ● Phonemics : studies only the significant sound contrasts of a given language ● symbolic dominationa stratified society, even people who do not speak the prestige dialect tend to accept it as standard or superior Language, Thought, and Culture ● Universal grammar : the set of rules for organizing language, so that all languages have a common structural basis ● Pidgins : languages that form in situations of acculturation ○ Pidgins may develop into creole languages, that are more mature languages, with developed grammatical rules ● SapirWhorf hypothesis : rather than seeking universal linguistic structures and processes, they believe that different languages produce different ways of thinking ● Lexicon : a language’s dictionary, its set of names for things, events, and ideas ● Focal vocabulary : specialized sets of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups ● Semantics : refers to a language’s maining system ● The ways in which people divide the world, reflect their experiences Sociolinguistics ● Sociolinguistics : investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation ● Sociolinguists : studies speech in its social context ● Variation within a language at a given time is historical change in progress ● Styleshift : term in sociolinguistics referring to alternation between styles of speech included in a linguistic repertoire of an individual speaker ● Diglossia : people who regularly switch between dialects ○ Regular shifting between "high" and "low" variants of a language ● Women typically use language and the body movements that accompany it to build rapport, social connections with others ● Ment tend to make reports, reciting information to establish a place for themselves in a hierarchy ● Pronouncing your ‘r’s given a sense of more hierarchy ● Black English Vernacular(BEV) : the “relatively uniform dialect” spoken by the majority of black youth in most parts of the US today, ○ However it is not a distinct language ○ It is a dialect of English ○ Complex linguistic system with its own rules Historical Linguistics ● Historical linguistics : deals with longerterm change ● Daughter languages : languages that descend from the same parent language and that have been changing separately for hundreds or even thousands of year ○ Romance languages such as French and Spanish, daughter languages of Latin ● Protolanguage : the original language from which they diverges ● Subgroups : languages within a taxonomy of related languages that are most closely related ● the world's linguistic diversity has been cut in half over the past 500 years Chapter 11 Making a Living ● Food production : refers to human control over the reproduction of plants and animals and it contrasts with the foraging economies that preceded it and that still persist in some parts of the world ● Foragers may harvest, but they don’t plants, they may hunt animals, but the don’t domesticate Adaptive Strategies ● Adaptive strategy : describes a society’s main system of economic production ○ Cohen argued that the biggest reason for similarities between two unrelated societies is their possession of a similar adaptive strategy ● Five adaptive strategies > foraging, horticulture, agriculture, pastoralism, and industrialism ● Animal domestication and plant cultivation began 12,000 to 10,000 years ago ● All contemporary foragers live in nationstates and are influenced by national policies ● In Africa there are two broad belts of contemporary or recent foraging ○ Kalahari Desert of southern Africa ○ The equatorial forest of central and eastern Africa ● Estimated 150,000people continue to derive their subsistence from full or part time foraging ○ They share features among other foragers : small social groups, mobile settlement patterns, sharing of resources, immediate food consumption, egalitarianism, and decision making by mutual consent ○ They are threatened by deforestation and governmental laws ● Correlations : associations or covariations between two or more variables ● One correlation of foraging is that the have band’s of people ○ Band : small group of fewer than a hundred people, all related by kinship or marriage ● Other characteristics of foraging life are flexibility and mobility ○ They also tend to be egalitarian Adaptive Strategies Based on Food Production ● Three adaptive strategies based on food production in nonindustrial societies are: ○ Horticulture : non intensive, shifting cultivations ■ They use simple tools such as hoes and digging sticks ■ They employ slashandburn techniques ■ Shifting cultivation they tend to abandon a plot and let it regrow before coming back to it ○ Agriculture : intensive, continuous cultivation ○ pastoralism ● A single field has the same owner year after year, which means no need to maintain a reserve of uncultivated land, for this reason, agricultural societies tend to be more densely populated than horticultural ones ● Continuum : are intermediate economies, combining horticultural and agricultural feathers ● Sectorial fallowing : working on a plots for several cycles and then abandoning them for long periods of time ● Intensive agriculture has significant environmental effects, such as organic wastes, chemicals, and disease microorganisms ● Agricultural strategy : put all eggs into one big dependable basket ● Tropical foragers and horticulturalists strategy : have several smaller baskets, that have some risks to them ● Agricultural economics pose a series of regulatory problems ○ They have more opportunities for interpersonal contact and conflict than foragers and horticulturalists ● Pastoralist : people whose activities focus on such domesticated animals as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, yak, and reindeer ○ Live in North and subsaharan Africa, Middle East, Europe, and