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LIFE 102 Unit 1 Notes

by: Whitney Kendall

LIFE 102 Unit 1 Notes Life 102

Whitney Kendall
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All notes ranging from chapter 1 to chapter 6 included as well as the iClicker questions and answers.
Attributes of Living Systems
Jennifer L Neuwald
Class Notes
Life Science, Biology, life, 102, carbon, unit, 1




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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Kendall on Thursday June 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Life Science at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 06/23/16
Chapter 1: Biology: The study of life What defines something to have life?  Eat  Grow  Reproduce Properties of life  Order  Evolutionary adaption  Regulation: where nutrients go etc  Energy processing: transform energy  Growth and development  Response to the environment  Reproduction Themes of Biology 1. Organization a. Reductionism: reduces complex systems to simpler components to better understand b. Emergent Properties: properties of life that arise due to the arrangement and interaction of the parts i. Ex: Won’t understand a tree with just studying the leaves ii. Correlation between the structure and the function of something 1. Ex: cats tongue 2. Information a. DNA: universal genetic language common to all organisms b. Genomes: study of whole sets of genes and how they are expressed- Emergent property 3. Transfer and Transformation of Energy and Matter a. Need energy to preform life functions i. Ex: eating a carrot. The carrot got energy from the sun and then you eat it so you're getting energy from the carrot 4. Interactions a. Organisms respond to their environment i. Ex: Elephant Picture ii. Physical things you can see and even on a molecular level 5. Evolution a. "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" b. Evolution: decent with modification; change in inheritable traits across generations c. Taxonomy: classifies species into groups of increasing breadth i. Domains are the highest classification, divided into 3: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya' d. Natural selection i. Evidence of decent with modification- unity of life ii. Natural selection is the mechanism- diversity of life e. Evolution is a Fact, the mechanism is explained through the theory of natural selection Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass Element: any substance that cannot be broken down by chemical reaction Compound: 2+ different elements; different properties  Combined in a fixed ratio  The compound might have different properties than the elements: Emergent Properties  Ex: Sodium and chlorine when combined make sodium chloride or table salt 25 Chemical Elements are essential for Life  92 elements found naturally  Of the 25 there are 4 that create 96% of the human body o Oxygen o Carbon o Hydrogen o Nitrogen  Remember by CHON  Trace elements: present (and needed) in trace amounts Atom: smallest unit of an element; contain subatomic particles 1 da= 1.7 x 10 ^-24 Mass number/ Atomic Mass: total number of protons + neutrons Atomic Number: Total number of protons Isotopes: two atoms of the same element can differ in the number of neutrons The more neutrons there are it becomes more unstable Radioactive: when an atom is unstable it might spontaneously decay (lose energy and neutrons) which then is/ gives off radiation Periodic Table  Electrons are arranged in shells o 1st row has one shell, 2nd has 2 shells, etc o Each shell is the distance from the nucleus o Electrons move between shells; that movement creates energy  Moving away from the nucleus (to outer shells/ higher shells) requires energy, moving closer releases energy  1st shell- low energy, 2 e-  2nd shell- higher energy, 8 e-  3rd shell- Highest energy, 18 e-  Max number is 32 e in a shell o Valance shell- controls the chemical behavior of an atom; outer most shell, the amount of electrons determines the behavior  Atom Behavior o Atoms "want" to have a full valence shell o Generally #e = #p less than or equal to # n o Ions: # e is not equal to #p thus, has a charge (+ or -) o Ex: Chlorine can have up to 18 electrons, but it has 17 protons, so Sodium gives one to make it full, making sodium become full with the new valence shell with 8 electrons. Then Sodium is positive and Chlorine is negative so then they become