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psy 233 whole semester of notes

by: David Rico

psy 233 whole semester of notes psy 233

David Rico


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These cover the whole most of semester of notes
personality psychology
PhD. DeSouza
Class Notes
Psychology, personalitypsychology
25 ?




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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by David Rico on Friday June 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psy 233 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by PhD. DeSouza in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see personality psychology in Psychlogy at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 06/24/16
Psy 233- SM /14/16 1)SM a)Correlational method i) Strength: prediction (1) Study of wide range V (2) Study associates between 2 or more V (3) Correlation coefficient (a) Strength (numerical value from 0-1 ** the closer to one the stronger the correlation is) & never behaving the exact but similarly is acceptable (b) Direction (+/-) (i)+ correlation = High values of 1 V are associated with high values (ii) – correlation = low values of 1 v are associated with low values 2)SM a)Correlational method i) Limitation( weakness) (1) Relationships are related rather than causal (a) CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION (2) Lead to problems of reliability and validity of self report questionnaires (self deception and impression management) 3)Sm a)Experimental method = causality i) inDe(causing changes in another variable) and De(measuring) V (1) The inDe V is manipulated (2) The De V is measured by what the inDe caused ii) A good experiment study should have (1) Control comparison (2) Large sample (3) Random assignment = to conditions to control for cofounding variables which ensure that the groups are equivalent iii) Strength (1) Mani. Of specific V (2) Objective data (3) Cause and effect relationships 4)Sm a)Experimental method causality i) Limitations(weakness) (1) Excludes phenomena that cannot be studied in the Lab (2) Creates an artificial setting that limits generalizing the finding in real life 5)Reliability a)In research, the term reliability= consistent or stable of measure i) Ex.) if measured once and give you data then the next time it should give you exactly or similar data ii) In all, psychological measures should seem stable b)Types of reliability: i) Test- retest = to find the consistent scores over time ii) Inter-rater/inter- observer = the judges should have the same thing when they are tallying. (1) Ex.) if a kid acts bad the 2 observers should have similar behavior written down iii) Parallel forms = equivalent is key but not exactly the same is the point. iv) Internal consistency- How well scales items covary with one another (1) Relationship is key and should be stable and give predictable answers and should have a pattern (2) ex.) are you happy? Then you if you are asked are your contempt with your life then you should say YES 6)validity a)definition 2 b)types of validity i) criterion (1) does a measure predict performance or success on some relevant criterion? (a) Ex.) personality predicts leadership and career success, job performance outcomes **** ii) Content (1) Does measure (DV) provide a direct and representative “picture” of the V being studied (a) Providing a “whole picture” – a common pattern (i)Ex.) if 10 people describe something then there should be a overall agreement on what they are desiring from the 10. iii) Construct (1) Does a measure assess the theoretical concept that it purports to measure? (a) It measures what theory should be measuring nothing else (b) convergent and discriminant validity 1. Ex.) (ii) Must have all 3 validities to be proven and be valid 7)Theory/construct/Hypothesis a)A scientific theory has only 2 broad functions* i) Synthesizing function ii) A heuristic function b)A scientific construct is an abstraction used to explain something. It is imaginary or hypothetical i) OP definition c) Hypothesis is a prediction 8)Revisions in the Traditional view of science a)“Poppers principle of falsifiability” * i) have