Psych 3 Notes Week 1
Psych 3 Notes Week 1 PSY 3
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Wednesday June 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Psych 3-Biopsychology in Psychlogy at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 06/22/16
▯ Chapter 1- Biopsychology as a neuroscience ▯ Psychology- the scientific study of behavior Biopsychology- the scientific study of the biology of behavior Emerged as a discipline in the late 1940’s *The Organization of Behaviors computer age- thinking of the body and brain as a computer Biopsych utilizes the knowledge and tools of other disciples of neuroscience Other disciplines of neuroscience ▯ -Neuroanatomy study of the nervous system ▯ -neurochemistry chemicals bases of neural activity ▯ -neuroendocrinology interactions between the nervous system and endocrine system (hormones) ▯ neuropathology nervous system disorder ▯ neuropharmacology effects of drugs on neural activity ▯ neurophysiology functions and activities of nervous system ▯ Biopsychological research Human and nonhuman subjects Experiments and non experiments Pure and applied research ▯ Human and non human subjects- many questions about biology of behavior are addressed using human subjects ▯ Much can be learned from studying the brains of other species ▯ Use nonhumans because simpler brain makes it more likely that brain behavior interactions will be revealed ▯ Comparative approach- gain insight by making comparisons with other species ▯ Fewer ethical restrictions for nunhumans than humans ▯ ▯ Why use humans? ▯ They can follow instructions ▯ They make subjective reports. Can tell you their thoughts and feelings ▯ They are often cheaper to work with ▯ ▯ ▯ Experiments and non experiments ▯ Involve the manipulation of a variable ▯ Non experiments- no control of the variables of interest Quasi- experiment studies Case study ▯ Experiments require that subjects be placed in various conditions Between subject design0 different group of subjects tested under each condition Within subject design- same group of subjects tested under each condition ▯ The difference between the conditions it the independent variable (i.e. different “levels” of the iv in each conditions ▯ The variable that measures the effect of the independent variable is the dependent variable (DV) ▯ The compounded variable is a variable that affects the dependent variable but is not controlled for systematically. Has some explanatory effect on the outcome (ex. Gender on alcohol experiment) ▯ ▯ The Coolidge effect had been demonstrated in males- but does it occur in females. Replacing a sexual partner with a new sexual partner gives rise to sexual activity ▯ ▯ Quasi experimental studies- studies of groups of subjects exposed to condition in the real world ▯ These are not real experiments ************* ▯ ▯ Case study- focus on a single individual ▯ -usually more in depth than other approaches, but not as generalizable ▯ -generalizability: the degree to which results can be applied to other cases ▯ Ex-phineas gage ▯ Pure and applied research ▯ ▯ Pure research- conducted for the purpose of acquiring knowledge ▯ Applied research: intended to bring about some direct benefit to humankind ▯ Often research projects have elements of both ▯ ▯ ▯ Six major divisions of biopsychology ▯ Physiological Study of neural mechanisms of behavior. Direct manipulation of brain ▯ Psuchoparmocology Effect of drugs on brain ▯ Neuropsychological Brain damage. Usually has a clinical emphasis. ▯ Psychophysiology Relations between physiological activity and psychological processes Visual tracking is abnormal in schizophrenics ▯ Cognitive The neural bases of cognition. Functional brain imaging is the major method of cognitive neuroscience ▯ Comparative psychology Comparing different species to understand evolution, genetics, and adaptiveness of behavior. ▯ Converging operations ▯ -Using multiple approaches to address a single research question ▯ - example Korsakoff’s syndrome(memory loss from heavy alcohol use) ▯ Thiamine deficient rats exhibits memory deficits ▯ Alcohol accelerates the development of brain damage in thiamine deficient rats. Alcoholics get most their calories from alcohol. Lack of proper diet and nutrients, which creates a lack of thiamine, resulting in korsakoff’s syndrome ▯ ▯ ▯ Scientific inference The empirical method that biopsychology’s use to study unobservable phenomenon such as thoughts and feelings ▯ Critical thinking- the ability to evaluate claims by identifying potential omissions or weakness in the evidence ▯ Delgado claims that a charging bull can be tamed by means of stimulation of its caudate nuclease Exciting account reported in popular press Many possible alternative explanations Morgans canon: give precedence to the simples interoperation for a behavioral observation Caudate nuclease. Makes the bull not able to use half his body.
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