Bio 110 : Chapters 1-3
Bio 110 : Chapters 1-3 Biology 110
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sam Bonilla on Thursday June 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 110 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Krayesky in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Biology 110 in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 06/16/16
P a g e | 1 Biology 110 Notes Hi, Lindsay! My name is Sam, and I’ll be passing along notes to you this semester. My notes will be covering the bold topics in the Study Guide as well as other important information the teacher mentions during class. I’ll try to be as clear as possible, but if you don’t understand something about the notes, please let me know! You can reach me at the phone number (985)860-5765 or my email firstname.lastname@example.org. Tutoring SI Tutor: Stacy Email: email@example.com SI Hours: Tues. & Thrs. 6-7pm and 7-8pm @ BLD 117 Mon. 11am-12:30pm Chapter 1: An Introduction to Biology A.) Biology as a Scientific Discipline Discovery Approach- naturalistic data collection; asking “What is it?” Hypothesis Approach- tentative explanation from controlled experiments; interacts in Scientific Method. EX.) Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is due to a defective chloride channel. This was discovered from the Discovery Approach- “what is the internal defect of CF victims?”- which led to the formation of a hypothesis that could be tested (and approved- this is what makes a theory). Theory- the ABSOLUTE BEST explanation; not just an idea. Law- NOT a better theory; it is a relationship (usually mathematical) produced over and over. Note) A fact is not an explanation; a theory is. Steps of the Scientific Method: 1. Observation 2. Testable Hypothesis 3. Experimentation (control group vs experimental group; comparison of single variable) 4. Analyzation of Data 5. Review: is Experiment Consistent? B.) Quick Chemistry Recap No living thing can change its atoms’ Atomic #. Atomic Number Groups/Family= Vertical = Atom Identity = Columns. # of Protons. Tells # of Valence Electrons P a g e | 2 Periods= Horizontal Rows. Tells # of Valence Shells. C.) Biology Complexity Levels (Smallest to Largest) 1. Atoms 7. Populati 2. Molecules and Macromolecules on (of the SAME organism) 3. Cells 8. Community (of DIFFERENT 4. Tissues organisms) 5. Organs 9. Ecosystem 6. Organisms 10.Biosphere These different levels of complexity are studied at different biology levels: Atoms Molecular Biology- structure and function of cells. Molecules and Macromolecules Cells Microscopy- cell biology. Tissues Organs Anatomy and Physiology- structure & function of plants/animals. Organisms Population (of the SAME organism) Community (of DIFFERENT organisms) Ecology- study of organisms in natural environments. Ecosystem Biosphere Biology is a social discipline, as scientists often work in teams. Advances in science often occur when scientists gather and discuss their data. Chapter 2: The Chemical Basis of Life: Atoms, Molecules, and Water A.) The Atom Structure Atoms are the smallest functional units of matter. They are composed of three types of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. 1. Protons- atom’s identity. They are (+) charged and found in the nucleus. With neutrons, they make up the most of an atom’s atomic mass. P a g e | 3 2. Neutrons- non-charged (o) particles found in nucleus. Atoms with the same # of protons but different # of neutrons are called isotopes. Dumbbe Electrons- negatively charged particles (-) that move constantly at terrific speeds in ll-Shape = P- cloud-like regions around the nucleus called Orbital orbitals. In organic chemistry, most orbitals that occupy energy shells contain 2e- per Spherica orbital and are shaped spherically (S-orbital) l-Shape &/or like = dumbbells (P-orbitals). S-Orbital Quick Notes: Gravity vs. Mass- What’s the Difference? Gravity- gravitational pull Mass- amount of matter The periodic table is arranged by chemical properties based on similar bonding structures AKA # of Valence Electrons (ve-). Why? B/c (ve-) are electrons in the outermost shell of an atom (its valence shell) and so to bond, these (ve-) are either transferred or shared with another