too look in the theory trying to prove what’s wrong ii) risky predictions (looking for counter-evidence) b)Kuhn’s view of paradigm 3 i) Paradigm: a viewpoint shared by many scientists ii) “Normal” science iii) science revolutions occur in spurts c) peppers root metaphor i) a metaphor is like a model to compare theories 9)On the existence of multiple theories: theories as toolkits 10) Philosophical assumptions: views of the world that influence a persons thinking 11) Personality Disorders a)They are long standing of thought behavior and emtions that are maladpatve for the indv. Or for the ppl 12) PD clusters a)3 categories i) odd /eccentric (1) ex.) paranoid ii) dramatic/emotional /erratic (1) ex.) antisocial iii) anxious/fearful (1) ex.) dependent Missed Notes on Tuesday 1/19/16 1/21/16 1. Energy Dynamics and the Instincts a. Cathexis investment E in a idea/object b. Anticathexis E used by ego & superego c. Eros  Life of instinct i. Libido d. Thanatos death Instinct i. Aggressive drive wish to kill ourselves turning external 1. Chiraq 2. Anxiety (types) 4 i. Signals ego of independent danger b. Reality objective fear (real) i. Ex.) smelling smoke thinking the building is on fire will set the = fight/flight c. Neurotic i. Comes from the  ID ii. Fear being animal like d. Moral i. Comes from superego ii. Feeling of guilt comes from conscious and its punishing us because we are doing something unmoral 3. The ego defense mechanisms = irrational thoughts(unconscious) to make us feel better  excuses a. Repression i. Not effective 1.Ex.) don’t think about a certain thing and you will start thinking about it ii. Blocking something that is anxiety provoking b. Projection i. c. Reaction formation i. 1.Ex.) really like hate roommate so you turn hate into love d. Regression i. Revert back to a development of stage where we felt safe and secure 1.Ex.) not getting your way you will throw a temper tantrum…. Like a child e. Rationalization i. Making an excuse to make you feel better 1.ex.) did everything for a person you love and coulndt get them so you say well I didn’t like them anyways f. I.D i. Being part of something with your belonging 5 1.wearing Greek letter showing pride and representing it g. displacement i. substitution h. sublimation i. special type of displacement what has been displaced has been beneficial to society. 1.Doctor hearing sexual disorders but helping society i. Denial of reality i. 1.ex.) a child has been killed in a accident, parent starts to not believe it and she cant take it, so the ego doesn’t accept it, so she doesn’t believe it j. Undoing i. ii. doing something unethical 1.cheating then feeling guilty then trying to make up k. intellectualization i. your emotion is isolated 1.ex.) getting cancer  doing cancer research…. Wouldn’t make sense l. Altruistic surrender i. living our life through someone else 1.ex.) you bff taking someone on a date but you never take on a date but you feel proud m. I. D w/aggressor i. Fight with ppl who threating your life and internalize their ideas 1. Stockholm syndrome? ( look up) 4. Erogenous Zones and Fixation a. Erogenous 6 i. A particular stage the region of stage that gives the maximum amount of satisfaction and migrate as we grow up b. Fixation i. Focus on concerns of a certain stage long after one should have moved to the next 1. Too much of a good thing or too little of a thing 2. Fixation determines the point to which a person regresses Freud’s Psychosexual Stage c. Oral stage i. Oral-incorporative character (1 stage)t 1. If a child is 5 he should not being breast fed or if she doesn’t like breast feeding  too little which results we have traits that will represent that “too little” ii. Oral-sadistic character (2 nd Stage) d. Anal stage i. Anal-expulsive character 1. 18-24 months “letting go” a. ex.) regression new person in the family but if he pees the bed he will get attention so he will be reverting to regression ii. anal-retentive character 1. 