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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julie Notetaker on Tuesday June 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 212 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Hunt in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 06/21/16
Physical development of Middle Childhood Height and weight Children grow about 2-3 inches each year between ages 6-11, and approx. double their weight during that period Girls retain more fatty tissue than boys Average 10 year old weighs 11 lbs. more than 40 years ago, under 85 for a boy and 88 for a girl By age 6, black girls have more muscle and bone mass than white or Mexican girls, and Mexicans have higher percentage of body fat than white girls of the same size One type of growth disorder arises from body’s failure to produce enough growth hormone o Administration of synthetic growth hormone can produce rapid growth in height, especially during first 2 years Growth hormone GH has been identified as a treatment for children with short stature. Approved by FDA for children whose growth rate is too slow to reach adult height o Factors that affect therapy are whether they are GH deficient or not, what their early growth patterns were, and whether their parents are also short statured o Average gain of 3 inches o If unsuccessful, may cause psychological harm by creating unfulfilled expectations or giving children feeling that something is wrong with them Tooth Development Primary teeth begin to fall out at age 6 and are replaced by permanent teeth at rate of 4 teeth per year for next 5 years In past 20 years the number of US children 6-18 with untreated cavities dropped 80%. Improvements cut across ethnic lines but low SES families have more decay Widespread use of fluoride has been major factor in decline of dental caries Dental sealants have increased since 70s Untreated oral disease may lead to problems eating, sleeping, and speaking American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry recommends that all children visit the dentist within st 6 months of the eruption of first primary tooth and no later than after 1 birthday Brain development Changes result in faster processing as we have increased ability to filter out irrelevant information Gray matter is composed of closely packed neurons in the cerebral cortex White matter is made of glial cells, which provide support for neurons, and of myelinated axons, which transmit information across neurons Loss in the density of gray matter o Pruning of unused dendrites o Beneath the cortex, gray matter volume in the caudate (part of basal ganglia involved in control of movement and muscle tone and in mediating higher cognitive functions, attention, and emotional states), peaks at age 7 in girls and age 10 in boys o Gray matter in parietal lobes, (deals with spatial understanding), and frontal lobes (higher order functions), peaks at age 11 in girls and 12 for boys o At 16 gray matter peaks in temporal lobes, which deal with language o Amount of gray matter in frontal cortex is likely linked with differences in IQ. In average intelligence, prefrontal cortex is thick at age 7, peaks by age 8, and gradually thins Increase of white matter o Connections between neurons thicken and myelinate, beginning in frontal lobes and moving toward the rear of the brain o 6-13, growth occurs in connections between the temporal and parietal lobes. White matter grown may not begin to drop of until adulthood Changes in thickness of cortex o Cortical thickening between 5-11 in regions of temporal and frontal lobes o At same time, thinning occurs in rear portion of frontal and parietal cortex in the brain’s left hemisphere o Correlates with improved performance on vocab portion of an intelligence test Nutrition Schoolchildren need on average 2400 calories a day, more for older children and less for younger ones Nutritionists recommend a varied diet including grains, fruits, and vegetables, and high levels of complex carbs found in potatoes, pasta, bread, and cereals Recommendations for children and adults state that 30% of total calories should come from fat, and less than 10% should come from saturated fat o Studies found no negative effects on height, weight, body mass, or neurological development from a moderately low-fat diet at this age Nutrition education in schools can be helpful when combined with parental education and changes in school lunch menus Proposed legislative recommendations include changes in food labeling, taxes on unhealthy foods, restrictions on foods provided by government supported school lunch programs, regulation of food advertising directed toward children, and requiring restaurants to list nutrition information on their menus Sleep Sleep needs decline from 11 hours at age 5 to no more than 10 hours at age 9, and 9 hours at 13 1 -5 graders average 9.5 hours a day As children get older, ¼ get less sleep on weekends Sleep problems are common because many children are allowed to set their own bedtimes as they get older More than 40% of school aged children have a TV set in their bedrooms and these children get less sleep than other children A study of sleep patterns in 7-12 year olds in Israel o Older children went to sleep later, slept less, reported more drowsiness, and more likely to sleep during the day o At all ages, children woke up an average