Asia ○ Two patterns emerge from them ■ Nomadism ■ Transhumance ● Pastoral nomadism : the entire group moves with the animals throughout the year ● Transhumance : part of the group move with the herds, but most people say in the home village ○ They can maintain yearround villages and grow crops ● Symbiosis : an obligatory interaction between groups that is beneficial to each Economic Systems ● Economy : system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources ● Mode of production : way of organizing production ○ Capitalist mode of production there is a social gap... many buys labor power ○ In nonindustrial societies, labor usually is not bought but is given as a social obligation ● Many horticultural societies assign a major productive role to women, but some make men’s work primary ● Means, or factors, of production include land, labor, and technology ● In industrial economies, people, work, and the workplace tend to be very alienated from one’s social essence unlike in nonindustrial economies where one might work for and with people whom one has longterm personal and social bonds, creating something they take pride in Economizing and Maximization ● Anthropologists view economic systems and motivations in a crosscultural perspective ● Economics often is defined as economizing, or the rational allocation of scarce means to alternative ends ● Classical economic theory assumes that our wants are infinite, while our means are limited ● Peasants : smallscale agriculturists who live in nonindustrial states and have rent fund obligations ● All peasants have two things in common ○ They live in stateorganized societies ○ They produce food without the elaborate technologychemical fertilizers, tractors, airplanes to spray crops, and so onof modern farming or agribusiness Distribution, Exchange ● Three principles that guide echanges ○ Market principle : governs the distribution of the means of production ■ With it items are bought and sold, and value is determined by the law of supply and demand ○ Redistribution : operates when goods, services, or their equivalent move from the local level to a center ○ Reciprocity : is exchange between social equals ■ There are three degrees of reciprocity : generalized, balanced, and negative ● Reciprocity continuum : the range from generalized to negative ● Generalized reciprocity : someone given to another person and expects nothing immediate in return ● Balanced reciprocity : applies to exchanges between people who are more distantly related than are members of the same band or household ● Negative reciprocity : mainly in dealing with people beyond their social system ● Generalized reciprocity and balanced reciprocity are based on trust and social tie ● Potlatch : festive event within a regional exchange system among tribes of the North Pacific Coast of North America ○ Giving away a surplus of material in return for prestige Chapter 12 Political Systems ● Power : the ability to exercise one’s will over others ● Authority : the formal, socially approved use of power What is “The Political”? ● Political regulation : includes such processes as decision making, dispute management, and conflict resolution Types and Trends ● Band, tribe, chiefdom are no long in selfcontained form... and anthropologists never have been able to observe these “in the flesh” ● Tribes : have economies based on horticulture and pastoralism ○ Have no formal government and no reliable means of enforcing political decisions ● Chiefdom : a form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state ○ Social relations based mainly on kinship, marriage, descent, age, generations aka kin based ● Differential access : some people had more wealth, prestige, and power than others ● Sociopolitical typology : service labels “band”, “state” ect are categories of this group ● Many sociopolitical trends reflect the increased regulatory demands associated with cultivation and herding Bands and Tribes ● Modern forager line in a nationstates and an interlinked world ● Foraging continues to be their subsistence base, groups like the San can illustrate links between a foraging economy and other aspects of life in bands ● Foraging bands formed seasonally what component nuclear families got together ● Aboriginal Inues another group of foragers ● Conflict resolution : in stateless societies settling disputes ● Norms : cultural standards or guidelines that enable individuals to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate behavior in a given society ● Foragers lacked formal law and the sense of a legal code with trial and enforcement ○ Did have methods of social control and dispute settlement ■ Kill the other person, or song battle ● Horticulture villages usually are small, with low population density and open access to strategic resources ○ Age, gender, and personal traits determine how much respect people receive ● Yanomami Native Americans who live in southern Venezuela and the adjacent part of Brazil ○ Staple crops bananas and plantains ○ Traditionally have a village head ■ Must lead in generosity ● Big man : was an elaborate version of the village head ○ Village head leadership limited to one village, bigman supported several villages ○ They have pork feasts ● Status : for any social position, no matter what its prestige ○ Ascribed status : people have little or no choice about occupying them ie age ● Achieved statuses : based on choices, actions, efforts, that may be positive or negative ie big man, senator ● Pantribal sodalities : groups that extend across the whole tribe, spanning several villages ○ Usually used in warfare ● Two activities demanded strong leadership ○ Organizing and carrying out raids on enemy camps ○ Managing the summer bison hunt Chiefdoms ● First states emerged in the Old World around 5,5000 years ago ○ First chiefdoms developed perhaps a thousand years earlier ● Chiefdom emerged during the evolution of tribes into stats ● State formation began in Mesopotamia current Iran and Iraq ○ Early stats were called archaic, and nonindustrial ● Chiefdom and states are ideal types, they are labels that make social contrast seem sharper than they really are ● Geographically chiefdoms existed in the Caribbean, Panama, Colombia, and Lowland Amazonia ● Office : permanent position , which must be refilled when it is vacated by death or retirement ● Social status in chiefdoms was based on seniority of descent ○ But there levels of rank were much more blurred ○ States drew a much firmer line between elites and masses ○ Commoners married commoners; elites married elites ● Stratification : creation of separate social strata ● Max Weber three related dimensions of social stratification ○ Economic status (wealth) ○ Power, the ability to exercise one’s will over others ○ Prestige the basis of social status refers to esteem, respect, or approval ● Superordinate :higher, or the elite ● Subordinate : lower, or underappreciated State Systems ● Band ○ Foragain ○ Ex : inuit, San ○ Local Regulation ● Tribe ○ Horticulture, pastoralism ○ Ex : Yanomami, Masai, Kapauku ○ Local/Temporary/Regional Regulation ● Chiefdom ○ INtensive horticulture, pastoral nomadism ○ Ex : Qashqai, Polynesia, Cherokee ○ Permanent/Regional Regulation ● State ○ Agriculture, industrialism ○ Ex : Ancient Mesopotamia, contemporary US ○ Permanent/Regional Regulation ● States tend to be large and populous with specialized function, including the following: ○ Population control ○ Judiciary laws, legal procedures ○ Enforcement military ○ Fiscal support taxation ● States often promote mobility and resettlement ● In non states people customarily share with their relatives Social Control ● Social control : refers to “those fields of the social system that are most actively involved in the maintenance of any norms and the regulation of any conflict ● Hegemony : leadership or dominance, especially by one country or social group over others ● Easier and more effective to dominate people in their minds that to try to control their bodies ● Popular resistance forms with people are allowed to assemble ● Factors that interfere with community formation also work to curb resistance ○ The elite may try to suppress or limit how many gathers there are ● The oppressed may seem to accept their own domination even as they question it in private ● Public transcript : describes the open, public interactions between superordinates and subordinates the outer shell of power relations ● Shame can be a powerful social sanction ● Shame and ridicule played a key role in a decisive protest movement that took place in southeastern Nigeria More information from quizzes ● Hegemony : the internalization of a dominant ideology ● Descent groups : Kin groups whose members are related to a common ancestor ● States are complex systems of sociopolitical organization that aim to control and administer everything from conflict resolution to fiscal systems to population movements. ● Authority : what social scientists refer to as the socially approved use of power ● The Igbo Women's War is an example of shame and ridicule as a method of resistance ● Economic, political, and religious activities are often interrelated in nonstate societies Chapter 13 Families, Kinship, and Marriage ● Nuclear family accounts for fewer than 1/4 of all American households ● Culturally constructed : based on learning and variable from culture to culture ○ kin ship is culturally constructed Families ● Family : a group of people who are considered to be related in some way, for example by “blood” ● US and Brazil most populated countries of the Western Hemisphere ● Nuclear family is impermanent lasts only as long as they are together ○ People may be in up to 2 nuclear families in a lifetime ● Family of orientation : the family in which one is born and grows up ● Family of procreation : formed when one marries and has children ● Zadruga : an extended family household, was headed by a male household ● Tarawards : matrilineal extended family compounds ○ Was a residential complex ● Neolocality : Married couples are expected to establish a new place of residence ● Extended family household : family household includes three or more generation ○ Mostly poorer class have shown to have more extended family households ● Several reasons for the changing household composition: ○ Women increasingly are joining men in the cash workforce ○ Job demands compete with romantic attachments ○ US divorce rate has risen ● Foragers don’t usually reside neo locally Descent ● Descent group : a permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry(ascribed status) ○ Frequently are exogamous ● Patrilineal descent : people automatically have lifetime membership in their father’s group ● Matrilineal descent : people join the mother’s group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life ● Unilineal descent : descent rule uses one line only, either the male or the female line ● Apical ancestor : person who stats at the top ● Lineage uses demonstrated descent, clans use stipulated descent ● Patrilocality : the rule that when a couple marries, it moves to the husband’s community, so that their children will grow up in their father’s villages ○ Associated with patrilineal descent ● Matrilocality : Married couples live in the wife’s community, and their children grow up in their mother’s village Marriage ● In many societies marriages unite more than two spouses aka plural marriages ● Exogamy : seeking a mate outside one’s own group ● Incest : refers to sexual contact with a relative, but cultures define their kin, and thus