18-24 months “holding on” a. ex.) hoarders or perfectionists e. Phallic Stage i. Oedipus complex ii. Castration anxiety (boys) 1. Internalizing the father position in the family iii. penis envy (girls) 1. . f. Latent Phase (6-11) 7 i. Libido being repressed  sublimation 1. Ex.) separating genders in gym class grade school g. Genital stage (12-death) i. Not masturbation but actually have relationship 1. If not having a mate you’re always looking for one a. Wanting to keep the mate b. Having great quality in mate 5. Worked with Josef Breuer a. Look in pip packet** 6. Freud’s methods to tap the unconscious mind a. Abnormal behavior reflects unconscious conflict within the person i. Pressure techq.  Sigmund Freud placed his hand on person forehead assuring him or her that relevant memory would occur b. Dream analysis i. Manifest  remembering what you dreamed about ii. Latent unconscious  what the dream is actually about/symbol/meaning c. Unconscious revealed in action i. Humor ii. Parapraxes (errors in everyday living) 7. Criticisms a. Engaging in post diction rather than prediction thus being unscientific (popper) b. Nebulous terms c. Mostly untestable with little attention paid in current psycho-analytic journals d. Chauvinistic penis envy i. Male ii. Female e. Overemphasis on sexual and unconscious motivation 8 f. Negative view on human nature 8. Contributions a. Case studies (family dynamics b. Unconscious (conflicts in childhood tend to lead to an unhappy adult c. Ego defenses against anxiety d. First theory of self knowledge 1/25/16 Chapter 3: Jung Analytic Psy  Psyche- integrated personality 1) Enduring features of personality a) Con. and ego i) Ego allows a certain con into awareness, ego is the gatekeeper ii) Ego is NOT the center of personality b) Personal uncon. And its complexes  Complex- is a cluster of ideas that share the same emotional tone (tip- varation of different meaning of the same DEF. will occur on exam c) Collective uncon. and its archetype i) Primal ideas or memories that ii) Archetype: mother and father (1) Mother mary , mother earth iii)Persona (mask or superficial social roles) (1) Roles- tell you what you should be doing , “Guideline” (2) A universal need for I.D (3) Inflation of the persona (a) Being a fake ass nigga something you’re not d) Spontaneity and creativity shadow e) Anima (feminine side of the male psyche) and Animus (masculine side of female psyche) i) Bem intro  androgyny, which is high levels of anima/ animus. Viewed it the best way for optimal health 9 ii) Self (ultimate unity of the personality) f) Conclusion  we are connected g) Symbolization i) A symbol is a visible sign of something invisible (1) Symbols are outward expressions of archetypes ii) Mandala  symbol of the self striving toward wholeness h) Psychological types 1/28/15 Attitudes and Functions: Jung’s psychological types 1. Attitudes: a. Introvert psyche is oriented inward --- toward inner, subjective reality b. Extrovert  psyche is oriented outward --- toward objective reality 2. Functions: a. Rational functions  judgement --- produced by thought/evaluation i. Thinking (comprehend) most developed function 1. Thinking about in a logical way ii. Feeling (value -/+) least developed function 1. Its beautiful b. Irrational functions  perception --- how we respond to stimuli i. Sensing (concrete representations) 1. Painting ii. Intuition (going beyond ideas, feelings, facts) 1. God must have created this/ how they interpreting it--> Personality features: 1. Synthesis a. Self as the unity of personality b. Stages of development 10 i. Childhood (0-12)  learning skills necessary for survival ii. Young adulthood (12-40) learning a vocation, finding mate , participating in community of life iii. Middle age (40-death) determine the meaning of life. This is the most important stage 2. Life’s Goal: self realization a. Indv. Function exploration & integration of all the components of the psyche --- everyone has a personal story to discover b. Transcendent functiondeeper unity by I.D with all of humanity and the universe at large 3. Energy dynamic a. Libido/creative force b. Opposition principle i. Everything has an opposite 1. Feeling vs thinking 2. Extrovert vs introvert c. Equivalence principle(Helmholtz’s conversation energy i. Ex.) Ti-chi ii. Disruption of energy 1. If your using too much of thinking, then your using less feeling. 