attracted to each other  Anion= a negative charge (Anakin)  Cation= a positive charge (Katniss)  Inert: full valence shells  Electronegativity: ability to attract electrons o The right side of the periodic table is high in electronegativity because they are closer to being inert, so they are more likely to receive an electron than to give one Chemical bond: weak; an attraction that hold atoms together in a compound 1. Ionic Bond: after ions are formed the + and - charges keep the cation and anion atoms together; The resulting relationship because of the charge is an ionic bond o Ex: sodium donates an electron to chlorine, Sodium is anion and chlorine is cation, now they have opposite charges and are now attracted to each other 2. Covalent Bonds: Much stronger; sharing of a pair of valance electrons by two atoms o 1 bond = 1 electron pair  CO :2Oxygen pulls hydrogen in more than hydrogen is pulling. So Oxygen will have a more negative charge and hydrogen will have a more positive charge o Double bond = 2 e pairs o Molecule: is 2 or more atoms, connected by covalent bonds o 2 types  Polar: one of the atoms attracts the shared electron pair more strongly than the other ( one molecule is charged)  Nonpolar: electrons are shared equally ( no charge) 3. Hydrogen Bonds: WEAK! H atom with a partial positive charge from a covalent bond attracts to different electronegative atom o Formed by electrical charges o Ex: CO 2orms a bond with NH (Ammo3ia) because the hydrogen is slightly positive and is attracted to the slightly negative N molecule forming a hydrogen bond Chemical Reactions: Molecules react with each other  Bonds between atoms in reactants are broken, atoms are rearranged, and new bonds are formed  Bonds are broken, the atoms are rearranged and form new bonds  Reactants + reaction = products  All reactions are theoretically reversible o Ex: 2H 2 O = 2H O 2 Mass conservation law: all atoms present in the reactants are still present in the products Chapter 3: Water and Life Electronegativity influences the distribution of electrons in the molecule Ex: covalent bonds- H is sharing a molecule with O polar bonds- O is attracting electrons, its stronger than H The polarity of H O2results in Hydrogen bonding among H O molecul2s  Water molecules share many hydrogen bonds because of the polarity  For every 1 water molecule it'll be found with 4 other water molecules Emergent properties related to Hydrogen Bonds in Water 1. Because of the hydrogen bonds, water is…. cohesive a. Cohesive: H O2molecules stick together i. High surface tension- the hydrogen bonds pull the water together forming it b. Adhesive: H O2molecules stick to substances, H forms H bonds to other things i. Ex: water sticking to the stem of a leaf; the water sticks inside the columns of a tree, then through evaporation it is pulled through and up the tree and distributes it throughout 2. Because of the hydrogen bonds, water has… a. High Specific Heat: more energy need to change temperature i. Number of calories to change temp of 1 gram by 1 degree C ii. As temp increases: 1st break H- bonds 1. When you break hydrogen bonds hydrogen is absorbed; so it heats slowly iii. As temp decreases: 1st form H bonds 1. When you form hydrogen bonds heat is released; so it cools slowly iv. Climatic Stability 1. Ex: California- a. Death valley- Away from water the sun heats the are quickly and it cools at night very fast b. Torrey pines- water absorbs the heat during the day and releases it at night- less of a change c. On the water- even less change; the water maintains stability and the temp hardly changes b. High Heat of Vaporization: how much heat you need; more energy needed to change 1g of liquid to gas i. GOOD THING- if it was low our oceans would completely evaporate ii. High heat evaporative molecules evaporate first, and low heat ones stay in liquid form thus keeping the planet cool. 3. Because of the hydrogen bonds, water has… a. Floating ice: liquid water is more dense than solid water i. Ice: crystalline; hydrogen bonds are stable, ordered, less molecules ii. Liquid: hydrogen bonds break and reform; there's more molecules moving around iii. Serves as an isolation to life underneath and controls the temperature 4. Because of hydrogen bonds, water acts as a… a. Solvent: dissolves polar molecules or ionic compounds i. Solution: mixture of substances ii. Solvent: dissolving agent iii. Solute: substance being