of almost twice a night o Girls sleep longer and more soundly than boys o Family stress associated with lower sleep quality o 1/5 experienced sleep difficulties but most went unnoticed by children and parents National Sleep Foundation did US poll, 11% of parents of school aged children reported sleep problems. Yet 42% report that children stall going to bed, 29% have difficulty getting up in the morning, and 14% needed to attend to a child iththe middle of the night Teachers noted that 10% of kindergarten-4 graders struggle to stay awake in class 1/5 of children under 18 snore o Sleep disordered breathing SDB: persistent snoring at least 3x a week, a condition linked to behavioral and learning difficulties Proper, early treatment is critical to helping a child realize their academic potential Obstructive sleep apnea OSA: severe form of SBD, associated with deficits in IQ, memory, and verbal fluency Affects 1/20 of children Many children are misdiagnosed as ADHD Once diagnosed, many children with SDB may undergo surgical removal of adenoids and tonsils, which effectively improves neurobehavioral deficits and improves the quality of life Children not candidates for surgery may benefit from continuous positive airway pressure CPAP therapy in which an electronic device keeps airways open via air pressure delivered through a nasal mask Motor Development Age 6 o Girls are superior in movement accuracy o Boys superior in forceful, less complex acts o Skipping possible o Children can throw with proper weight shift and step Age 7 o One-footed balancing without looking becomes possible o Children can walk 2-inch-wide balance beams o Children can hop and jump accurately into small squares o Children can execute accurate jumping jack exercise Age 8 o Children have 12 pound pressure on grip strength o Number of games participated in by both sexes is greatest at this age o Children can engage in alternate rhythmic hopping in a 2-2, 2-3, or 3-3 pattern o Girls can throw a small ball 40 ft. Age 9 o Boys can run 16.5 ft./second o Boys can throw a small ball 70 ft. Age 10 o Children can judge and intercept pathways of small balls thrown from a distance o Girls can run 17 ft./second Age 11 o A standing broad jump of 5 ft. is possible for boys and 4.5 ft. for girls Physical play o BY middle childhood, children in most nonliterate and transitional societies go to work, leaving them little time and freedom for physical play o In US, children are more sedentary. They spend more time on schooling and homework and less time on outdoor activities o Recess-time play Informal and spontaneously organized Boys play more physically active games, whereas girls favor games that include verbal expression or counting aloud Rough-and-tumble play: vigorous play involving wrestling, hitting, and chasing, often accompanied by laughing and screaming 10% of play Peaks in middle childhood; the proportion drops to about 5% at age 11 Universal and occurs among most mammals Boys engage in it more Hones skeletal and muscle development, offers safe practice for hunting and fighting skills, and channels aggression and competition By age 11, it becomes a way to establish dominance in a group o Organized sports 38.5% of 9-13 year olds play organized sports outside of school hours. 77.4% participate in unorganized sports such as shooting basketball Girls spend less time on sports and more time on housework, studying, and personal care Should include as many children as possible rather than focusing on a few natural athletes Should focus on building skills rather than winning games 6-9 year olds need more flexible rules, shorter instruction time, and more free time to practice o Regular physical activity helps weight control, lower blood pressure, improve cardiorespiratory functioning, enhanced self-esteem and well-being o Active children tend to become active adults o Inactive children tend to overweight Health Overweight o Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has more than doubled in past 25 years o In US, 17% of children between 2-19 are obese and another 16.5 are overweight o Boys more likely to be overweight than girls o Although overweight has increased in all ethnic groups, it is most prevalent among Mexican American boys and non-Hispanic black girls o Causes Inherited tendency aggravated by too little exercise and too much of the wrong kinds of food Children more likely to be overweight if they have overweight parents Wide availability of snack foods Eating out On a typical day, more than 30% of children and adolescents report eating fast foods Inactivity Preadolescent girls in ethnic minorities, children with disabilities, children who live in public housing, and children in unsafe neighborhoods are most likely to be sedentary Immigrant children more likely to be inactive and less likely to participate in sports Children who watch TV 5 hours a day are 4.6x more likely to be overweight as those who watch no more than 2 hours daily o Body image: descriptive and evaluative beliefs about one’s appearance Begins to be important in middle childhood, especially for girls 9-12 year old girls, 49-55% were dissatisfied with weight, heavier girls feeling more dissatisfaction Body dissatisfaction: negative thoughts about their bodies, leading to low self- esteem By 6, many girls wish to be thinner than they are Barbie doll contains unrealistic, unhealthy