2. Cant create of destroy energy d. Entropy principle i. Disruption of energy through all personality and main key is balance/equilibrium e. The uses of energy i. Progression  using E towards growth but eventually hitting a glass ceiling, then reverting back into the uncon. ii. regression (  movement or the rise in value of psychic processes concerned with inner uncon. needs) f. the why of psychic events i. mechanistic view (causal – the past pushing us) ii. synchronicity (neither past nor future oriented--- meaningful coincidences) iii. purpose view (teleological – the future pulling us) 11 g. research methods & emphases 2/2/16 Sociocultural paradigm:  Societal-cultural factors  focuses on socio-cultural factors SES (economic status), birth order, ethnic I.D  Alfred Adler  Karen Horney  Erik Erikson  1 ethnic I.D  Culture(B)  Rep of culture Chapter 4: 1. Alfred Adler’s indv. Psy a. A person integrated whole for stringing to achieve future goals 2. Fictional final Goals a. Essentially teleological b. Vaihninger philo. Of “of as if” i. Perception of events determines ones view which results  ones final goals c. Healthy people vs Neurotics i. Neurotics fictional final goals are end in themselves ii. for healthy people final goals are just to means to an end 3. **** Fundamental Human Motive: overcoming inferior and becoming superiority the great upward spiral a. organ inferior b. overcompensation (converting a weakness into a strength) c. subjective inferiority i. motivational force 1. aggression and power a. inferior  feminist b. superior  masculinity 12 2. masculine protest ( more masculine  more powerful d. superiority: fundamental fact of life i. innate drive toward wholeness and completion (competence and recognition ii. final theoretical position : social striving fro a superior or perfect society  personal goals must be subordinated to social needs ( social competence and belongings) 4. complexes a. superiority complex i. exaggerated  self centered goal of personality ii. Paul piff: does money make you mean? 1. Yes b. Inferior complex i. Overwhelming 5. Social interest a. Innate need to live in harmony and friendship w/others b. Weak  must be nurtured (by mother) c. Every person must solve 3 major taks each required social interest i. Occupational tasks  meaningful work/career ii. Societal tasks  friendships and social networks iii. Love and marriage tasks  stable, long-lasting, committed 2/11/16 Exam 2 Chapter 5: Basic Disagreements with Freudian Theory 1. Satisfaction and Safety a. Basic evil- i. undermines a child’s security 1. Ex.) unkempt promises 2. ORIGIN of neurosis lies in: a. the child-parent relationship b. Basic Hostility 13 i. (Unmet needs) c. Basic anxiety i. (helpless, feeling lonely) 2. 10 neurotic Trends or needs i. Need for affection 1. Wants to be loved by everyone ii. Need a partner 1. Need someone to take control iii. Need to live ones life narrow limits 1. Living in fear and just wanting to be comfortable iv. Need for power 1. Control over others v. Need to exploit others 1. Taking advantage over others vi. Need for Social recognition 1. Being famous, recognized vii. Need for personal admiration 1. viii. Need for ambition 1. ix. Need for self- sufficiency 1. Don’t need anyone I’m a “island” x. Need for perfection 1. Walled yourself away from other people b. Almost everyone has these c. Focusing 1/10 i. However, neurotic are neurotic because 1. They focus TOO INTENSE on one of them . 3. Attempts at coping a. Ideal self image and search for glory i. Real self moved towards = Self Realization ii. Ideal self (neurotic abandons real self for the sake of an illusionary) 1. Neurotic  when real self and ideal self overlap  doesn’t match up for actual self 4. Neurotic “solutions” to interpersonal conflict a. Moving towards (self effacement) i. Need for affection and approval ii. For a partner who will run ones’s life iii. Need to live ones life scared 1. Complaint type I shall give in b. Moving against i. Need for power ii. Exploit others iii. Social recog. iv. Personal achievement 14 v. Ambition 1. If I have power no one can hurt me Hostile Type (everyone is a potential enemy) c. Moving away i. Self succfienicy ii. Perfection 1. Detached type if I withdraw, nothing