dissolved iv. Aqueous solution: when water is the solvent v. Ex: NaCl which has ionic bonds; Water molecules are being added and surround all the NaCl. The Na is + and is attracted to the O, and the Cl is - and is attracted to the H. vi. vii. Hydrophobic: avoid water (oil, fat); nonpolar molecules viii. Hydrophilic: Loves water; polar molecules Factors that Influence Properties of Solutions 1. Concentration [c]: Number solute molecules in a volume of solution a. The solute (salt) dis23lved by the solvent (water) b. 1 mole= 6.02 x 10 molecules- Avogadro's number i. 1 mole of feathers is = 1 mole of bricks c. Molarity= # moles per liter of solution 2. Molecular weight: (Mw) weight, in grams, of 1 mole of a compound a. Ex: glucose: C H6O 12 6 b. Mw= (6x12)+(12x1)+(6x16)=180 180 g/mole c. d. 1 molar glucose solution is 1 mole of glucose + 1 liter of water 3. Acidity (pH): how many H (OH) ions in a solution a. Hydronium- H attaches -o O its positive (H O) 3 b. Hydroxide ion- (OH) c. In pure water H and OH concentrations are equal and they are equal to 10 M7 d. Looking at a pH scale- concentration of H ions i. Higher H is more acidic; lower pH ii. Lower H is more basic; higher pH iii. Fro every one change of pH, it’s a 10x difference 1. pH5= 10x Hydrogen ions than pH6 2. pH5= 100x H than pH7 iv. pH scale: 0-14 v. pH 7=7 neutral vi. pH < 7 = acidic and pH > 7 = basic + - e. Where do the H or OH come from? i. Decrease hydrogen atoms add a base ii. Add acid to water, will add H to the water and lower the water to a pH to 2 1. Add same amount to another liquid (blood 7.4) but the pH will lower to 7.3 f. Buffers: minimizes changes in H and OH+ - i. Neutralizes solutions from becoming too acidic. Involves a weak acid or alcohol ii. No buffer= acidification 1. Acid rain and in our oceans Chapter 4: Carbon Carbon and Molecular Diversity of Life Organic Chemistry: carbon-based molecules C is tetravalent: it can make 4 covalent bonds Ex: methane Carbon binds most often with carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen Structure is important for the function Double bonds stay on one plain, they cant rotate like tetrahedral Molecular Diversity: 1. Carbon chain length a. Ex: Hydrocarbons- Ethane and Propane b. High energy bonds because when you break them there's a high release of energy c. Carbon and hydrogen are what make up the molecules- Hydrocarbons i. Every carbon is bonded 4 times 2. Carbon Chain Branching a. Butane and 2-Methylpropane (isobutane) b. Same molecules, but new structure forms a new molecule 3. Double Bond Position a. You can shift where the double bonds are in the structure b. 1- Butene and 2-Butene 4. Rings a. Can be represented with a stick diagram of a hexagon, each angle represents a carbon molecule, also we infer that it is bonded to a hydrogen. If there's a double bond, there's going to be extra sticks inside b. Cyclohexane and Benzene Isomers: same atoms, different structure a. Structural isomers: differ in covalent bond partners i. C H 5 12 ii. Carbon has different covalent bonds, just needs 4 bonds per carbon iii. Pentane and 2-methyl butane b. Cis-trans isomers i. Cis: the two Xs are on the same side ii. Trans: the two Xs are on opposite sides iii. iv. Same covalent bond partners, but different spatial arrangement c. Enantiomers: asymmetric distribution of atoms around carbon= mirror image i. must have different types of bonds, not all hydrogen ii. Ex: hands, you can line them up, but they can't match up exactly A small number of chemical groups are key to the functioning of biological molecules 7 Functional groups most important for life 1. Hydroxyl Group (--OH) ( bound to hydrocarbon back bone) i. Alcohol ii. Polar; hydrophilic, can ionize 2. Carbonyl Group (double bond CO) i. Ketone or Aldehyde ii. Polar, hydrophilic, hard to ionize i. Oxygen is a double bond, that’s why its hard to ionize (get rid of) ii. Acetone, propanol 3. Carboxyl Group (--COOH) i. Carboxylic Acid ii. Polar, hydrophilic, easy to ionize i. "boxyl" the structure forms an x iii. Acts as an acid- can donate H you can add my hydrogens causing it to be acidic 4. Amino Group (--NH ) 2 i. Amine ii. Polar, hydrophilic, easy to ionize iii. Acts as a base- can remove H easily and pick up protons iv. Glycine 5. Sulfhydryl Group (--SH) i. Thiol ii. Polar, hydrophilic, can ionize i. Cysteine iii. Addition to the SH, there's a carboxyl group and amine group iv. Can have different functions in one molecule 2- 6. Phosphate Group (--OPO ) 3 i. Organic Phosphates ii. Polar, hydrophilic, ionized i. Glycerol Phosphate iii. Helps with energy transfer 7. Methyl Group (--CH ) 3 i. Methylated "X" ii. Non-polar, hydrophobic, no ionization iii. Methylation restricts gene expression i. 5-methyl Cytosine, estradiol, testosterone For solute to be dissolved in a solvent they both need to be polar or both non-polar. Polar= hydrophilic Chapter 5: Structure and Function of Macromolecules "big" "Molecules"- macromolecule 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Molecule structure determines function  Ex: owl feathers- the structure is to make it silent (function) Macromolecules are built from polymers and monomers Monomers: single molecules; can be combined by dehydration into a polymer Polymers: many molecules that can be broken into monomers through hydrolysis  These happen in an aqueous solution Dehydration  Remove H + OH (H O) 2  New bond is formed  Polymer is made  Loose water Hydrolysis  Split H2O (into H+OH)  H + OH attach to polymer  Polymer is broken; "breaking water" 40-50 monomers that create the polymers found in life Carbohydrates  Structure: monomers= monosaccharides o Sugars (CH O2 n o How many sugar molecules depends on kind it is o Sugars vary by  Location of carbonyl group  On the end its an aldehyde, in the middle an acetone  Length of the carbon backbone  3 carbons vs 6 carbons  Spatial arrangement  Depending on how the side chains are arranged o Many times it forms a ring- more than 3 carbons  Changes structure when it forms, changes the function o Disaccharides= 2 monosaccharides  Dehydration reaction creates covalent bond  Polysaccharides ( can have more than 100000 monomers) o Combination of monomers o Hydroxyl group position o Functions  Energy storage  Starch: plant storage  Glycogen: animal storage  Structural support  Cellulose: plant structural  Chitin: animal and fungi structural polysaccharide  Exoskeletons  We have enzymes to break apart starch to get the stored energy, but we cannot digest cellulose Lipids  Structure: o Not polymers o Are formed form small molecules via dehydration o Hydrophobic (insoluble in water) o 3 types 1. Fats:  Structure= fatty acids linked in glycerol  Function: energy storage (and cushioning, insulation)  Dehydration reaction: attaches fatty acid tail  Fatty acid combines HO with H from glycerol to make H O 2  "Complete" Fat: triacylglycerol  Saturated: all carbon atoms have as many H's as they can hold (no double bonds)  Animal fat- solid at room temperature, no double bonds, linear so they can line up tightly and be solid  Unsaturated: 2+ of the carbons have a double bond  Plant oil and fish oil- liquid at room temperature; double bonds present  There's a kink with double bonds so they can’t line up as easily and are more fluid o In synthesis, glycercol and fatty acids combine to make fats plus water- water is a byproduct of the reaction 1. Phospholipids:  Structure  2 fatty acids  Phosphate group  Glycerol  Amphipathic: different ends of the molecule have different polar properties  Polar: hydrophilic  Non-polar: hydrophobic  Function: Cell Membranes  2. Steroids:  Structure: 4 carbon rings + side group  Cholesterol- important component to animal cell membranes  Estradiol- the primary female sex hormone, made in the ovaries  Testosterone- most abundant sex hormone, made in testes  Vitamin D- aids in calcium and phosphate metabolism  Hydrophobic molecules: cholesterol and testosterone  Function: Cholesterol is the base steroid; modify it to make other steroids  Self-signaling; like hormones  Membrane fluidity Proteins  Structure: Monomers- amino acids o Alpha carbon, and has an amino group and on the other side there's a carboxyl group and then have an "R" group, and a hydrogen  20 different amino acids occur in proteins, each with a different "R" group o "R": the rest of the molecule (a variable group) o All have the same alpha carbon back bone o *****All nonpolar molecules are hydrophobic**** o Positives and negatives attached mean the molecules are charged, polar automatically means you're hydrophilic  Structure: Polymer- polypeptide o Will have an amino end and a carboxyl end o Peptide bond: formed by dehydration, covalent bond  Formation: bond between carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the other amino acid.  Hydroxyl is removed from the carboxyl of one amino acid, and hydrogen removed from the amino of the other amino acid: always a bond between 2 groups o Levels of structure  The structure is the sequence of the amino acids  1°= primary: Linear Chain of Amino Acids  Like a strand of yarn  2°= secondary: Coil and Fold Polypeptide Backbone  Alpha helix  Beta- pleated sheet  Hydrogen bonds between polypeptides, NOT side chains (r group)  Yarn, looping it into a chain  3°= tertiary: Interactions between "R" groups  Hydrogen bonds  Covalent disulfide bridges  Hydrophobic (NOT A BOND) side chains group together because they're trying to get away from the water  Ionic bonds  Yarn: combine the chains together and now you have a simple product  4°= Quaternary: 2+ polypeptides  Not all proteins have 4° structure!!!  Many peptides grouped together  Ex: hemoglobin  Taking yarn, combining many parts to make a finished product  Structure: 1- environment, 2- chaperonins o Properties depend on the environment- might be caused to be denatured and in coil back to the primary structure  The denatured protein can re-nature to its structure again from the environment o Chaperonines- proteins; function is to provide proteins an environment to safely fold into a hydrophilic environment, then can release them back out as a new folded protein  Function: o Enzymes: accelerate chemical reactions  In the digestive tract they break down food molecules- process of hydrolysis o Storage: store amino acids o Hormonal: coordinate organism's activities o Contractile/ motor: movement o Defensive: immunity; protect against disease o Transport: transportation of substances o Receptor: response of cell to chemical stimuli o Structural: support  Sickle cell Anemia o A change in the amino acid in the 6th position. When that one is changed into valine, the subunit is misshaped and the tertiary structure is going to be modified etc. and affects the hemoglobin. The shape causes the proteins to link and form fibers which reduces the capacity to carry oxygen. Proteins are not supposed to associate with one another o The change is because of nucleic acid…  R Groups o Acidic- contain carboxylic acid –COOH  Basic- contain amino group (not amide) -NH whi2h attracts a proton to form – NH 3  Neutral polar- neither acid nor basic, contain highly electronegative atoms; ex: O, N, and S  Neutral nonpolar- mostly C and H (alkyl groups); may contain N and S but effect is diminished due to size of the alkyl portion Nucleic Acids  Structure: Monomers- Nucleotides o Nucleotide  Phosphate group  Pentose sugar  Nitrogenous base  Linked by covalent phosphodiester linkages   Nucleoside is the nitrogenous base that’s to the side of the phosphate group  Structure: Pentose Sugars of the Nucleoside o DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)  Has one hydrogen no extra O  Deoxyribose, thymine o RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)  Has a hydroxyl group (extra O)  Uracil, ribosome o Adenine, phosphate, guanine, and cytosine are found in both RNA and DNA  Structure: Nitrogenous Bases of the Nucleosides o Pyrimidines***  Cytosine (C ), Thymine (T in DNA), and Uracil (U in RNA)  Have a single ring on the hexagons o Purines***  Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)  Have a double ring on the hexagon  Structure: Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) o Double helix o Hydrogen bonds- stability o Complementary- if you know one nucleotide on one side, you can infer the other side  G is to C and A is to T  A and T only need 2 bonds, and G and C need 3 bonds o Anti-parrallel- strands run in opposite directions  5'= phosphate group  3'= hydroxyl group 2. Structure: Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) o Single stranded: but can loop back on itself and pair o Function: Carry genetic information o Blue print of the cell o DNA directs RNA synthesis, RNA directs protein synthesis o DNA→RNA→ protein Supplemental website: ml Chapter 6: Cells Cells Size Egg- largest Sperm- smallest Neurons- longest Most are microscopic Sizes determined by their functions  Surface area is needed for gas and fluid exchange  Volume to surface area ratio  Volume stays the same, SA increases  More surface area is going to allow for more exchanges  Cell volume is the same between a tardigrade and an elephant, SA is larger in an elephant Tools  Light microscopy  Using a light source, reflects off and through the optical piece  Up to 1000x magnification  Super-resolution Light microscope- 200nm or bigger you can resolve well  Contrast-  Brightfield: Stained- kills cells  Phase contrast: unstained live unpigmented cells  Differential- inference contrasts: change in density= best contrast  Fluorescence- good for really small  Confocal: stained, optical sectioning  Deconvolution  Electron microscopy  Can look deeper  Expose(stain) to elements like metal that will react with electrons  Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM): see surface  Transmission Electron Microscope(TEM): see what's inside a cell  Cell Fractionation: taking a cell, breaking it up, and get to specific parts of the cell and see how those parts function  Homogenization- breaks up all the cells  Take homogenate and spin it in a centrifuge and then makes pellets full of specific densities  Spinning fast gets out the big stuff Common Features of Cells  All have:  Plasma membrane  Cytoplasm  Ribosomes  Chromosomes 1. Prokaryotic "Before the kernel or nucleus" a. Archaea + Bacteria b. c. No nucleus d. MIGHT have pili, flagella, capsule 2. Eukaryotic "True Nucleus" a. Membranous organelle; Incompatible reactions can be physically separated - advantage b. Animal c. Plant Eukaryotic Cell 1. Nucleus "The Brain": Contains most of the DNA a. Nuclear Envelope i. Encloses the nucleus ii. "double membrane"- 2 lipid bilayers 1. Regulates what's coming in and out b. Nuclear Pore i. Allows transport to/ from the nucleus c. Nuclear Lamina i. Protein filaments provide structure support d. Chromosomes: coiled DNA molecules and protein e. Chromatin: group of chromosomes i. DNA is wrapped around proteins into chromatin. Chromatin make up chromosomes f. Nucleolus: i. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) made here ii. Makes ribosomes and sub unit ribosomes 2. Ribosomes: make protein a. Found either bound to ER or free in cytosol b. Large ribosomal subunit c. Small ribosomal subunit 3. The Endomembranes- parts of the cell that involve membranes a. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): the factory (things are made) i. Contains more than half of all the membranes in the cell ii. Cistern: reservoir for liquid- pockets around it iii. Smooth ER: doesn't have ribosomes bound to it 1. Lipid synthesis, detox, calcium stores, metabolize carbs iv. Rough ER: bound ribosomes 1. Secreted proteins, new phospholipid membranes v. Transporting from the ER 1. mRNA is used to make proteins in the ER 2. They move to transitional ER, and transport vesicles then can store and transport them b. Golgi Apparatus: The Warehouse i. Modifies what the ER made(proteins), and sorts, packs, and transports it to other places ii. Makes macromolecules iii. Looks like stacked pancakes iv. Has cisternae pockets v. Cis-golgi face is receiving (same side of ER), trans-golgi side is shipping (opposite of ER) c. Lysosomes: digestive organelle i. Hydrolytic enzymes: break down "food" taken up by phagocytosis 1. Food vacuole combines with lysosome, the enzymes then break down the food ii. Can recycle damaged organelles- autophagy 1. Digests them; keeps enzymes from eating the cell d. Vacuoles: Storage i. Food ii. Contractile 1. iii. Central (Plants) 1. Fluid fill, allows plants to stay up right, dispose of unwanted things, storage 4. Theory of Endosymbiosis: organism lives within other organism a. Mutualism: both organisms benefit- symbiotic relationship b. Ancestral eukaryotes engulfed ancestral mitochondria that used to be aerobic prokaryotes, and formed a symbiotic relationship- both then lost the functions that the others provided i. Same thing happened with chloroplast ii. Both new things bring new energy to the cell c. Evidence: i. Double membranes- the only organelles that have double membranes; similar to prokaryotes ii. mtDNA & cpDNA 1. Mitochondria and Chloroplast have circular DNA like bacteria iii. Grow and Reproduce- Mitochondria and chloroplast both do their own reproduction 1. When a cell divides, if there's no mitochondria in the new one it'll die 2. Mom gives you mitochondria, sperm doesn’t have it iv. Sea slugs engulf chloroplast from algae, and can provide itself energy through photosynthesis v. Human gut bacteria: in our digestive tract 5. Mitochondria: Cellular respiration a. Structure: inner membrane is folded into squiggles called cristae (Mito and chloroplast also have their own ribosomes which are made inside from their DNA) which increases the surface area allowing to have more protein and thus produce more energy 6. Chloroplast: Photosynthesis a. Also have proteins imbedded in membrane b. Stacks of granum which are thylakoid which also has lots of membranes which increases surface area etc… c. Plastid: other types used for storage, pigment… 7. Peroxisome: metabolic processes a. Outer plasma membrane (phospholipid bilayer) b. Inside have a crystalline structure c. Metabolize- specific transfer hydrogen to oxygen- make water d. Core of hydrogen peroxide- H O 2 2 e. When alcohol is introduced, the peroxide will take a hydrogen making water and washing the alcohol out of the system f. Don’t have their own DNA, but they replicate by division 8. Cytoskeleton: network of fibers extending throughout cell a. Structural support and Motility b. Microtubules: tubulin dimer tube i. Largest fibers ii. Alpha and beta dimers group together (protein groups) iii. Hollow iv. Support in the cell, mainly meant to keep pressure equal in the cell v. In the centrosome each centriole is made up of microtubules. Each centrosome is 9 microtubules 1. 9 groups of 3 vi. Part of what pulls apart chromosomes vii. Motor proteins viii. Make up the Cilia and Flagella 1. Cilia move like a row boat 2. Flagella move like snakes 3. 9 sets of 2 "doublet microtubules" and 2 more in the core 4. Basal body- where the tubes connect to the cell, ring of 9 with no core c. Microfilament: 2 actin cables i. Like steel cable ii. Cell support and movement iii. Cortex: gel-like outer layer of cytoplasm iv. Movement 1. Actin microfilaments + Myosin Proteins= contraction 2. Found in muscle cells a lot- very effective 3. Polymerization and depolymerize (relax) of MF a. Depolymerize leading edge b. Rest of cytoplasm flows c. Contract tail end d. Amoeba moves 4. Cytoplasmic streaming a. Molecules circulating around the cell d. Intermediate Filaments: Keratin Cables i. Keratin proteins coiled together- steel cables ii. Cells are dead, but structure is preserved- hair 1. Bird feathers, whale baleen, retitle scales, mammal hair and horns 9. Extracellular Components a. Cell walls: cellulose + other carbs + proteins i. Protection and support ii. Water regulation iii. Communication through pores "Plasmodesmata" b. Extracellular matrix- animals i. Structure breaks down to glycoproteins: Carbs + protein ii. Function: cell support, cell adhesion, movement of cells against each other, and regulation of cell behaviors and responses c. Cell Junctions: cell to cell communication through direct physical contact i. Plasmodesmata- plants 1. channels perforate cell walls 2. Water and small solutes can pass from cell to cell ii. Gap Junctions- animals 1. Channels connecting cytoplasm iii. Desmosomes- animals 1. Bind cells together 2. Intermediate filaments anchor cells together iv. Tight Junctions- animals 1. Creates seals between cells 2. Barrier to fluid movement 3. Ex: water proof skin cells iClicker Questions: 1. What kind of bonds are found in a single water molecule? Polar Covalent 2. A small crack formed in the rock, water entered then froze. What property of water made this rock crack? Ice density 3. How many electrons does a carbon atom need to fill its valence shell? (pic- 4 on the 2nd ring) 4 4. TH *H- atom is going "into" the screen. If you were to flip enantiomer 1 to overlay it on enantiomer 2, which way would *H point? (Lactic Acid) Outward 5. What functional group is the bond C=O? carbonyl 6. What is the functional group with four O bonds, one is a double, to a P? Phosphate group 7. How do 2 monosaccharides combine? Dehydration 8. You need energy to study for the exam! Which molecule will provide you with a nutritious polysaccharide? A (Picture of 2 hexagon chains (Starch ( alpha- glucose))) 9. 10. 11. 12. What are the complimentary nucleotides to GAAA? CTTTT 13.You want to examine the interior structure of a bacterium (1.5 micrometers) What kind of microscopy would you use? TEM 14.A new organelle is discovered, its membrane is derived from the ER, can it be part of the Endomembrane system? Yes 15.What kind of process would have been used by the host cell to engulf the proto- mitochondria? Phagocytosis 16.What cytoskeleton structures are made form 2 strands of actin polymers twisted around each other? Microfilaments 17.Which of the following cytoskeleton elements are found in plants not animals?


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