HIST 1010 Week 4 Lecture/Book Notes (Bohanan)
HIST 1010 Week 4 Lecture/Book Notes (Bohanan) History 1010
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Sunday June 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1010 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 4 Book Notes (pgs. 145-176, 206-234) CHAPTER 6: The World of Rome The Romans in Italy v The Etruscans • The Etruscan culture developed in north central Italy. - The Romans conquered them. • The Etruscans established permanent settlements that evolved into cities resembling Greek city-states. - They traded natural products, like iron. v The Founding of Rome • One myth of the founding of Rome was that the brothers Remus and Romulus founded it. - Romulus ended up killing Remus and named the city after himself. - He also established a senate. o Senate: the assembly that was the main institution of power. - Historians say that the senate elected 7 kings after Romulus. • The Romans adopted the Etruscan alphabet and they also designed elements. • Executive power was in the hands of consuls. - Consuls: the primary executives of the roman republic that commanded the army in battle, administered state businesses, and supervised financial affairs. - At this point Rome became a republic. v The Roman Conquest of Italy • The Celts invaded the Italian peninsula and sacked Rome. - The Romans then rebuilt the city. • The main goal of the roman kingdom was to secure the peace of the gods. - Religious rituals expressed common values. • After the Romans cemented their territory, they built roads. v The Roman State • Social divisions determined the shape of politics. - Political power was in the hands of patricians. o Patricians: the Roman hereditary aristocracy that held most of the political power. • The Plebeians were the common people of Rome. - Plebeians: the common people of Rome. • The Roman’s development on law was their lasting achievement. - “The Law of the Peoples” was applied when the Romans came to contact with more foreigners. o It was widened to the natural law. v Social Conflict in Rome. • The struggle of orders was caused between the Plebeians and the Patricians due to inequality conflicts. - The Plebeians wanted the law codified and published. - The end of the struggle of orders made Rome stronger and more unified than before. Roman Expansion and Its Repercussions v Overseas Conquests and the Punic Wars World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 4 • The Romans presence in Italy brought them to Sicily. There, they confronted the cartage power. - The conflict between the Romans and Carthegians led to 1/3 of the Punic Wars. o Punic Wars: a series of 3 wars between Rome and Carthage, in which Rome won. o Carthegian’s general’s name was Hannibal and his ally was Phillip V. o The second Punic War contained the seeds of other wars. o The third Punic War ended up burning Carthage to the ground. • The Romans declared the Mediterranean to be their sea. v New Influences and Old Values in Roman Culture. • Educated Romans spoke both Latin and Greek. • The Romans built large public buildings that had pools. • Male heads of the household were known as paterfamilias. - Paterfamilias: the oldest dominant male member of a family that held great power over his family’s lives. - They had great power over their children. • Romans thought slavery was a misfortune. - Loyal slaves always had the possibility of freedom. v The Late Republic and the Rise of Augustus • Any landless men in Rome were forbidden to serve in the military. - Tiberius Gracchus divided the land among the poor so that they could serve in the military. • Gaius Marius recruited landless men to put down a rebel king in Africa with land in return for their help. • Julius Caesar was a great politician. - He led his troops to victory in Spain and Gaul. • Civil War occurred when Caesar and Pompeii got in competition for power. • Caesar became very popular in Rome, but some senators opposed him. - He was later assassinated. - Octavious was Caesar’s grandnephew and was later name Augustus v The Success of Augustus • Augustus had to rebuild an effective government, pay an army, care for the province of welfare, and address danger factors. - He also held control of the army and also recognized the importance of religion. • He got the honorary title of “the first citizen of the state”. • Augustus would award land to veterans that finished their 20-year sentence. • He also promoted marriage and child bearing. - Men/women that were unmarried without kids, were restricted property. • Virgil was Rome’s great poet. • One of the most important parts of Augusts’ reign was the Roman expansion into North and Western Europe. - Romans didn’t force their culture on the native people. Rome and the Provinces v Political and Military Changes in the Empire • Pax Romana: “roman peace” period during the first and second centuries. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 4 • Augustus established the Julio-Claudian Dynasty. - Tiberius and Claudius were some of the rulers. - Caligula and Nero were very weak. • Nero’s rule led to military rebellion. - The Vespians were soon able to restore order. - The Flavin restored discipline in the army. • Hadnan, an emperor, established an imperial administrative department, separated civil service from military service. v Life in Imperial Rome • People lived in shoddily constructed houses. • Many residents of Rome were slaves. • Fire and crime were problematic and sanitation was poor. - When urban planning/new constructions were happening, conditions were greatly improved. • Rome grew extremely large and feeding the residents became difficult. - Citizens were provided free oil, grain, and wine. • Gladiators were trained in gladiatorial schools. v Prosperity in the Roman Provinces • Veterans were given small pieces of land in the provinces and became farmers. • The romans were the first to build cities in northern Europe. • Due to the expansion of trade, Rome also became very economic. - Britain and Belgium became prime grain producers. - Italy and Gaul produced a lot of wine. - Egypt produced a lot of water, which fed the Roman people. v Eastward Expansion and Contacts between Rome and China • The Parthians established a kingdom in what is now known as Afghanistan and Iran. • Even with war disrupting parts of Asia, trade didn’t stop, and silk was a major commodity. • The Pax Romana was an era of maritime trade. • The Han emperor Wu encouraged sea trade and trade by land. • For romans, china was more of a mythical than real place. The Coming of Christianity v Factors Behind the Rise of Christianity • Roman civil wars left their mark on Judeah. • Jews thought a struggle was near and thought that a messiah would save them. - Messiah: in Jewish belief, a savior who would bring a period of peace and happiness for the Jews. • Pagans: those that believed in a religion other than Judaism or Christianity. v The Life and Teachings of Jesus • Jesus of Nazareth was born to religious Jewish parents. - He left no writings, but his followers soon wrote down his sayings. v Jesus’ Teachings • He preached on eternal happiness, and devotion to god. • His teachings were based on Hebrew scripture. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 4 • Some Jews thought that Jesus was a messiah, and other people thought that he was religiously dangerous. v The Spread of Christianity • Paul of Tarsus was the catalyst in the spread of Jesus’ teachings. - He was a well-educated Jew. • Paul traveled all over the Roman Empire to promote Jesus’ ideas and wrote letters of advice, which were then copied and used as moral teachings. • Earliest Christian converters were people from all social classes. - Many women were active in spreading it. • People were attracted to Christianity because it was like a mystery religion. - It also promised immortality. - It stressed the idea of striving for a goal. v The Growing Acceptance and Evolution of Christianity • At first, many Romans ignored Jesus and his followers. - Some thought Christianity was one of the worst mystery cults. • Christians were tortured and executed. • Bishops were important and asserted that they had the right to determine the correct Christian teachings. - Bishops: a Christian Church official with jurisdiction over a certain area and the power to determine the correct interpretation of Christian teachings. • Christianity also attracted very educated people. • Thought Jesus was both divine and human—god could be both a father and a son. Turmoil and Reform v Political Measures • Diocletian became the emperor. - Thought his empire was too large for one man to handle, so he got an assistant— Augustus. - He named Byzantium, New Rome. v Economic Issues • Economic problems consisted of inflation and decreased tax revenues. - As a result, Diocletian fixed the maximum prices and wages throughout the empire. - Taxes were payable in goods and services. • Invaders often killed farmers and their families. v The Acceptance of Christianity • Diocletian increased the persecution of Christians. - Constantine stopped all of this and ordered for toleration of all religions. - Slowly, Christianity became the leading religion. • Constantine allowed churches to develop their own law, which was later known as “The Canon Law”. CHAPTER 8: Continuity and Change in Europe and Western Asia The Byzantine Empire v Sources of Byzantine Strength • The Byzantine Empire survived German, Persian, and Arab attacks. - The Xiongnu (Huns) and the Bulgurs had reached the gates of Constantinople. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 4 • The Byzantine Emperor, Justinian, conquered much of Italy and North Africa—they made them into a part of the East Roman empires. v The Sassanid Empire and Conflicts with Byzantium • The Sassanid Empire of Persia was Byzantium’s biggest enemy. - Sassanid depended on agriculture for economic prosperity. o Persian metal works and textiles were exchanged for Chinese silk. - Sassanid made Zoroastrianism its biggest religion. o Due to this, Jesus and Christians faced discrimination. • Expansionist foreign policy brought conflict with Rome and Byzantium. - Under the emperor, Heraclius, the Byzantine defeated the Persians. v Justinian Code of Law • Under the emperor, Justinian, codification took place. - The Justinian Code of Law came about. o The Justinian Code of Law: a collection of laws that were issued by the emperor Justinian. o The Codex was the first part, The Digest was the second part, and The Institutes was the third part. v The Byzantine Intellectual life • The Byzantines prized education. • The most remarkable byzantine historians was Procopius. - He wrote the secret history. • They made advances in military applications. - Invented Greek fire. • They devoted a lot of attention to medicine. - The Justinian plague swept through the whole empire. o This weakened military sources. v The Life in Constantinople • Constantinople was the greatest city in the Christian world. - Merchants could become extremely wealthy; the landed aristocracy had held a dominant social position. • Aristocrats/monasteries invested their wealth in real estate. • In the upper classes, women were kept secret from the outside world. • Marriage was a way of social advancement. The Growth of The Christian Church v The Evolution of the Church Leadership and Orthodoxy • Early Christian communities chose their own leaders. • During the reign of Diocletian, the Roman Empire was divided into dioceses. - Dioceses: a geographic administrative district of the church. - A bishop headed each one. • Christians disagreements with one another led to schisms. • Those who didn’t accept Nicene Christianity were banished. - Their interpretation of Christ was a called a Hershey. o Hershey: a religious practice/belief that was unaccepted by church officials. • The Nicene Creed talks about the trinity, which became the central doctrine in Christianity. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 4 v The Western and Eastern Churches • The leader of the western church was the bishop of Rome. - Successors of the bishops were known as popes. o Popes: heads of the Roman Catholic Church who became political and religious authorities. • The Eastern Church’s head was known as a patriarch. • The Byzantine Christian church was called the Orthodox Church. - Orthodox Church: also known as the Eastern Christian Church, in which the emperors had power. v Christian Monasticism • Christianity spread as a city religion. - They thought living a life of asceticism was better. • Large groups of monks created a lifestyle called monasticism. • Church leaders didn’t approve of eremitical life. • Communal living in a monastery was argued to provide an environment for training the aspirant in the virtues of charity, poverty, and free from self-deception. • The rule of saint benedict was a guide written by Benedict of Nursia. • Benedictine monasticism succeeded because it was materially successful. • Men who lived a communal monastic life were called regular clergy. • Monasticism in the orthodox world was different from the one that evolved in western Europe Christian Ideas and Practices v Christianity and Classical Culture • In the 3 and 4 century texts were gathered to form the New Testament. - Some of Jesus’ sermons said to “not be attached to worldly things”. - Saint Jerome was a theologian/linguist and father of the church and translated the New Testament into Latin. • Women were the earliest to convert to Christianity. - “Women of ideal virginity” were women that embraced the ideal virginity in monastic communities. • Christians thought that Jesus would come again. • Most Christians thought celibacy was the better life. v St. Augustine on Sin, Grace, and Redemption • St. Augustine of Hippo was the most influential father in the west. - He was a defender of Orthodox Christianity. - He had an autobiography—“The Confessions” which described his moral struggles. - Augustine held sacraments. o Sacraments: certain rituals that were believed to be an act as conduit of god’s grace. v The Iconoclastic Controversy • The Eastern Orthodox Church had a dispute about icons, which later went on to be called the iconoclastic controversy. - Iconoclastic controversy: conflict over the veneration of religious images in the Byzantine Empire. - Emperor Leo ordered the destruction of icons. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 4 Migrating Peoples v Social and Economic Structures • Barbarian groups resided in small villages. - Men groups settled where barley, wheat, oats, peas, and beans were grow able. • Free men and families were the largest class. How much cattle one had, indicated their wealth. - Barbaric society was patriarchal. v Tribes, Warriors, and Laws • Christians led tribes. - Each chief was chosen for the most powerful family. - The chief often got the title of king. • Warriors would sware loyalty to the chief. • Early barbarian tribes had no written laws. - Some law codes tried to reduce violence. - Crime resulting in personal injury was known as wergeld. o Wergeld: payment for death or injury that set in many barbarian law codes. • Barbarians were polytheistic. v Migrations and Political Change • Barbarians would migrate to search for more regular food supply, better farmland, and warmer climate. • The spreading of Celts was an example of both conflict and assimilation. - Caesar had defeated many Celtic tribes. • Celts and Romans would often inter marry. • The Huns (Attila their leader) attacked the Black Sea area and Eastern Roman empire. - Afterwards, the Barbarians established states ruled by kings. • Odoacer was the Barbarian chieftain that called himself the king of Italy. v Christian Missionaries and Conversions • Religion was a social affair throughout Barbarian Europe. - Religion of chieftain was the religion of the people—missionaries would concentrate their efforts on them. • Some kings accepted Christianity because they thought the Christian god was more powerful. • Bishop Ulfilas translated the bible into the gothic language. • Saint Patrick converted Ireland to Christianity tribe by tribe. • Converting to Christianity of the English began due to Pope Gregory. v The Process of Conversion • Missionaries would preach to get their teachings across. - In the ritual of penance was an instrumental in teaching people Christian ideas. - Penance: a ritual in which Christians asked the priest for forgiveness of their sins, and the priest responded by giving them deeds to do, to overcome the sins. • Confessing ones sins was a public ritual, but soon it became private. • Saints: people who dies in a way that was noteworthy or spiritually heroic. - Christians thought them to be powerful and holy and would often pray to them. Frankish Rulers and Their Territories v The Merovingians and Carolingians World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 4 • Franks believed Merovich to be a semi legendary figure. • A man named Clovis, converted to Christianity but was known to do so as a pragmatic choice. • The “Dark Ages” were brutal, and there were a series of civil wars. • Merovingian politics provided women with opportunities. • Finances of the kingdom were merged with the royal families. • The Carolingians replaced the Merovingians. - Carolingians: a dynasty of rulers that took over the Frankish kingdom from the Merovingians. • The Battle of the Poitiers helped the Carolingians to get more support from the church. v The Warrior Ruler Charlemagne • Charlemagne was the most powerful Carolingian ruler. - He divided his entire kingdom into counties. - He appointed officials called “Missi Dominic” that were the “agents” of the lord king. - He also set a cultural revival called the “Carolingian Renaissance”. - It was a rebirth of interest. • Charlemagne left his empire to his son and his son agreed to the Treaty of Verdun. - Treaty of Verdun: a treaty that divided Charlemagne’s territories among his three surviving grandsons. Lecture Notes LECTURE #8: 6/13/16 (Hellenic Greece—Culture) The Wars The Gold Century included military conflict and the warring states period of Greece. There were 2 major conflicts—The Persian and The Peloponnesian Wars. The Persian War was between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire. The Greeks revolted when the Persians tried to take over their city-states. It was a 20 year episodic conflict between the two, and overall the Greeks won. The Greeks got what they wanted—which was the Persians to leave them alone and move out of their territory. The Peloponnesian War was The Greeks vs. The Greeks—more specifically, Athens vs. Sparta. At this point in time, before the war started, a Delian League had been established, in which Athens had assumed leadership of. During their time of being the “leaders” they abused their power and used the money in the treasury to expand their empire/kingdom further. Eventually Sparta caught on to what they were doing and went to war with Athens. Sparta ended up winning, and as a result, Sparta stripped Athens of its democracy and empire, and instead imposed a 30-man tyranny, which was horrible to the Athenians. Philosophy “The Greeks were the foundation of western thought.” This is because they were the first people in the west to ask the big questions. They were also the first to offer rational answers to those big questions. It was a way of looking/understanding the world in a philosophical manner instead of supernatural ways. The 3 major philosophers of this time were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Socrates was known by the writings of his student, Plato. He was the beginning of all this and a moralist (a person interested in issues of mortality). He was concerned that his fellow Athenians weren’t living good lives and that there was room for change. He thought that self- reflection, or the saying “know thyself” was important, and that people were just walking blindly through life. He associated himself with the saying that “knowledge is virtue”—he thought World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 4 knowledge and goodness would lead to virtue, and that evil is a reflection of ignorance. He used the “Socratic Method” to start up conversations with random people. It was a method of using carefully structured questions in a deductive manner (generalàspecific) when Athens lost the war, they blamed it on him, and sentenced him to exile, in which he soon committed suicide. Plato was Aristotle’s student and he was an idealist. He was concerned with the nature of reality. He argued that reality consists of ideal forms. Take for example a chair, he would argue that the chair that you are sitting on is an imperfect form, it is just a copy of the ideal form of chairs. He believed that for everything in the universe there is an ideal form of reality that was a separate form of ideal reality—perfect forms will be here forever, and that is reality. Empirical knowledge is measureable, meaning you rely on your 5 senses for it. This idea of his, had very few followers due to the understanding of it would take a lot of intellectual effort; therefore, he used the “Allegory of the Cave” theory as a an explanation. Aristotle was Plato’s student and was his polar opposite as well. He was the scientist. Again, take for example a chair, Aristotle thought that the ideal of chariness is expressed into the chair that you are sitting in; it doesn’t have meaning outside of the chair. He relied on syllogism—all humans are mortalàSocrates is a manàSocrates must be a mortal (strong deductive reasoning). Drama The Greeks love the theatre. Aeschylus wrote a trilogy of plays about the character Oresteia—Oresteia was the son of Agamemnon who went off to war. Upon coming back from war, Agamemnon was brutally murdered by his wife and his wife’s lover. Due to this, Oresteia and his sister went off to take revenge. Sophocles wrote about the character Oedipus—Oedipus was a king that married his mother and killed his father (both unknowingly). Hubris means pride and being full of ones self, the Greeks found this very tacky (the play of Oedipus is a good example of hubris). LECTURE #9: 6/15/16 (Hellenistic Civilization, The Roman Republic and Empire) Alexander’s Empire Phillip II, who made them a major power, caused the Macedon rise. It was ruled as a monarchy. Before he came to power, Macedon was a mess, and Phillip II basically cleaned it up. He used military threats to unify his people. The Hellenic Greeks weren’t able to unify due to previous events—Phillip II used this to his advantage and defeated many city-states. His next goal was to take over the Persian Empire. He liked to play off of fear. After Phillip II got assassinated, his son Alexander the Great, seceded the power. He created a mega empire, but then died due to an illness. There were 3 major dynasties that took over after the death of Alexander the Great— Ptolemy took over Egypt, Seleucus took over the Iranian plateau and Babylonia, and Antigonos took over Asia Minor and Macedonia. Hellenistic Civilization The characteristics of this era were very cosmopolitan (an interaction of different cultures). The interactions of the cultures were very dynamic and important. The rulers carried out a deliberate process of Hellenization—tried to spread Greek cultures to places that didn’t have it. Greek language got diffused and cultural achievements of the Greeks were also advertised. The Hellenistic World produced its own philosophical traditions—Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Skepticism. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 4 The word “stoical” means very unemotional, or can be thought of in terms of a person (a person that approaches life with little to no emotion). Zeno founded Stoicism and being unemotional was his approach to life, “Accept and Endure” was the motto that he lived by. The nature of the universe was mechanical and rational. Greeks tried to understand the world through reason—things happen for a reason because they are for a rational reason of the universe (nothing happened randomly, it all had a purpose). The word “epicurean” can be associated with food—restaurants, meals, and the phrase “something was an epicurean delight”. The founder of Epicureanism was Epicurus. It was the philosophy of pleasure, and about finding it. He was inspired by an early Greek named Democritus (a philosopher, scientist), who thought that the world was made of tiny and invisible particles (now known as atoms). Epicurus thought that happiness was the highest good. The word “skeptic” means doubts/doubtful, questions of uncertainty, and can be thought of in terms of a person (a person that is very unbelieving of fate). Pyrrho was the founder of Skepticism and thought the knowledge was derived through the 5 senses, but sometimes our senses can fool us, so the things we know have a possibility of not being true. For him, no knowledge was certain or absolute. This period was the greatest age of science. Euclid was known for geometry and writing the book called the “Elements of Geometry”. Eratosthenes was known for calculating the circumference of the Earth accurately. Aristarchus was known for developing the heliocentric theory (sun is in the middle of the universe). Archimedes was known as the “towering figure of the Hellenistic world” and he calculated the value of pi and many other things. The Roman Monarchy The heart of the roman civilization was Italy. They started off as a monarchy, in which the assembly elected a king and this king served for life. There was also a senate, which were known as the “elders”. The assembly and the senate both had a good amount of power, the senate had slightly a little more. The assembly could veto a rule/law that the king proposed, a senate could veto a rule/law that the king proposed which the assembly had already passed. The Early Republic Aristocrats wanted to make a republic so that they could control it a little better. Instead of a king, there were 2 consuls, who were the “executive branch” of the republic—they were essentially like “governors” and were elected 10 years each. There was still an assembly and senate, but the assembly lost a lot of power. The senate gave themselves the right to veto the consuls. The plebeians were lower class people and the patricians were higher-class people. The plebeians were small farmers, and the patricians were aristocrats. After overpowering the monarchy, the patricians got most of the power. There was an ongoing struggle between the patricians and the plebians for power. The plebeians payed taxes, served in the army, did work, and overall lost power. They succeeded in getting the laws written down—this was known as the 12 tables. They also got to choose tribunes, which would be their “security/watch dogs” over the consuls. The Punic Wars The Punic Wars changed Roman history. The Carthegians, at the time were living in Sicily. The wars were essentially many years of the Carthegians and the Romans fighting each other. The Carthegians were a maritime empire and established on what the Phoenicians had created. They were super merchants and they traded by sea. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 4 The first Punic War lasted 23 years and Rome ended up winning. Carthege wanted to take over Rome, but Rome ended up pushing Carthage out. The second Punic War lasted 12 years. Rome got jealous of Carthage, due to them extending their territory to Spain. Hannibal and his army set out on foot to the Italian peninsula to fight the Romans, but the Romans still won. The third Punic War resulted in Carthage having to give up everything they had. Rome sent Carthage an ultimatum in which they wanted them to pick all of their things up and move 10 miles inland. Carthage in that process would lose the ability to trade by sea, so they didn’t. Rome came and used a siege warfare technique, which lasted 3 years. Problems of the Republic Rome took over a lot the Mediterranean during the Punic Wars. During the wars Carthege brought together many allies. One effect of the Punic Wars was the seizing of the decline of the small farmer—the farms would fall into debts, when male farmers went off to war, the wives and the rest of the house had a hard time maintaining the farms and would fall into debt, then eventually sell the land. Latifundia were mega plantation like farms, which is what eventually the small farms switched to. The rise of slave labor also happened and became a large feature of roman history; this is because it was a cheaper source of labor. The slaves were a jobless urban mass and they were a huge source of discontent and misery. “Bread and circuses” was a superficial means of appeasement—they were both 2 things people really wanted (food and entertainment). The revolt of the Gracchi consisted of 2 brothers—Tiberius and Gaius. They had a lot of concern for the poor. Tiberius thought that a limit of 620 acres should be put for the latifunda, and the leftover would be divided amongst the small farmers. He was later assassinated, which told us that Rome had social problems, had trouble assessing that they had social problems, and would use violence to overcome their social problems. Gaius decided that there should be a limit on the price of grains, and was later assassinated for it. Rises of Military Dictators Rome loved its military commanders who were known as the “conquering heroes”. Rome would turn to them to solve their problems. Each conquering hero was elected by a group of people (plebeians, elites, etc.) to eventually become a consul. The election of the conquering heroes became bad and unstable for the republic. The first to be elected was Marius; the next one to be elected was Sulla, who did everything in his power to promote the senate, after him was Pompey. Pompey and Julius Caesar were political allies and they were both concerned about the lower class. A political dispute developed between Caesar and Pompey, which caused Pompey to flee on foot to Egypt, where he got murdered. Caesar was the conquering hero who morphed from conquering heroàemperor. The senate eventually assassinated him. Marc Antony and Octavious (Caesar’s grand nephew) were his successors, but Octavious came out on top and got elected. Octavious getting elected caused a “gold age” for the romans. LECTURE #10: 6/17/16 (The Rise of Christianity) Jesus of Nazareth When Jesus was about 30, he encountered John the Baptist who was preaching that the end was near—he would also baptize people to cleanse their sins. When Jesus got baptized, it became the start of his ministry. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 4 Later Jesus had gotten crucified and in that moment, his followers were in utter despair. Rumors began to spread that he was still alive which launched the though and theory of resurrection. He taught the fatherhood of god, the golden rule, forgiveness of one’s enemies, the repayment of evil with goodness, etc. all of his teachings were then made into a theology. Paul was the one who emphasized that Jesus was the Son of God and that father and son were essentially the same. He was also the one that focused on faith for everlasting salvation. The Spread of Christianity Stoicism is the philosophy of approaching life with little to no emotion, and to just accept the things that life throws at you. It almost functioned as a religion for people and was a rival to Christianity. The philosophy of Neo-Platonism was another rival, which essentially was the rise of Platonism. It claimed that the smarter you were, the better off you would be. Both stoicism and Neo-Platonism lacked emotional appeal. The Roman State Religion was about the roman gods, but it got stale to the romans. The Cult of Mithra was an offshoot of Zoroastrianism. Zoroastrianism had the idea that Ahura Mazda (the good god) had a right hand man known as Mithra; therefore, the Cult of Mithra became its own subset—it was also the biggest rival to Christianity. The fact that Jesus was a real person gave Christianity a step up for the battle of beliefs in the Roman Empire. Heresies (a belief that runs contradictory to another religious belief/tradition) often produced major rifts. The Arian Heresies had the leader that was a Christian priest named Arius. He thought that there was a distinction between god and Jesus and that they weren’t the same. This was problematic because it almost made Christianity to be polytheistic. The way it was addressed was at the council of Nicaea, who said that god/Jesus were one in the same and prevented the fracturing of Christianity. The problems of the Roman Empire assisted in the spread and success of Christianity. The emperors would prosecute the Christians and those who were persecuted were known as martyrs. A martyr is someone that dies for something that they believe in. They were persecuted in front of others for entertainment. Some people; however, found persecution to be influential and inspiring. Through the creation of a martyr, conversion to Christianity and respect for it were also created.