can hurt me d. As with 10 neurotic needs, a normal person uses all 3 i. A neurotic person uses 1/3 with the expense of others 5. Externalized a. More comprehensive then freud and projection everything of importance lies outside b. It’s a process of self elimination 6. Auxiliary approaches to artificial harmony a. Bind spots i. Contradicting your belief with actions b. Compartmentalization  comparting to your life in segments i. When your with family your delicate, if your on the job you’re a savage c. Rationalization i. Logical but faculty explanation for inconsist d. Excessive self control i. Showing every emotion but in neurotic way e. Arbitrary rightness i. Either your right or wrong no grey area f. Exclusiveness i. Postponing a decision  so you cant be criticized g. Cynicism i. Nothing is worth into believing 7. Self – analysis a. Free association b. Overcome resistances c. Courage to change 8. Therapy Goal a. Return the client towards self realization b. If therapy effective client will show i. Respon. ii. Inner independence iii. Spontaneity of feeling c. In conc.  not to avoid conflicts but to embrace them and solve them! 9. Feminine psychology a. Anatomy is NOT destiny b. Womb envy 15 c. Feminism challenges andro-centric perspectives 10. Evaluation a. Criticism i. Unoriginal Contributes ii. Little empirical support iii. Disregard of healthy persons b. Contributions i. OG ideas ii. Self analysis 2/16/16 1. how did Freud the ego? a. It operates the service of the “ID” Chapter 6: Erik H. Erikson The Autonomy of the Ego 2. A new creative ego a. A bio-psycho-social theory of development across the lifespan b. Epigenetic principle i. Sequence (genetically determined) of social stages, the unfolding his theory c. Psychosocial crises i. Tuning point, regarding the outcome WILL BE DTERMINED THER WILL BE MORE POSTIVE EXP.  THE EGO WILL emerge and will result in  virtue a. Ex.) if your successful with something the more likely you are more likely to be more successful 2. 3 phases a. immature phase when the crisis is not the vocal point b. critical phase  becomes the vocal point i. ex.) do something about the problem because its putting pressure on you c. resolution phase  if you resolve the crisis you are better to deal with future crisis, if not… d. Ritualization i. Behavior patterns sanctioned by one’s culture 16 1. Ex.) playing games peek o boo with knowing the mother will take care of the child 2. Culture is “a particular version of human nature existence” ii. Ritualism 1. When become stereotyped or mechanical  causing social and psy pathology a. Ex.) being blindly worshipped by others 3. Watching a film take notes on 8 conflicts on stages of the life stages a. Bio genetic(height) , psycho  getting I.D from schools, parents,,, social  most determining in career choice, what role are you accessed to through society. 2. S1  mistrust vs trust ( all of us have both) a. Age: infants i. When their needs are not met  mistrust (low confidence) 3. S2  autonomy vs shame and doubt ( all of us has a little bit) a. Age: toddler 4. S3  initiative vs Guilt a. Age: i. Child has mental view of playing roles  allow to see the consequence’s of her role ii. Kids who denied new exp  gulit 5. S4  industry vs inferiority a. Age i. Cant master a skill feel below people. In addition, 6. S5 ID vs role confusion a. Age: adolescence i. Making education choices to move up toward society , sharing I.D  gangs, clubs are important during this time, to be part of something big 7. S6 intimacy vs isolation a. Age: i. Sexual relationships, friendships. ii. Isolation can’t be with people who are really different 8. S8 generativity vs stagnation a. Age: longest i. Indv. Will grow if they care for others 9. S9  integrity vs despair a. Age: last stage 17 i. Wasted their lives  despair 2/18/16 4. Psy. Stages of development a. Birth-1  trust vs mistrust : HOPE b. (1-3) autonomy vs shame and doubt: WILL i. ex.) over parenting, making decisions for them  dependent  shame c. (4-5) initiative vs. guilt : PURPOSE i. ex.) playing roles  expectations for the role(not fulfilling) Guilt d. (6-11) industry vs inferiority: COMPETNECE i. ex.) going to school (competition)  feel