CIV 202 - Midterm/Lecture Notes
CIV 202 - Midterm/Lecture Notes CIV 202
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke R. on Monday June 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CIV 202 at Murray State University taught by Professor Taufiq Rashid in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations in History at Murray State University.
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Date Created: 06/20/16
CIV 202 Lecture/Midterm Notes August 21, 2015 Introduction • Review of sausage example – o Stuff in a black box o Method or framework of analysis o China would be considered the most advanced in 1415 § Most robust economy § Followed by India o Read article next week – SOUTHERNIZATION • Why did China and Islamic civilizations decline and why did Europe decline? o First perspective - human societies improve o Second perspective - Inconsistency o Third perspective – enlighten • Time is our greatest enemy o Gravity o Sugar – supply and demand § To supply, plantations were created and labor • Change is evitable • History – methods of organizing society o Methods – manipulate and control their environment in order to survive and succeed • Complex society – needs organization, some time of structure o Culture – is what makes humans on top of the food chain § Allows human to master, manipulate environment to their advantage § Aspects – language, systems of meanings, traditions • How we govern and produce our lives § How do we govern ourselves? • Democracy – legitimizing • Economic activity? Hierarchy • Over time, societies face new and emerging challenges that can erode the effectiveness of these methods. Continued survival and success, therefore, require these methods adapt and change. The historical record suggests that the new challenges and the changes they instigate produce increasing levels ofcomplexity in methods of organizing society and in the conditions of human existenceIn other words, the dynamic trend of human societies has been towards greater complexity. o Challenges faced – organizing economic activity o Environment factors produce change, which produce challenges § Successful if they have adapted • Why do some countries produce methods and succeed/fail? Complex Society • What you are producing you are consuming • Surplus production – the total output is not consumed enabling o Organization and urbanization that are contributing factors o Threshold • Complexity is determined by: o Size o Number o Specializations of labor o Institutions and customs o Economic activities o Kentucky vs. California § Cali – more jobs, activities, size, diversity § More of a challenge for order and stability § With new challenges, complexity of the problem is increased § Their own methods • Human societies growing over time – o Mobilizing resources o Maintaining order and stability o Protections and security Methods of Organizing Economic Activity o Resources are mobilized to generate production, including surpluses o Methods of Organizing and Legitimizing Authority o Religious Authority – how people live their lives (cultural values) o Political Authority – the systems of government and how the rules provide order § Stability, security and distributing resources § Modernization can lead to fundamental changes Methods of Organizing Social Relations • Hierarchical distribution – wealth and power • Ownership and mobilization of resources (dominating the social choices) • Demographics – population, fertility, urban/rural concentrations, migrations, ethic and racial composition o Rapid economic changes can impact social order and stability Cognitive Development and Cultural Innovations • Cognitive Factors – how people see and understand the world they live in (natural and social environment) • Cultural Factors – beliefs, values, customs and knowledge that people share and control/manipulate their natural and social environment • Changes in Cognition – perception of the natural and social world can lead to changes in culture – controlling the social environment Comparing Societies Over Time These methods of organizing society significantly contribute to solving the problems of PS2. So, we can compare different societies by examining whether their methods of organization (the factors above) provide effective solutions to these problems over time. The passage of time, however, brings new challenges that test the effectiveness of a society's methods for solving the problems of PS2. As long as the “methods” can adapt to the new challenges and remain effective for solving the problems of PS2, the probability of survival and success is high. When methods fail due to the inability and/or unwillingness to adapt, or become ineffective, t he odds for decline, weakness and failure rise. August 24, 2015 • Every society has to deal with – dependency of: o Mobilizing resources for surplus production – to be consistent, meet the needs o Maintaining order and stability – civil society o Protection and security – threats to survival § Use organizational methods based on the society to help issues. As time passes, challenges emerge o Challenges are unique to each society § Heterogeneous – more complex, more challenges § Methods have to evolve and change as new problems emerge § Dynamic Analysis of Change • Framework – organizing information, identify the important attributes and characteristics of societies o Comparative analysis o Dynamic analysis – looking at the trajectories of societies across space over time • Societies o Common – the problems and methods to overcome the challenges o Methods – are the most important attributes Identifying the Important Attributes 1. Organizing Economic Activity a. What we do in order to survival b. Complex society – produce surpluses 2. Organizing and Legitimizing Authority a. Political – system of government administering the rules b. Religious – cultural values, how people live their lives c. Modernization – fundamental values that limit religious authority and contribute greater secularization (religion because less authoritative) i. Capitalism – takes place of religion here 3. Organizing Social Relations a. Hierarchy – concentrated by people at the top, more diffused at the bottom i. Disproportion ruling elite ii. Europe – (French Revolution) people no longer realize your place. Break in society iii. Predictable behaviors, Proactive measures – determined by the behaviors/framework that is created with expectations and placeholders b. Demographics i. Maintaining the society, engaging ii. Fertility – population being replaced c. Challenges can emerge d. Anomie – you feel out of place, among a specific demographic August 25, 2015 Recap • Analytical framework o Generic Problems o Methods of Organizing Society – you have to adapt and change to deal with complexity o Time/Challenges – existing change, making it harder to overcome challenges. o Complexity - societies need to adapt, if they do not solve those problems it will begin to collapse. The changes adapt to complexity • You sill see this in Early Modern Europe Diamond • Failure of collective decision-making • One ruler – has to rely on information, elites for overall values • Decision-making – o Complete and accurate information o Timely and proper implementation of decisions § Sometimes too late, so you can’t be proactive • Diamond suggests four sets of factors that contribute to poor (failures in decision-making) – o Failure to anticipate a problem § Afraid of what may happen. Intimidated by change § You have the information, you chose to ignore it o Failure to perceive an extant problem § It is there, but you don’t see it § You are not looking at the bigger picture o Failure to attempt a solution o Failure in implementation of solution • Informational constraints– inadequate or inaccurate information • Behavioral constraints – human motives, behaviors and tendencies that include rationality, irrationality and psychological. o Human nature can play a part § Greed and fear – they can strain human behavior § One group may go against what is being proposed, may override the entire group although it may not be best § When elites stand in the way of change, to reserve their wealth and power. Because of the present decisions, allows them to have more of an advantage. Here society suffers § Power/wealth prevents adaptations to change o Both sets are more acute when the societies become more complex o They fail to adapt because of informational and behavioral constraints Prelude to Western Modernity • Modern – new methods of organizing societies through the process of o Cognitive innovations • Europe was a more backward society • Without Southernization, western modernity wouldn’t be o They built up on one another • If it is not modern it is traditional [Between 1450 and 1750 – Early Modern Period)] • “Marked by a general shift toward centralized, bureaucratic, monetized and technologically sophisticated states.” o Sovereignty - Complete authority § Authority of people and the enforcement of Laws • People under the law, people have to abide by (United States) • Boundaries are important • Begins in Europe • Where capital goes, people will follow • “Production for the marker, the profit motive, wage labor and property rights” o Family – the extended family (grandparents, cousin, mother) § Living and working under the same roof § Traditional societies’ – labor • This changes modernity – you are not only producing for yourself, but someone else • Exchange in market o Sustained global interactions – the west August 28, 2015 Westernization • Serfdom – method of organization of labor • Manorialism – production • Feudalism – method of authority o Feudal Lords - are responsible for the generation of the problems § They are responsible o The king doesn’t have enough resources • Serf o Control of the resources o Un-free labor, they are tied to the land, not another person • Lord o Obligation to provide serf with the problems o In return the serf could not leave the land and had to leave a designated an amount of the land • Church o Who had presidency over the other o Offering salvation o Denied eternal life o The biggest landlord • Monarchs - getting more resources o Wanted to take over the churches o Underlying Martin Luther o Subjects you to their laws o The traditional method begins to diminish because it could not overcome the challenges § The challenges collapse the serf o The loyalties begin to shift towards he monarch o The decline of serfdom ended the organization of labor § It ended in Russia in the 20 century • Profits replace manorialism • Burghers – people who lived in a city o Wanted the city to stay independent • Tax revenues were from the people who desire profits • Enhancing the power of strong national monarchs • Monarch – centralized authorities o Urban commercial class o Their getting their share from landowning § Trade § Supporting the monarchs • Methods changed in reference to new challenges • Measure of success o Europe was behind any other country o With the new methods, surplus the society • How did these methods motivate Europeans? o The process – rise of Europe faced their challenges, Black Death challenging the organization. o Monarchs tackled the resources with tax revenues § Desire to profit § Merchants were created more opportunities to trade and profit – creating more revenues o Capitalism o Profit motivation § Exploration [pg. 9] Cognitive/Cultural Development • Review – the rest of the society have to adapt to new methods from serf. o Social relations o Emergence and consolidation – made of merchants and new commercial class (middle class) o Cognition and cultural development • Renaissance – rebirth of Greek knowledge and values o Theology and clerical – Greeks fell in the hands of Jewish and Spain o Rediscovery of the Greek knowledge o Had to be brought in by the east, bring European into greater contact with ideas § Soon to make them want it more • Italy – proximity o Italian merchants took advantage § New ideas, new products \ • Slaves – Slav (slaves by Italians and being shipped to other ports) they came into contact with other Mongols • Merchants – buy things for cheap and then sale them - CONQUEST o You need transportation (ships); you have to have credit, you have to be able to borrow from the ones that have the resources o Needs and requirements of increase commence and trade o Institutions (money, borrow) – shape, consolidate, insurance o Spread of Islam, cultural differences, through east Africa and Asia • Conquest carried out by Turco-Mongols o Began to take over and then went to Mongols o Mongol empire diminished – Turks (Timur) empire builders § Biggest empire o Represents Persian and Arabic § Persian – more complex and sophisticated; had been influenced by Greek traditions § Arabic – not as complex; adopted Persian, Greek traditions § Greeks who prevailed women § They are from – nomads from Central Asia • Ghazis – holy worriers o Leaders of society were chosen on the basis of marriage o Shown what you are capable of doing – person best fit § Over time there can be a challenge of production of surplus • Sufi – missionaries o Open to new ideas and new o Flexibility of the practice – makes people more familiar o Spread of Islam – open to new customs September 02, 2015 • Eunuchs/slave – rise in ranks of the household, rich, did not own land but commerce gave them wealth o Would be entrusted, looking after the royal household o China no capabilities because the emperor wanted to use the resources for threats from the North • Mandarins – administrative class, rich, owned a lot of land o If you passed the test, you were able to move up o If you passed you also would be involved in the palace, the families o Could provide wealth, other than working with Eunuchs § They wanted to be challenged, convinced Eunuchs • Ming Society o Dynasty rules – ruled by a family • Western unity – more progressive, over time • Chinese – inconsistency o Maintaining order and stability o Authority needs legitimacy o Obtain and maintain mandate of heaven o If conditions are great – prosperity, progress § Commoners must obey they rulers authority o Mandate of Heaven as long as your prosper, protect and maintain order § Gods would take their power away § Peasants and land – ability to generate more surplus o Absence of ruler – eunuchs sign – taking control o Manchus – were brought in for allies § They established the next ruling dynasty § CHING DYNASTY o Autocratic state – § Expects to be ruled with no question § Neo-Confucian – strict obedience and mortality o Neo-Confucian § Hierarchy § Obedience to Authority § Mutual Obligations o Ottoman Power September 04, 2015 Conquest, Commerce and Empire in the Indian Ocean Basin • East African coast – it was a gate way for comities, the riches would find their way into the Indian Ocean o Gold – was needed for trade, helped lubricate o Silver – available in larger quantities o Trade of commerce – has to have facilitation of the trade • Portuguese – were the first Europeans to arrive o North African merchants would exchange goods for gold and bring it back up o Key – direct contact to West Africa o For successful navigation – have to catch prevailing winds o Sails – china and Arabs o Goals - § To monopolize the spice trade to Europe – around Africa, didn’t last very long. The Dutch would take over § To tax or take over key shipping lanes – none of them had naval powers. They were stopping and forcing them to pay tribute § Fight the expansion of Islam – tried to convert people in India o European eventually control and get away with it because there aren’t any naval powers. Ottomans lost interest th o European expansion – by controlling trade in ocean [16 century] § Monopolizing trade in ocean o On land – maintain territorial forces o Islamic – they had to give the oceans up to the Europeans • Moors – Arabs and north Africans o Had pushed into France, wouldn’t become a Muslim country o Helped Christian • Reconquista – recon quest of Spain • Muslims • • Marker - Europeans, rise of power in South Asia, dynasty and decline of promenade ruling power The 3 Muslim Dynastic empires of Eurasia – Turkic origins o Turkic - o Semitic – a family of languages o Slav – o Indo – European – largest families of language • Ottoman – Iraq was battle ground; longest dynasty in history o Osman – all of India o Traditions • Mughals – Mughal and Turkic; (Mogul) • Safavid – smallest of the dynasties Reasons for success - • “Gunpowder empire” • He was able to take control, but his grandson took control • Unlike the Europeans, the empires of Central and South Asia were note motivated by trade or religion, but rather they relied on conquest to gain control of LAND and POPULATION o More surpluses and revenues What factors lead to Islamic empires? • Successful because of their order and solved generic problems and used methods to overcome • Islamic – the ruling elite power to be Turkic • Ottoman – ruling elites Turkic and Muslim o Christian minority, Jewish o Majority is Muslims – Arab • Common Features o All three had a Turkic ruling elite o All three emphasized agricultural production as the means to wealth and surplus generation o Expansion limited to the land and resources § Used ships made by Europeans o All three stages developed a military state § Land grant – was not hereditary § King had to depend on people before, the people depended on the king now § Had to supply certain amount of revenues § The more land you got, more obligations – determined your surplus to the king’s army § The military organization of the state was closely tied to the need for surplus production and revenue extraction § Land of resources does not pass from one generation to the next because you only have the use of the resources, not the land – Usufruct, monarch owned the land o All three ruling dynasties were consolidated by exceptionally capable leaders Suleiman, Akbar, Shah Abbas Important Differences • Muh – must be related to one another Challenges • Governing far-flung territories (geographical spread) and controlling/ Authority and it’s Legitimacy • A strong centralized authority • Islamic Empires, strong and effective centralized authority was contingent on the individual qualities of the ruler o Expected to provide justice and protection to the people st • 1 set of problems - Succession problems and absence of primogeniture nd • 2 set of problems - Maintain a strong and effective military state • 3 set of problems - Religion Economic activity • Mobilization of resources Social Relations Organizing Authority • Required a capable and autocratic ruler • An administrative apparatus to ensure surplus production and revenue extraction • A strong military organization • Islamic beliefs – would try to intimidate • Manifestation • Theocracy – rule is based on one religion • They represent the people • Co-op religious authority • Tradition trumped innovation and, in the Islamic Empires, science and technology (including firearms) stagnated in the early modern period • Wahhabis – • Scope of religious authority was under the monarch’s control • Religious authority – belief and practice o Religious authority would be a challenge o Ottoman’s did not allow printing presses § Only Jews and Christians were allowed to use them • Culture, learning, technology and knowledge had to conform to Islamic teachings and traditions that were strictly interpreted in terms of Quran. • Methods – changes Social Relations • The allies (Arab) were encouraged to battle ottomans o Did not accomplish anything • Would let people choose their religion but made them pay taxes o In return for loyalty and payment of a special tax, jizya, the dhimmi retained freedom of religion and property • Encounters and Interactions – o Long distance trade and manufacturing were also important source of surpluses for all three empire and they all actively participated in the early modern global network of trade • Hubris – over willing pride • Challenges and changes – Islamic Empire and their decline Class 9-11 ESSAY – Decline of empires Methods – land grant system Society – public suspense’s • You’re able to see their goal • Their priorities When an empires surplus begin to shrink, conquests are not taking place • Increases productivity of innovation – new technologies • Take what you have in place and produce more in order to overcome the challenges Tradition would over come innovations • All methods would not adapt • Challenge and complexity arise o Methods become less effective o As a result, methods fail to maintain structure and stability • INTEGRATE what diamond into analytical framework • New ideas – Islamic – religion o China – mandate • Land grant o Lack of innovation o Pre. Feudalism – you don’t own the land but you are given the land to produce, but if you die, the land grant will be given to best fit § Removed incentives of long term • Inflation – erodes the value of money • New challenge – silk because it comes with Europeans • The entire global system is linked. o Silver from Per. Causing issue for Chinese Challenges and Change (II) – European Transformation • National identities in Europe, based on shared cultural heritage, common language or religious belief • With how the societies deal with the faith, split with religious authority • Opportunities to grow/consolidate their own people th • Protestant Reformation – (16 ) produced a new wrinkle in the formation of identities based on religious difference, and in motivations for antagonism and conflict [Cognitive development, a new way of understanding faith] • Religious toleration – but fight for profit • Cohesion of states allowed them to expand to the Asian empires • Crisis – gave opportunities to Europe to develop methods to expand • People turn to monarch who is making the laws • Political and economic activities were sharpened based on religious differences • Reformation – inspired by renaissance humanism, Luther and his followers mounted a challenge to the legitimacy of the Church’s religious authority. o Cognitive challenges that questioned the established church doctrine on salvation; it also emphasized the individual’s ability to interpret scripture and communicate directly – without priestly intermediaries – with God Luther – when it came to faith came upon the idea of humanism • Individuals – discovering things on their own without the church. But with the bible for true salvation • As a result of this protestant movement, political and social cohesion based on common religious authority came unglued. • The chaps and upheavals gave canny monarchs an opportunity to consolidate power and acquire resources as champions of either the established Roman Church or of the upstart Protestants • Different aspects of society • Rise of new monarchs • Important to remember - Mughal decline Ottoman Safavid decline
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