atom’s (ve-). Quick Notes: Transferring vs. Sharing Electrons- What’s the Difference? Transferring e- equals an IONIC bond. These are easily dissolved in water, and so are not so important in biology. They are found most commonly in bonds between metals and nonmetals. Sharing e- equals a COVALENT bond. These are the important ones in biology; they can be either polar covalent or nonpolar covalent, and are most commonly found in bonds between nonmetal atoms. B.) Electronegativity Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom to attract e- in order to fill up its valence shell (most atoms are satisfied with an octet, but there are exceptions like Hydrogen and Helium, whose valence shells can only sustain a maximum of two e-). o Electronegativity is the determining factor for whether a bond is polar or nonpolar; IT IS IMPORTANT!!! o The periodic trend for electronegativity is right and up, with Fluorine being the most electronegative element of all. P a g e | 4 o To be nonpolar, bonds must be b/w elements that have SIMILAR electronegativity; this means that the pull of the electrons WON’T be a tug of war, leaving the e- to orbit the atoms with relatively equality. o To be polar, bonds must be b/w atoms that have DIFFERENT electronegativity; this means that the pull on electrons is greater in one atom than the other, and a tug of war WILL ensue with a winner (the most electronegative atom). This will then induce polar charges b/c the electrons with be pulled towards a particular atom in this sharing of e-, leaving it partially negative as the opposite side (the loser) has a partially positive charge. To make life easier, here are a few rules to follow for polarity: 1. C-H bonds = NONPOLAR 2. C-C or O-O or any atom bonded to the same element = NONPOLAR 3. C or H bonded to N, O, F, Cl, or S = POLAR The 3-D flexible molecular shape of a molecule is IMPORTANT because it allows interaction w/other molecules and contributes to biological properties. A change in shape is a part of an organism’s mechanism to send signals w/in and b/w cells. C.) Chemical Reactions vs Equilibrium Chemical reactions have two parts: products and reactants. The combination of reactants yields a product, and then the reaction is done. They are demonstrated with a single arrow. Reactant + Reactant Product Chemical equilibrium is much like a chemical reaction with the exception of one thing: the reaction is not done after the products are yielded. Instead, products will go backwards and yield reactants and so on until there are no more reactants to continue making new product; by then, products and reactants will continue shifting into one another in an equilibrium of which no new product is yielded yet the shift is still there. They are demonstrated with a double arrow. Reactant + Reactant Product P a g e | 5 D.)Water Properties Water is the solvent for most chemical reactions. It is polar, which means it has partial charges (hydrogen=positive & oxygen=negative). “Like dissolve like” is an expression to conclude that solutes that dissolve in solvents must be of the same polarity. For example, water is polar, so all that dissolves in it MUST have polar qualities. Nonpolar solutes likewise require nonpolar solvents to dissolve. Quick Notes: Polar vs Nonpolar -Polar molecules = hydrophilic (‘likes water’) -Nonpolar molecules= hydrophobic (‘does not like water’) Amphipathic molecules are molecules with both polar AND nonpolar regions. EX.) Phospholipids. They are a type of lipid that has a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails. Hydrogen Bonds- intermolecular force between Hydrogen and N, O, or F. Quick Notes: Intermolecular vs Intramolecular -Intermolecular= occurring between molecules -Intramolecular= occurring within a molecule o Hydrogen bonds differ from covalent bonds in that covalent bonds involve the sharing of e-, but H-bonds are the result of weak attractions b/w a H-atom of a polar molecule and an electronegative atom of another polar molecule. o H-bonds are present in water; they result in properties like surface tension (attraction b/w molecules @ liquid surface) because they act like velcro- weak by themselves, but together, millions of H-Bonds make water bonds very strong. o B/c of