inferiority  competence doing bad on exams e. (12-20) I.D vs role confusion: Fidelity i. psychosocial moratorium trying different roles to see what fits best for yourself ii. if u stretch the role too long or too far you might end up in role confusion 1. too many choices(roles) can lead to this iii. negative I.D 1. being a thief  (-) I.D 2. oppressive ideas shows subordinate groups that they are inferior  internalized oppression f. (20-24) Intimacy vs Isolation: LOVE i. also forming friendships ii. not forming deep levels of intimacy  isolation iii. for deep levels of friendship intimacy g. (25-64) Generativity vs stagnation: CARE i. helping other to feel safe 1. e.) being in the military  keeping people safe( generativity) 2. ex.) being a taker instead of a giver (stagnation) h. (65- Death) Ego integrity vs Despair: WISDOM i. detached concern with life itself, in face of death itself 5. Research emphases and methods a. Play (anatomy and Destiny) i. Scenes by girls 1. Static and peaceful 2. Elaborate ii. Scenes by boys 1. Dynamic 2. High walls with towers and cannons iii. Erikson concluded that 1. Were outward created of their genitalia 2. Anatomy + history + personality = destiny iv. James Marcia 18 1. 4 ego I.D  people if they explored I.D options (crisis) and whether they made a commitment a. I.D achievement  (crisis + achievement) b. Middle of crisis (yes crisis)+ ( no commitment)  moratorium c. Foreclosure  commitment made, usually on the bases f parental values (no to crisis + yes commencement) d. I.D diffusion ( neither crisis nor commitment) i. Ex.) not contributing to life 6. Evaluation a. Difficult to test empirically i. Lacks quantification and stats analysis b. Overly optimistic, unrealistic, and simplistic view of humans c. Support of status quo (conformity) d. Minority may NOT develop a (-) I.D but may flourish and develop adequate skills e. Rooted in patriarchy and individualism f. Excessive moralizing i. How things should be instead of they are 1. Mixed objective description w/ subjective prescription g. Failure to properly acknowledge the influence of Adler and Horney 7. Contributions a. Expansion of psychology domain b. Considerable applied value c. Development of ego psychology 2/23/16 Review 3/2 Wednesday 330-5 Williams hall Chapter 7: Allport 1. Allport, cattell, Eysenck  trait paradigm(enduring aspects of personality) exam ? tip 2. He focuses on the importance of the indv. ( nothing in common with freud) a. On rational b. Wholeness c. Conscious aspect of experience (gestalt psy) 19 d. Present, e. Healthy aspects of personality ( humanistic psy) 3. Gestalt psychology a. Whole is more important then the sum of the pieces  ppl epereince events in meaningful config b. Perceptuons are different from the sensations that compromise them c. Perceptual processes tned to MN d. Law of Pragnanz  orgainiazing 1. What is personality a. Lit. and philsopohy b. Definition i. The dynamic org. of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique characteristic behavior and thought 1. Dynamic org.  everything changes nothing stays the sae. Also has org and continuity 2. Psychophysical systems  it is neither eculsively mind and biological. It always unity 3. Dynamic org Psychophysical systems determine  indv of the person 2. Chacrter and temperament a. Character as personality evaluated  character is NOT personality. And personality is devaluated character ( it’s a reverse) b. Temperament is the emotional component of personality (mood) i. How you respond to environmental stimuli ii. Amount of response output of the indv. 3. Types of traits a. Common traits i. Group as the units of analysis ( for comparative aims, to I.D differences between groups) b. Personal dispositions i. Indv. As the unit of analysis ii. Represent unique pattern of traits a person has c. How do we know know traits exist? i. Because of frequency ii. Range of situations iii. Intensity d. 3 types of personal dispositions i. cardinal 20 1. a ruling passion that dominates an indv. whole life. rare ii. central 1. outstanding our esstienal characteristic of an indv. a. Ex.) number of central traits used to describe the E characteristics range 5-10 iii. Secondary 1. