Psych 2300: Psychology Research
Psych 2300: Psychology Research Psych 2300
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by MadsSwart on Thursday June 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Emanuele Rizzi in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Research Methods In Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 06/23/16
Psychology 2300: Research in Psychology 6/20 & 6/22 Chapter 4: Ethical Research - Big 3 principles - Objective 3 History - When you think about human experimentation o The type of idea that we are doing psycho movie type of stuff on people is from history Tuskegee - Had syphilis - Wanted to just follow them around and see the nature of the sickness - Treatment [penicillin] was found, but those in the study weren’t told that because they wanted to keep monitoring them - Started in 30s, out in media in 60s, 70s it was stopped, 90s was when gov apologized - Why many [especially low income and African americans] don’t trust government - Allowed for laws to come into place Milgram - Nazis asked how they could hurt people: just following orders could that be a defense? - Could people obey something even though it goes beyond their moral standings - Shocking in other room: how far up the shock level will he go to shock an imaginary person because they are being told to keep shocking them o Wanted to know how people responded to authority to enact in unjust acts Prison Study - Zimbardo [Zimbardo & Milgram went to same high school in Brooklyn] - Assigned random roles: prisoner or guard - Students took on roles very aggressively o Mistreatment of fellow students o Not allowed to leave - Meant to go on for 3 weeks; his girl friend came in after 6 days and told him to shut it down because of how insane it was Something needed to be put in place to keep unethical studies like this to keep happening Core ethical principles: BELMONT REPORT Provided a guideline for what constitudes all research Psychology 2300: Research in Psychology 6/20 & 6/22 - Beneficence o Cost/benefit analysis for participants and society - Respect for persons o Informed concent; are people completely aware of what is going on Can they leave whenever they want o Protection for vulnerable populations Make sure people giving consent know what they are saying ok to - Justice o People taking on risks for study should take on benefits for studies o How are participants selected Belmont Report vs. APA Ethical Principles The Belmont Report is for ALL research. The American Psychological Association’s Ethical Principles is specific for Psychological research http://www.slideshare.net/gemesse/apa-ethics-code I have highlighted all of the main ones in addition to ones we covered in class. Check out the following link for the actual APA Ethical Principles [its only 18 pages, and not horrible to understand]. However, it seems like below is even more than we need to know~ Beneficence Beneficence and Non maleficence - Do no harm - Protect welfare and rights of involved [including animals & people affected after study] - Guard against all personal factors leading to misuse of professional standing. - Aware of own physical and mental health’s impact on ability to help those working with Fidelity - Making sure subjects understand what is going on - Being open and clear with everyone - Establish relationships of trust with those working with - informed consent the individual in question or participating must give their consent with language that is reasonably understandable to all people [you must explain it reasonably and understandable and they must be clear that they understand it; know 100% they understand]. o For those legally incapable provide appropriate explanation, consider preferences and best interest, and obtain appropriate permission from legally authorized person. Psychology 2300: Research in Psychology 6/20 & 6/22 o If court ordered inform the individual of nature of services, making sure they understand that they are being mandated Responsibility - professional and scientific responsibilities to society and specific community - For subjects, for study, for reporting accurate findings etc. - Ethical compliance of colleagues’ scientific and professional conduct Integrity o promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness in psychology o Do not steal, cheat, engage in fraud, subterfuge, or intentional misrepresentation o Keep promises and avoid unwise or unclear commitments. o maximize benefits and minimize harm o correct resulting mistrust or harmful effects caused from any unethical acts o Documentation must be provided during all stages of meetings, to ensure transparency Justice Fairness to all individuals - All people must be able to access and benefit from contributions of psychology o The research pool = the benefited pool o Say you have a new HIV drug, but can’t find a great random sample of people with HIV in America. You know that South Africa has a high number of individuals with HIV, due to their lack of access to resources. If you decide to go and try out the drug on people in South Africa, then the people who benefit from the drug have to be those with HIV in South Africa. [In other words, you couldn’t test the drug in South Africa, find out that it works, and then bring it back to America so that individuals with HIV in America could benefit from it.] If South Africans are researched people, they must benefit from your findings. If you want only Americans to benefit, you must only do research in the US. - Equal quality in processes, procedures, and services conducted - Reasonable judgement and as little bias as possible o Make sure you aren’t the only one making ethical decisions Respect for Persons [do NOT engage in]… Discrimination Sexual [or other] Harassment - Behavior such as solicitation, verbal or nonverbal conduct of sexual or demeaning behavior Psychology 2300: Research in Psychology 6/20 & 6/22 Multiple Relationships - you have both a professional and personal relationship with someone [OR a professional relationship has a personal relationship with someone you have a personal relationship with] Conflict of Interest - agreeing to provide services to a person through a 3 party, everyone involved must fully understand the nature of this relationship [Autonomy] - People make up their own minds - They decide if they want to be in a study, they decide if and when they can leave - Basic rights of research Privacy, Confidentiality, Disclosures & Intrusions on privacy Less autonomous populations who’s autonomy you must protect - Children: Their parents told them they have to do it for them money - Prisoners: Think sentence will be shortened if they do it; due to authority figures above them - Patients: In desperate situation; when you say you have a new pill for their disease, they may believe they are willing to try anything to rid their life of it, but must make sure they understand any and all risks involved Ethical grey area R H S G DON’T DO GREY K H F IT AREA D O N O GREY AREA DO IT G W LOW HIGH BENEFIT OF DOING STUDY Chapter 4: Day 2 Core ethical principles applied What areas of ethics did the historical studies discussed earlier specifically ignore Tuskegee - Respect for Persons Psychology 2300: Research in Psychology 6/20 & 6/22 o The subjects were not treated fairly o Informed consent was violated - Justice o Subjects were not treated fairly o Medical Patients are part of a vulnerable population - Beneficence o There was no benefit to the subjects o There was little benefit to society - Fidelity o Subjects were deceived Milgram - Beneficence o weren’t being completely honest had a debriefing session after it happened their integrity is still questioned o subjects went under a significant amount of emotional turmoil o Balance risk vs. benefit was the risk worth the amount of turmoil they took on Could have had more long term damage Open up their eyes that they could be capable of killing someone and they would have to live with that Subjects did not benefit Society benefitted in the fact of basic research Americans thought holocaust could never happen here, but made us realize that it could happen here and that we could cause something like this as a society if we don’t pay attention of our own behaviors Perfect divide of the class on who thinks the study should have been conducted - Study has been replicated multiple times o They went back to fix the core issue; they were not forced to keep going – when they contest you 3 times, you stop. - The point of no return paradime o There is a certain point on the shock, they are 85% likely to go all the way to the end o They only need to know if you will go to that point; the switch that is the point of no return Zimbardo’s Prison Study - Guards started taking on authority figures by day 2; prisoners revolted against the guards, and the guards got harsher [stripping, walking with bags on their heads, taking food for them, etc] - The ‘prisoners’ suffered horribly - Benefits o We learned what happens when people have power o In goup/out group mentality Psychology 2300: Research in Psychology 6/20 & 6/22 o Wouldn’t have expected things to go as far as they did; but when the guards did go rouge, the study should have been stopped by the researchers – broke trust with subjects, and did not take responsibility – FIDELITY - Beneficience and nonmaleficence o Not supposed to harm the subjects, even if they are the ones harming each other o You aren’t stepping in and stopping it, thus you’re letting it happen. - Respect for persons o The prisoners rights were taken away – their right to autonomy – informed concent, to opt out, leave etc. the only subject that left was COMPLETELY broken down. - Should the study have been conducted o Entire class thinks no o They knew what they needed to know about authority by the end of the first day, it was unethical because they let it go out of curiosity APA Standard 8 – GUIDELINES FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH 15 Guidelines - Standard 8 is the only one that applies to research IRB - Institutional review board - Cringe because so difficult to get anything approved - Looked at as some sort of barrier, but are very important - All institutions have them - Federal law; especially if using federal research grants - Private institutions often don’t have IRBs o Think about the work coming out of these places, because they don’t have to get things approved by IRBs o Don’t know what they should and shouldn’t do - 5 members o At least one scientist, academic, community leader [unaffiliated with institution] o This requirement of tiers keeps a balance of different perspectives on the study - Discuss cost-benefit and ethical welfare - Can’t do anything without IRB approval ; not even get someones name - If they don’t like something, it must be re-done Informed consent - Written agreement of what is going to happen - All information of studies risks and benefits that subject must sign - Must maintain confidentiality o Cannot be linked back to the name of the subject Encrypt the data Don’t have the information on your personal laptop Rules about who can see the data Psychology 2300: Research in Psychology 6/20 & 6/22 - Not always necessary to have informed consent o Naturalistic observation Study taking place in a museum, park, or classroom; as long as its confidential Just watching behaviors o Anonymous surveys or studies Difference from condifentiality There IS NO personal information collected, so there is NO WAY to link it back to you o Rights should still be delivered//subjects be debriefed I know you didn’t know this, but you were just in our study o The higher the risk, the more you need informed consent o The only time you really don’t need it is if the risk is really low o It only might be better to not get informed consent if the information you are collecting is embarrassed Facebook and google are leading studies o Facebook assigned people randomly to one of 3 conditions Posts only show things with positive language Posts only show things with negative language [complaining etc.] Mixed o What would happen to those individuals posts See negative = be negative See positive = be positive o Truly informed consent They claim that it applies with the general user agreement o Issues with beneficence o Ethical violation or overreaction Live in an era that our information is public and given freely Researchers at university can’t even take our name without IRB and my OK Facebook knows the last person you dated Facebook and google manipulate things all the time with the ads they show etc. but when it is in the name of phsychological research, people are pissed. Deception - Two types o Omission o Commission - Omission: just don’t tell them something - Commission: directly lie to them - Psychological research has sterotype that you come in and don’t really know what is going on o 0-25% actually uses deception o 51-75% is how much we think uses deception Psychology 2300: Research in Psychology 6/20 & 6/22 Debriefing - Summary - Contribution/benefits - Easier is not a justifiable reason to do something - If you use deception, you HAVE to debrief them - You have to be told what your contribution was o Want them to realize that it is important for them to be in a study - If someone comes in and steals something, and they are watching you to see what you do, they have to tell you after- they don’t need to tell you before, because if you tell them before they are going to be more likely to do something/say something Animal research - Animal rights vs. animal welfare o Researchers argue for animal welfare over animal rights - IACUC; institution of animal care o AWA 1996 Same guidelines that monitor pet stores, zoos, circuses, etc. Have to have a vet, practicing scientist, and a community member With the IRB, once you get approved for research, you are good to go. This institution check up all the time - Extensive and ongoing o Guide and use of care for lab animals; 3 r’s Replacement If your study could use something other than animals, you must. Have to argue damn well that you need animals Can’t say that its just easier Need a good reason why you have them; benefit to animal? Refinement Minimizing stress and pain; little risk and little harm Reduction Use least amount of animals as you can for study Research misconduct - Just like any field, you have a few people who do bad things - But then it makes everyone looks bad o Data fabrication Can’t make up results, or make your study look better etc. o Data falsification Can’t change that 7 to a 13, or no to 13 o Plagiarism Ideas are valuable and plagiarism is stealing Don’t take credit for what you didn’t do - Can get retracted if you do anything Psychology 2300: Research in Psychology 6/20 & 6/22 - Don’t have to say that they are going to ‘solve’ something in order to get funding o There are trends in research, but its mostly about what is the best approach right now - NO MATTER WHAT ONE STUDY SAIS, AS A SCIENTIST, YOU SHOULD SEE WHAT THE WEIGHT OF THE EVIDENCE SAYS - Biases exist, competing interests must be declared in the study o Even if you aren’t getting money o Someone in family works at a conflicting place o If don’t say this, its research misconduct o Getting funded by a place related to topic etc. Worst case scenario if study found out - 1998 lancet published a paper by dr. Andrew wakefield a dramatic study that found a connection between autism and vaccines - Went off of peoples memory but also changed a lot of the data that they found o A study of 500 children in 1999 o A study of 10,000 children 2001 no connection o 14,700,00 children studied in 2012 - Scientific community REFUTIFIED – no link to autism and caccine o ¼ of parents didn’t want to give vaccines because thought caused autism o Places that hadn’t seen measles in decades had thousands of outbreaks of measles o 2.6 million deaths from measles in 2012 Bar study - Finding people more attractive as night goes on Micturition study - Personal space invasions make physical changes [arousal] and change how long it takes to pee - Conducted at OSU in 1976 - Having personal space violated makes you pee for a shorter amount of time - Used bathrooms at the stadium - Didn’t know they participated - No one would have concented to this - Did not debriefed - Kept anonymous - Risk minimal – subject came in , went to bathroom and left Final thoughts - Historical examples of ethical breaches in research - Belmont report and apa provide guidelines o 3 principles o 5 guidelines o Standard 8 - Guidelines frame issue o Burden and responsibility on researcher Psychology 2300: Research in Psychology 6/20 & 6/22 o Gray areas - Not all research is deceptive, harmful, or questionable. Many stereotypes exist. - Have very strict guidelines - We should learn from our past mistakes and use those to guide our methodological process
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