proportions Researchers read picture books to 5.5-8.5 year old girls. One group saw picture stories about Barbie; control groups saw stories about a full-figured fashion doll called Emme, or about no doll. After, they completed questionnaires in which they were asked to agree or disagree with statements such as “I’m happy about the way I look” Among the youngest girls, a single exposure to Barbie significantly lowered body esteem and increased discrepancy between actual and ideal body size. The effect was even stronger or 6.5-7.5 year old girls Pictures had no direct effect on oldest group o Girls up to 7 may be in sensitive period where they acquire idealized images of beauty. As they grow older, they may internalize the ideal of thinness as part of their emerging identity. Once ideal is internalized, its power no longer depends on direct exposure to the original role model o Some girls see Barbie as a positive influence, some see it as unrealistic o Effects Risk for behavior problems, depression, and low self-esteem High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and high insulin levels Childhood diabetes Adult obesity Risk for heart disease, orthopedic problems, and diabetes Obesity that starts in childhood may shorten life expectancy by 2-5 years Fall behind classmates in physical and social functioning o US Department of Agriculture suggest that children need at least 60 min of moderate-to- vigorous physical activity Acute medical conditions: occasional illnesses that last a short time o 6-7 bouts a year with colds, flu, or viruses are typical as germs pass among children at school or at play Chronic medical conditions: long lasting or recurrent physical developmental, behavioral, and/or emotional conditions that require special health services o Asthma: a chronic respiratory disease characterized by sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, and difficulty in breathing Incidence is increasing worldwide but may have leveled off in parts of Western world. Prevalence in US has more than doubled 1980-1995 and has remained at this level 13% of children up to 17 have been diagnosed with asthma at some time and 9% currently have it 30% more likely for boys 20% more likely for black children than white children Gene mutation increases risk of developing asthma Environmental factors such as tightly insulated houses that intensify exposure to indoor air pollutants and allergens such as tobacco smoke, molds, and cockroach droppings Allergies to household pets are risk factors Association between obesity and asthma o Diabetes: one of the most common diseases of childhood. Characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood Type 1: is a result of insulin deficiency that occurs when insulin producing cells in the pancreas are destroyed 5-10% of all cases, and accounts for almost all of children under age 10 Symptoms are thirst and urination, hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, and fatigue Treatment includes insulin administration, nutrition management, and physical activity Type 2: insulin resistance Found mainly in overweight and older adults and increasingly among children Increased incidence among black, Native Americans, and Latin Americans Symptoms similar to type 1 Treatment with nutrition management and increased physical activity can be effective but glucose lowering medication or insulin may be needed for resistant cases o Hypertension: high blood pressure Was once rare in childhood but is now “evolving epidemic” of cardiovascular risk, especially among ethnic minorities Overweight is major factor. Weight reduction is primary treatment If blood pressure does not come down, drug treatment can be considered Long term effects unknown o Stuttering: involuntary, frequent repetition or prolongation of sounds or syllables Begins 2-5 years By 5 grade, is 4x more likely in boys 5% of children stutter for 6 months or more, but ¾ recover by late childhood, leaving 1% with a long term problem Persistent developmental stuttering PDS: noticeable at beginning of a word or phrase or in long, complex sentences Genetic component More common Basic cause may be structural or functional disorder of CNS and reinforced by parental reactions to the stuttering, which make the child nervous about speaking No known cure but speech therapy can help Health care o Poor children are more likely to be in fair or poor health, have chronic conditions or health-related limitations on activities, miss school due to illness or injury, be hospitalized, unmet medical and dental needs, experience delayed medical care o Two parent families more likely to have health insurance and afford participation in organized sports o Low income and minorities more likely to be uninsured, have no usual place of health care, or go to clinics or emergency rooms rather than doctors visits o Access to health care is particular problem for Latino children o Asian American children, who are in better health, are less likely to use health care Mental health o Disruptive conduct disorders: aggression, defiance, or anti-social behavior 55.7% of children diagnosed with emotional, behavioral, and developmental problems Oppositional defiant disorder ODD: pattern of behavior, persisting into middle childhood, marked by negativity, hostility, and defiance Usually boys Have few friends and are in constant trouble at school Constantly fight, lose temper, snatch things, blame others, and are angry and resentful Conduct disorder CD: repetitive, persistent pattern of aggressive, antisocial behavior violating societal norms or the rights of others Truancy, setting fires, habitual lying, fighting, bullying, theft, vandalism, drug and alcohol abuse 6-16% of boys and 2-9% of girls under 18 in US diagnosed Some 11-13 year olds progress to criminal violence and by 17 may be frequent offenders 25-50% of highly antisocial children become antisocial adults Neurobiological deficits, such as weak stress regulating mechanisms may fail to warn children to restrain themselves. May be genetically influenced or brought on by adverse environments such as hostile parenting or family conflict o Anxiety disorders Tend to run in families 2x more likely for girls, with heightened vulnerability beginning at age 6 May be neurologically based or stem from early experiences that make children feel a lack of control over what happens around them Parents who reward an anxious child with attention to the anxiety may perpetuate it through operant conditioning School phobia: unrealistic fear of going to school; may be a form of separation anxiety disorder or social phobia Separation anxiety disorder: condition involving excessive, prolonged anxiety concerning separation from home or from people to whom a person is attached Affects 4% of children and young adolescents Often come from close-knit families May develop spontaneously or after a stressful event Many also show symptoms of depression Social phobia/social anxiety: extreme fear and/or avoidance of social situations 5% of children Runs in families Often triggered by traumatic experiences Tends to increase with age Generalized anxiety disorder: anxiety not focused on any single target Tend to be self-conscious, self-doubting, and excessively concerned with meeting the expectations of others Seek self approval and need constant reassurance but worry is independent of performance or how they are regarded by others Obsessive compulsive disorder OCD: anxiety aroused by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses, often leading to compulsive ritual behaviors o Mood disorders Childhood depression: mood disorder characterized by such symptoms as a prolonged sense of friendlessness, inability to have fun or concentrate, fatigue, extreme activity or apathy, feelings of worthlessness, weight change, physical complaints, and thoughts of death or suicide 2% elementary school children Tend to come from families with high levels of parental depression, anxiety, substance abuse, or antisocial behavior Gene, 5-HTT helps control serotonin and affects mood. People who have two short versions of the gene are more likely to be depressed than those with two long versions A short form of SERTs, which also controls serotonin, is associated with enlargement of the pulvinar, a brain region involved with negative emotions Children as young as 5-6 can report depressed moods Often occurs in transition to middle school Becomes more prevalent during adolescence o Treatment techniques Individual psychotherapy: psychological treatment in which a therapist sees a troubled person one-on-one Helpful at time of stress, even when a child has not shown signs of disturbance More effective when combined with counseling for the parents Family therapy: psychological treatment in which a therapist sees the whole family together to analyze patterns of family functioning Behavior therapy/behavior modification: therapy that uses principles of learning theory to eliminate undesirable behaviors Studies found that psychotherapy is generally effective with children and adolescents, but behavior therapy is more effective than nonbehavioral methods Results are best when treatment is targeted to specific problems and desired outcomes Cognitive behavioral therapy: seeks to change negative thoughts through gradual exposure, modeling, rewards, or positive self-talk, has proven the most effective treatment for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents Art therapy: therapeutic approach that allows a person to express troubled feelings without words, using a variety of art materials and media Helps when children have limited verbal and conceptual skills or have suffered emotional trauma Observing how a family plans, carries out, and discusses an art project can reveal patterns of family interactions Play therapy: therapeutic approach that uses play to help a child cope with emotional distress Child plays freely while a therapist occasionally comments, asks questions, or makes suggestions Effective with variety of emotional, cognitive, and social problems, especially when consultation with parents or other close family members is part of the process Drug therapy: administration of drugs to treat emotional disorders Sufficient research is lacking on safety Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs: treat OCD, depressive, and anxiety disorders o Increased rapidly in 90s, but has slipped by 20% o Moderate risk of suicidal thought and behavior for children and adolescents Placebo controlled studies found that the benefits outweigh the risks Accidental injuries o Leading cause of death among US children, majority from traffic accidents, drowning, or burns o Requiring safety devices has lowered injury rates
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