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Heart Notes

by: Giana Thompson
Giana Thompson

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About this Document

This set of notes basically covers the key points in lecture on the Heart.
Anatomy and Physiology II
Class Notes
VentricularPressure, HeartComponents, heartStructure, valves
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Giana Thompson on Wednesday June 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 2120 at Georgia State University taught by Borek in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Nursing and Health Sciences at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 06/15/16
Heart Monday, June 6, 2016 10:59 AM   o     Composed of heart & blood vessels o  Maintains homeostasis o  Circulates blood continuously o  120/80 = ideal blood pressure o  Transport blood throughout the body o  Perfusion = delivery of blood per time per gram of tissue COMPONENTS: o  Blue blood = deoxygenated o  Red blood = oxygenated      o Arteries = carry blood away from heart (mostly oxygenated) o  Veins = carry blood back to heart (mostly deoxygenated) o  Capillaries = site of exchange between blood/air AND blood/body cells ^ blood vessels. HEART: Right side = pulmonary, carries blood to the lungs, deoxygenated Left side = systemic, carries blood to rest of the body, oxygenated (THICKER B/C IT DOES MORE WORK) o  Chordae tendonae connect to valves of the heart and control shutting/opening of the valves and how much blood goes through o  Myocardium is heart muscle, thicker on the left side. o  Systole - contraction o  Diastole - resting o  THINK - blood flows from area of low pressure (atria) to area of high pressure (ventricles) Layers of the heart: o  Epicardium - outermost o  Myocardium - thick middle o  Endocardium - inner most o  Fibrous skeleton - (insulator) communication between atrium and ventricles VALVES: o  Atrioventricular/Tricuspid/Right side (have chordae tendonae) o     Semilunar/Bicuspid/Left side (double check these) VENTRICULAR PRESSURE: Sooooo… the chambers of the heart contract and hold pressure in order to open/close valves basically by forcing blood through them* When VENTRICULAR PRESSURE UP - A.V CLOSE - S.L OPEN When VENTRICULAR PRESSURE DOWN - S.L CLOSE - A.V OPEN Lubb = A.V closing Dubb = S.L closing o  Blood flow: Superior/inferior vena cava -> right atrium -> tricuspid -> right ventricle -> pulmonary semi lunar -> pulmonary artery -> lungs -> pulmonary veins -> left atrium -> bicupsid -> left ventricle -> aortic semilunar valve -> aorta -> rest of body !!!! Right atrium, right AV valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valves, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary capillaries, pulmonary veins, left atrium, left AV valve, left ventricle, aortic semilunar valve, aorta, systemic circulation, superior and inferior vena cava, right atrium. o right heart  lungs  left heart  systemic tissues  right heart o Blue = pulmonary circulation. Green = systemic circulation QUIZ ON WEDNESDAY MEASURING BLOOD PRESSURE: 120/80 - normal 130/85 - pre hypertension 140/95 - chronic hypertension Top number = systolic pressure - peak pressure of contracting ventricles Bottom number = diastolic pressure - pressure in arteries when ventricles are relaxed PACEMAKERS OF THE HEART: Heart has atomicity! // continuous, spontaneous heart pumping, depolarizing on its own. o  SA Node** - right atrium, initiates heartbeat.. Depolarization = 100 beats per min o  Atrioventricular node/Atrioventricular bundle o  Purjunkie Fibers Innervations…. o  Cardiac center of medulla oblongata o  Parasympathetic/sympathetic – modifies cardiac activity but does not initiate heartbeat o  Parasympathetic: (primary) decreases heartrate by inhibiting depolarization of S.A/A.V node o  Sympathetic: increases heartrate/forces contraction o  ^^^ dual but not simultaneously! CARDIAC MUSCLE CELLS: All contain… o     Sarcolemma o  Actin/myosin o  Intercalated discs o     Nodal cells: action potentials, sodium potassium pumps, calcium ion pump, calcium on the outside, all contractions are simtaneous HEART'S INTRICSIC CONDUCTION SYSTEM: Nodal cells (in the nodes) in the heart allow for spontaneous and autonomic depolarization. They include: (in order) o  SA Node o  AV Node o     AV bundles = extends from AV node into the interventricular septum, divides left and right o  Purjunkie Fibers = begin at the apex of the heart through the walls of the ventricles. CARDIAC ACTION POTENTIAL: ***Initiation of action potential @ SA Node SA Nodal cells have authrothymicity… o  Reaching threshold = o  Slow voltage gated Na+ channels open (caused by repolarization from the previous cycle o  Na+ -> SA Nodal cells (changes RMP from -60mV to -40mv , threshold) o  Depolarization = o  Changing of membrane potential to threshold triggers opening of fast gated Ca2+ channels o  Ca2+ -> SA nodal cells (changes MP from -40mv to slightly positive charge) o  Reversal of polarity isssss depolarization! o  Repolarization = o  Calcium channels close o  Voltage gated K+ channels open      o K+ flows out (changing MP from slightly positive back to RMP ***Initiation of action potential @ cardiac muscle cell o  Depolarization = o  Action potential from the conduction system/gap junctions triggers opening of fast voltage gated Na+ channels      o Na+ enters the cardiac muscle cell, causing depolarization o  -90mV (RMP) goes to +30mV o  Voltage gated Na+ channels close o  Plateau =      o depolarization triggers opening of voltage gated K+ channels, K+ leaves the cell o  Slight change in MP o  Slow voltage gated Ca2+ channels open, Ca2+ enters the cell      o Entering of Ca2+ from interstitial fluid triggers the release of MORE Ca2+ from the SR (more than 80%) o  ^^^ past two SIMULTANEOUS events results in NO electrical change at the sarcolemma..      o Plateau….. Sarcolemma stays at a "depolarized state" o  Repolarization = o  Voltage gated Ca2+ channels close, K+ remain open o As K+ leaves cardiac muscle cell, repolarization occurs. EKC: ELECTROCARDIOGRAM Measures electrical changes within the heart.. o  P wave = atrial depolarization o  QRS complex = ventricular depolarization o  T wave = ventricular repolarization o     PQ segment = atrial contraction o  ST segment = ventricular contraction CARDIAC CYCLE: o  Atrial contraction & ventricular filling =      o Atrial contract o  Ventricles relax o  AV valves open, semilunar closed o  Isovulumetrice contraction o      Atria relax, ventricles contract o  All valves closed! o  Blood in ventricles = End-diastolic volume (EDV) o  Ventricular ejection o  Atria relax, ventricles contract o  AV valves closed, semilunar valves open o  Isovulumetrice relaxation o  Atria & ventricles relax! o  All valves closed!      o Blood in ventricles = End-systolic volume (ESV) o  Atrial relaxation and ventricular filling o  Atria relax & ventricles relax! o  AV open, semilunar close So, initiation and spread of the action potential first starts at the SA node in the conduction system, then spreads along the sarcolemma of cardiac muscle cells, triggering contraction of the sarcomeres! These events occur TWICE in one heart beat; cells of atria, then in cells of ventricles.


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