incest, differently ● Rules of endogamy dictate mating or marriage within a group to which one belongs ○ Most cultures are endogamous units ● Caste system : stratified groups in which membership is ascribed at birth and is life long Marital Rights and SameSex Marriage ● Marriage can accoplish the following ○ Establish the legal father of a woman’s children and the legal mother of a man’s ○ Give either or both spouses a monopoly in the sexuality of the other ○ Give either or both spouses right to the labor of the other ○ Give either or both spouses rights over the other’s property ○ Establish a joint fund of property a partnership for the benefit of the children ○ Establish a socially significant “relationship of affinity” between spouses and their relatives Marriage across Cultures ● Lobola : a gift that compensates the bride’s group for the loss of her companionship and labor ● Dowry : occurs when the bride’s family or kin group provides substantial gifts when their daughter marries ● Plural marriages are allowed in nonindustrial foodproducing societies ● Polygyny : a man has more than one wife ● Polyandry : woman has more than one husband ○ It is a cultural adaptation to mobility associated with male travel for trade, commerce, and warfare ● Sororate : when the wife dies, and the family gives up a substitute such as her sister ● Levirate : when the husband dies so the widow may marry his brother Divorce ● Divorce is harder in a patrilineal society ○ Especially when lobola give would have to be reassembled and repaid Plural Marriages ● North Americans are allowed to practice serial monogamy ● Things that may promote polygyny: ○ Men marrying later than women ○ The equal sex ratio ● Plural wives can play important political roles in nonindustrial states ○ They acted as local agents in some cases, staying in different parts of his region ● Polyandry is rare and practice under very specific conditions ○ Practice in South Asia, Tibet, Nepal< India, and Sri Lanka More information from Quizzes ● exogamy adaptive because it increases the number of individuals that one can rely on in times of need ● Bridewealth = Progeny price ● zadruga is a type of extendedfamily household found in Western Bosnia ● two basic social units typically found in foraging societies nuclear families & bands Chapter 14 Gender Sex and Gender ● Sexual dimorphism : refers to differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals ● Sex differences are biological but gender encompasses all the traits that a culture assigns to and inculcates in males and females ● Gender : refers to the cultural construction of whether one is female, male, or something else ● Gender roles : the tasks and activities a culture assigns by gender ● Gender stereotypes : oversimplified but strongly held ideas about the characteristics of males and females ● Gender stratification : describes an unequal distribution of rewards between men and women, reflecting their different positions in a social hierarchy ● The economic determinants of gender status include freedom or autonomy and social power Recurrent Gender Patterns ● In societies where men did domestic choses, the bulk of such work was done by women ● Women work to ensure their progeny will survive by establishing a close bond with each baby ● Men mate, within and outside marriage more than women do Gender Roles and Gender Stratification ● Gender stratification decreased when men and women made roughly equal contributions to subsistence ● Foraging societies, gender stratification was most marked when men contributed more to the diet than women did ● Domestic : within or pertaining to the home ● Domesticpublic dichotomy : strong differentiation between the home and the outside world ● With matrilineal descent and matrilocality female status tends to be high ● Matrilinealmatrilocal systems tend to occur in societies where population pressure on strategic resources in minimal and warfare in infrequent ○ Women tend to have higher status in these societies ■ Descentgroup membership ■ Succession to political positions ■ Allocation of land ■ Overall social identity all come through female links ● PatrilinealPatrilocal complex : consisting of patrilineality, patrilocality, warfare, and male supremacy ● Patriarchy : a political system rule by men in which women have inferior social and political status, including basic human rights Gender in Industrial Societies ● Women head over half of US households with incomes below the poverty line ● Percentage of singleparent households has been increasing worldwide ○ The highest being Ireland ● One way to improve the situation of poor women is to encourage them to organize ● There is a possible correlation to how many women are working and the nation's overall happiness Beyond Male and Female ● Gender is more socially constructed ● Transgender also includes people whose gender identity has no apparent biological roots ● Intersex : encompasses a group of conditions involving a discrepancy between the external genitals and the internal genitals ● Causes for intersex varied ○ An XX intersex person has the chromosomes of a women and normal ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes, but the external genitals appear males ○ An XY intersex persons has the chromosomes of a man (XY) ○ A true gonadal intersex person has both ovarian and testicular tissue ○ Intersex also can result from an unusual chromosome combination ● Transgender : people tend to be individuals whose gender identity contradicts their biological sex at birth and the gender identity that society assigned to them in infancy Sexual Orientation ● Gender identity : refers to whether a person feels, and is regarded as, male, female, or something else ● Sexual orientation : refers to aperon’s exual attraction to, and habitual sexual activities with, person s of the opposite sex, the same sex, or both sexes ● In some cultures, sex is seen as taboo and only for reproduction Information from Quizzes ● Minangkabau is an example of a matrilinealmatrifocal society ● The relative status of women is variable, depending on factors such as subsistence strategy, the importance of warfare, and the prevalence of a domesticpublic dichotomy ● In the United States, attitudes regarding the role of women in the workplace have varied according to economic needs ● Intersex can result from an unusual chromosome combination, such as X0 ● domesticpublic dichotomy tends to be more pronounced among agriculturalists than among foragers ● In general, the status of women is higher in matrilineal societies than it is in patrilineal societies ● Gender stratification tends to be extreme in patrilinealpatrilocal societies. ● Domestic violence against women is prevalent in patrilinealpatrilocal societies because women are cut off from their supportive kin ● Malefemale avoidance among the Etoro was linked to beliefs about the cycle of birth, physical growth, maturity, old age, and death ● Among foragers the lack of a clear publicdomestic dichotomy contributes to reduced gender inequality Chapter 15 Religion ● Communitas : an intense community spirit, a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness ● Religion refers to religious beliefs and behaviors, which exist in all societies ● In nonindustrial societies, religion typically is more embedded in society ○ Religion beliefs may help regulate the economy Expressions of Religion ● Shamans : early religious specialists ● Ideas of why religion began: ○ Religion arose as people tried to understand conditions and events they could not explain by reference to daily experience ○ Is a view of the supernatural as a domain of impersonal power, or force, which people can control under certain conditions ● Animism : the belief that the soul departs after death ● Polytheism : the belief in multiple gods ● Monotheism : the belief in a single, all powerful deity ● Mana : sacred impersonal force existing in the universe ○ Manalike forces have been widespread ○ But especially prominent in Melanesia ● Taboo : set apart as sacred and off limits to ordinary people ● Magic : refers to supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims ○ Magical techniques can dispel doubts that arise when outcomes are beyond human control ○ Contagious magic : magic based on the belief that whatever is done to an object will affect a person who once had contact with it ● Rituals : formal, stylised, repetitive, and stereotyped ● Rites of passage : traditional vision quest, can be individual or collective ○ They all have three stages : separation, liminality, and incorporation ○ Liminality : liminal people exist apart from ordinary distinction and expectations; they are living in a time out of time... is a basic to all passage rites ● Totems : could be animals, plants, or geographical features, a key ingredient in the religions of the Native Australians ○ They are sacred emblems symbolizing common identity Social Control ● Moral codes are ways of maintaining order and stability that are constantly reinforced in religious sermons, catechisms, and the like ● So mobilize communities one must either use persuasion or by hatred and fear ie witchcraft Kinds of Religion ● All societies have religious figures those believed capable of mediating between humans and the supernatural ● Societies with productive economies can support fulltime religious specialists ● In monotheism, all supernatural phenomena are believed to be manifestations of, or under the control of, a single eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent being Protestant Values and Capitalism ● Most varieties of Protestantism lack the hierarchical structure of earlier monotheistic religions ● Protestants as more successful financially than Catholics and attributed this difference to the values stressed by their religions ● Rational business organization required the removal of production from the home ○ Protestantism made such a separation possible by emphasizing individualism World Religions ● 31.5% Christians; 23.2% Muslims ● 16% of the world lacked any religious affiliation ○ Constitute the third largest group worldwide with respect to religious affiliation ● Islam is growing at a rate of about 2.9 percent annually, compared with 2.3 percent for Christianity Religion and Change ● Revitalization movements : social movements that occur in times of change, in which religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a society ● Cargo cults : arisen in colonial situation in which local people have regular contact with outsiders but lack their wealth, technology and living standards ○ Believed that one day all the Europeans would die ○ Treated a lot of the European objects sacred ○ They are a religious response to the expansion of the world capitalist economy ● Melanesians believed that all wealthy people eventually had to give their wealth away Religion and Cultural Globalization ● Evangelical Protestantism, originated in Europe and North America ○ Has been particularly explosive in Brazil ● Evangelical Protestantism stresses conservative morality, the authority of the Bible, and a personal conversion experience ● Pentecostalism are expected to separate themselves both from their pasts and from the secular social world that surrounds them ○ Strengthens family and household through a moral code ○ Prohibits adultery, gambling, drinking, and fighting ○ Heavily influenced by African American Protestantism ○ Once converted, Pentecostal is expected to be an active Evangelist, seeking to bring in new members ○ Is egalitarian ● Antimodernism : the rejection of the modern in favor of what is perceived as an earlier, purer, and better way of life ● Fundamentalism : describes anti modernist movements in various religions, including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism ○ Fundamentalist seek to rescue religion from absorption into modern, Western culture ● Islam : 1/5 of the world’s population is another rapidly spreading global religion that can be used to illustrate cultural globalization Secular Rituals ● Secular rituals include formal, invariant, stereotyped, earnest, repetitive behavior and rites of passage that take place in nonreligious settings Information from Quizzes ● Edward B. Tylor : founder of the anthropology of religion ● liturgical orders : Sequences of words and actions that are used during rituals ● Olympian religion : involves fulltime religious specialists Chapter 16 Ethnicity and Race ● Ethnicity is based on cultural similarities and differences in a society or nation Ethnic Groups and Ethnicity ● Ethnic group : members that share certain beliefs, values habits, customs, and norms ○ Can exist when people claim a certain ethnic identity for themselves ● Ethnicity : means identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group and exclusion for certain other groups because of this affiliation ● Change in the degree of importance attached to an ethnic identity may reflect political changes or individual lifecycle changes ● Situational negotiation of social identity is where one identity is used in certain settings, another in different ones ● “Hispanics” are the fastestgrowing ethnic group in the US ● Minority groups : term referring to a category of people differentiated from the social majority ● Majority groups : are superordinate, dominant, or controlling groups ● Race : an ethnic group is assumed to have a biological basis ○ Culturally consturcted ● Racism : discrimination against such a group of race ○ Not possible to define human races biologically The Social Construction of Race ● One acquires one’s racial identity at birth ● Descent : aggins social identity on the basis of ancestry ● Hypodescent : the automatic assignment of children of a mixed union or mating between members of different socioeconomic groups or ethnic groups to the subordinate group ○ Hypodescent rule results in all the population growth being attributed to the minority category ● 10% of Japan’s national population are minorities of various sorts ○ Ainu, annexed Okinawans, outcast burakumin ect ○ Burakumin are perceived as standing apart from majority Japanese ● The origin of the burakumin lies in a historical, tiered system of stratification ● Top four ranked categories ○ Warrior administors ○ Farmers ○ Artisans ○ Merchants ● Burakumin like Blacks in the US are classstratified ● Brazilians use many more racial labels ○ Americans use only 3 or 4 races ○ Brazil racial identity is more flexible, more of an achieved status ● Phenotype : refers to an organism’s evident traits ○ Brazilian’s phenotype may chance because of environmental factors etc ○ Indio : indigenous, Native American ○ Caboclo : someone who “looks indio” but wears modern clothing and participates in Brazilian culture Ethnic Groups, Nations, and Nationalities ● Nation : an independents, centrally organized political unit, or a government ● Nationstate : refer to an autonomous political entity, a country ● Most nationstates are not ethnically homogeneous, because of migration, conquest, and colonialism ○ 70% of all countries have an ethnic group that forms an absolute majority of the population most latin American and Caribbean countries contain a majority group ○ Most countries in Asia and Middle East/North Africa have ethnic majorities ● Nationalities : ethnic groups that once had, or wish to have or regain, autonomous political status ● Language and print played a crucial role in the growth of European national consciousness ● Creating multi tribal and multiethnic states, colonialism often erected boundaries that corresponded poorly with preexisting cultural divisions Ethnic Tolerance and Accommodation ● Assimilations : describes the process of change that a minority ethnic group may experience when it moves to a country where another culture dominates ● Ethnic distinctions can persist despite generations of interethnic contact ● Ethnic groups can be in contact for generations without assimilating ● Plural society : society combining ethnic contrast, ecological specialization and the economic interdependence of those groups ● Ethnic boundaries are most stable and enduring when the groups occupy different ecological niches ● Multiculturalism : view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable ○ Is opposite of assimilationist model ○ It stresses the interaction of ethnic groups and their contributions to the country ● Migration is fueled by rapid population growth, coupled with insufficient jobs, in the lessdeveloped countries Changing Demographics ● Two key US demographic trends ○ Ethnic/racial diversity is increasing, especially among the young ○ The country is aging, and most of the senior population is White ● NonHIspanic Whites constituted the overwhelming majority of Americans through the mid20th century, including the postWorld War II Baby Boom Roots of Ethnic Conflict ● Ethnic conflict often arises in reaction to prejudice or discrimination ○ Prejudice : means devaluing a group because of its assumed behavior, values, capabilities, or attributes ○ Stereotypes : fixed ideas, often unfavorable, about what the members of a group are like ○ Discriminations : refers to policies and practices that harm a group and its members ■ Be facto : not legally sanctioned ■ De jure : part of the law ● Fueling ethnic conflict are such forms of discrimination as : ○ Genocide : the deliberate elimination of a group through mass murder ○ Ethnocide : force cultures of certain ethnic groups to adopt the dominant culture ● Ethnic expulsion : aims at removing groups who are culturally different from a country ● Refugees : people who have been forced or who have chosen to flee a country, to escape persecution or war ● Multiculturalism is not happening in the former Soviet Union ● Cultural colonialism : refers to internal dominationby one group and its culture or ideology over others Information from Quizzes and Summary ● Racial attitudes in Japan illustrate intrinsic racism the belief that a perceived racial difference is a sufficient reason to value one person less than another ● Exclusionary racial systems are not inevitable ● "imagined communities" Despite their shared feeling of comradeship, most members of a nationality will never meet ○ Most created by colonialism ● situational negotiation of identity : refers to a person's ability to emphasize different identities in different social contexts ● Hypodescent : the rule that automatically places the children of a union between members of different groups in the minority group ● A policy of ethnic expulsion or ethnic persecution may create refugee populations ● Prejudice : refers to the devaluing of a group because of its assumed behavior, values, abilities, or attributes Chapter 17 Applying Anthropology The Role of the Applied Anthropologist ● American Anthropological Association has raised strong ethical objections to applying anthropology in war zones and for military intelligence ○ Criticism from Human Terrains System ● After WWII and the baby boom, anthropology became a standard part of the college curriculum ○ Most however were in academia those who went into anthropology ● Applied anthropologist see their work as radically removed from the colonial enterprise ● Cultural Resource Management(CRM) anthropologist helps decide how to preserve significant remains when sites are threatened by development or public works ○ They can run into ethical dilemmas ● Proper roles for applied anthropologists include : ○ Identifying needs for change that local people perceive ○ Working with those people to design culturally appropriate and socially sensitive change ○ Protecting local people from harmful policies and projects that may threaten them Development Anthropology ● Development anthropology : the branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimension of, economic development ○ There again can be ethical dilemmas in this ● Increased equity : reduced poverty and a more even distribution of wealth Strategies for Innovation ● Finding suggests that using anthropological expertise in planning, to ensure cultural compatibility, is cost effective ● To maximize social and economic benefits, project must : ○ Be culturally compatible ○ Respond to locally perceived needs ○ Involve men and women in planning and carrying out the changes that affect them ○ Harness traditional organizations ○ Be flexible ● Overinnovation : too much change ○ People usually are willing to change just enough to maintain, or slightly improve on, what they already have ○ Underdifferentiation : planners’ tendency to view “the lessdeveloped countries” ● Cooperative succeed only when they harnessed preexisting locallevel communal institutions ● Participants’ groups are most effective when they are based on traditional social organization or on a socioeconomic similarity among members ● The most humane and productive strategy for change is to base the social design for innovation on traditional social forms in each target area ● Madagascar had one of the few moments where the government helped it’s people ○ Protection to the peasants ○ Gave back to the poor ○ Even chance at having say in the government ● Realistic development policies promote change but not overinnovation Anthropology and Education ● Anthropology and education : a field whose research extends from classroom into homes, neighborhoods, and communities ● In a research survey, anthropologist found that in one urban Midwest school, Puerto Rican parents valued education more than did nonPuerto Rican parents contrary to belief Urban Anthropology ● Roles of cities in the world system have changed recently because of the timespace compression made possible by modern transportation and communication systems ● Urban living has increased steadily since the Industrial Revolution ○ One billion people now live in urban slums ● Urban anthropology : has theoretical and applied dimensions, is the crosscultural and ethnographic study of urbanization and life in cities ● Applied anthropology approach to urban planning: ○ Starts with by identifying key social groups in specific urban contexts ○ Identify those groups ○ Then elicit their wishes for change, convey those scenes to funding agencies ect ● One role for the urban applied anthropologist is to help people deal with urban institutions, such as legal and social services ○ Los Angeles, largest Samoan immigrant community in the US Medical Anthropology ● Medical anthropology : biocultural field that studies variations in health care systems, including disease, illness, health standards, and disease theories ● Disease : refers to a scientifically identified health threat caused genetically or by a bacterium, virus, fungus, parasite, or other pathogen ● Illness : condition of poor health perceived or felt by an individual ● Perception of good and bad health are culturally constructed ● Three steps anthropologist can talk to help health conditions ○ Identify the most pressing health problems ○ Gather information of possible solutions ○ Implement solutions in partnership with the agencies that are in charge of public health programs for indigenous populations ● Three theories about the causes of illness ○ Personalistic : disease theories blame illness of agents, such as sorcerers, witches, ghosts, or ancestral spirits ○ Naturalistic : disease theories explain illness in impersonal terms ○ Emotionalistic : disease theories assume that emotional experiences cause illness ■ Suto is underneath this ● Health care systems : consisting of beliefs, customs, specialists, and techniques aimed at ensuring health and diagnosing and curing illness ● Curer : emerges through a culturally defined process of selection and training, eventually becoming a certified older practitioner ● Sanitary citizens : people with proper, modern understanding of the body, health and illness ● Personhood : what it means to be a person Anthropology and Business ● Microenculturation : the process by which people learn particular roles within a limited social system ● Key features of anthropology that are of values to business include: ○ Ethnography and observation as ways of gathering data ○ A focus on diversity ○ Crosscultural expertise Careers and Anthropology ● Anthropology most times than not require a PhD ○ However is usefully in many fields Information From Quizzes ● A common goal of development projects to increase equity Chapter 18 The World System and Colonialism ● Modern world system : nations are economically and politically interdependent The World System ● Capitalist world economy : single world system committed to production for sale or exchange, with the object of maximizing profits, rather than supplying domestic needs ● Capital : refers to wealth or resources invested in business, with the intent of using the means of production to make a profit ● World system theory : that an identifiable social system, featuring wealth and power differentials extends beyond individual countries ● World system occupy three different positions of economic and political power : core, periphery, and semiperiphery ● Core : the dominant positions, includes the strongest, most powerful, and technically most advanced industrial nations ● Semiperiphery : intermediate between the core and the periphery, they export both industrial goods and commodities, but they lack the power and economic dominance of core nations ○ Brazil ● Periphery : includes the world’s least privileged and powerful countries, economic activities there are less mechanized than are those in the core and semiperiphery, although some degree of industrialization has reached even peripheral nations ● Sugarcane originally domesticated in Papua New Guinea ○ First processed in India ○ Became the first monocrop...single cash crop Industrialization ● Industrial Revolution : historical transformation of “traditional” into “modern” societies through industrialization ○ Began with cotton products, iron, and pottery ○ Began in England, where Britain’s population began to increase dramatically Socioeconomic Effect of Industrialization ● Marx saw socioeconomic stratification as a sharp and simple division between two opposed classes: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat ● Bourgeoisie : owed the factories, mines, estates, and other means of production ● Working class, or proletariat : had to sell their labor to survive ● Proletarianization : the separation of workers from the means of production ● Consciousness : recognition of collective interests and personal identification with one’s economic group ● Modern stratification systems aren’t simple and dichotomous ● Recognition of the disparities that the rich were getting richer and the poor, were getting poorer, led to the Occupy movement of 2011 ● Weber also believed that social identities based on ethnicity, religion, race, nationality, and other attributes could take priority over class Colonialism ● Major forces influencing global cultural interactions during the past 500 years have been commercial expansion, industrial capitalism, and the dominance of colonial and core nations ● Imperialism : refers to a policy of extending the rule of a country or an empire over foreign nations and of taking and holding foreign colonies ○ Goes way back to the early stats , including Egypt in the Old World and Incas in the New ● Colonialism : the political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time ● At it’s peak, the British empire covered a fifth of the world’s land surface and rules a fourth of its population ● Britain had two stages of colonialism : ○ First began with the Elizabethan voyages of the 16th century ○ During 17th Century, Britain acquired most of the eastern coast of North America, Canada's St. Lawrence basic ● The American revolution ended the first state of British colonialism ● During Victorian Era, Britain's colonial expansion continued ○ After WWII the British empire began to fall apart ● French colonialism had two phases ○ First began with the explorations of the early 1600s ● Mission civilisatrice : “white man’s burden” ● French used two forms of colonial rule ○ Indirect rule : governing through native leaders and established political structures, in areas with long histories of state organization ■ Such as Morocco and Tunisia ○ Direct rule : ruling by French officials in many areas of Africa, where the French imposed new government structures to control diverse societies, many of them previously stateless ● East Africa, in Rwanda there are Burundi farmers and herders ○ Extremely hierarchical ○ Tutsis as superior to the agricultural Hutus ● Postcolonial : refers to the study of the interactions between European nations and the societies they colonized ● Postcolonial : has been used to describe the second half of the 20th century in general ● Postcolonial : used to signify a position against imperialism and Eurocentri
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