this strength in H-Bonds, water has both a high heat of vaporization (amount of energy required to evaporate water) and high heat of fusion (amount of energy required to change to other phases). The pH of a solution refers to its hydrogen concentration. The pH of pure water is 7 (a neutral solution). Alkaline (BASIC) solutions have a pH ¿ 7, as acidic ones have it lower than 7. Buffers exist naturally to minimize shifts in pH, which is wildly varied can have a harming effect on living organisms. These buffers are composed of: 1. A weak acid (acid that doesn’t completely ionize in water) 2. And its conjugate base P a g e | 6 Example) CO2 + H20 H2CO3 Hᶧ + HCO3ˉ Weak Acid Conjugate Base Structural = Diff. Chapter 3: The Chemical Basis of Life: Organic Bonding Molecules A.) Why Carbon is the Basis of Life Stereoisomer s = Diff. Carbon has 4 Spatial valence Positioning electrons, and so has the ability to form up to 4 covalent bonds (polar or nonpolar) with other atoms. These bonds are stable at different temperatures associated with life and form the backbone of a variety of structures in organic molecules. B.) Isomers Carbon-containing molecules (organic molecules) can exist as isomers, which mean two molecules have an identical molecular composition but different structure and characteristics. Isomers Cis = SAME side of carbon atom.omDIrsEREmNrrsimoafges. atom. P a g e | 7 C.) Functional Groups and Macromolecules Functional groups are atom groups w/specific chemical characteristics. These functional groups are part of what composes macromolecules and what gives them their function. Check out your organic molecules and see if you can determine some of the groups. Organic molecules exist as monomers or polymers. Monomers- subunits linked to polymers. Polymers- large macromolecules made through dehydration (produces water molecules); they’re broken down through hydrolysis (takes away water molecules). There are four categories of macromolecules: Carbohydrates- Simplest forms of carbon; composed of C, O, and H atoms. Glycosidic Bond- 2 sugar molecules bonded together thru dehydration. Monosaccharides 2+ monosaccharides Most “simple sugars” joined by dehydration. comm Polysaccharides Disaccharides “Many Sugars” Starch Cellullose on are: Glycogen Plant cells Animal cells P a g e | 8 EX.) Sucrose Pentoses Hexoses composed of DNA Glucose RNA Glucose Fructose Lipids- NOT polymers; hydrophobic molecules composed of H, C, and O atoms. Fats Phospholipids Steroid Glycerol + 3 Fatty Glycerol + 2 Fatty Structured w/4 rings Acids =Triglycerides Acids + 1 of C Phosphate Group = (Ester Bond) Phospholipid Hydrophobic This connection is O-H thru dehydration In H20, steroids=sterols= reaction (rxn) phospholipids cholesterol naturally form into Proteins- Polymers that account for 50% of organic material in animal’s body; composed of C, H, O, and N atoms AND amino acids (N-C-C functional groups). Covalent bond b/w Carboxyl + Amino Acid = PEPTIDE BOND. Polypeptide- 2+ peptide bonds joined thru dehydration. Quick Notes: The end of amino acid=N-terminus The end of carboxyl=C-terminus Protein Structure: 1. Primary- linear sequence determined by genes 2. Secondary- bending/twisting of protein (alpha-helix VS beta-pleated sheet) 3. Tertiary- 3D Shape 4. Quaternary- 2+ polypeptides (AKA Multiple proteins) Nucleic Acids- 2 % body weight, yet important for the storage, expression, and transmission of genetic information; DNA & RNA. Opposite strands = mirror images (AATGCA vs TTACGT) DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid; stores gene codes. Held together by H-Bonds. Purine Deoxyribose = sugar. Bases Adenine (double Guanine Pyrimidine Cytosine Bases carbon Thymine (single C rings + rings +N) N) o Nucleotide- 1 Phosphate group + 5C sugars + single/double ring of nitrogenous (C + N) base. RNA- ribonucleic acid Decodes DNA into instructions Sugar = RIBOSE Uracil substitutes Thymine o Nucleoside- Sugar carbon + Nitrogenous base Transcription- mRNA is synthesized using DNA. Transport- mRNA moves through cytoplasm Translation- mRNA is attached to ribosome; produces protein w/peptide bonds. Quick Note: backbone of DNA & RNA is composed of sugar + phosphate.
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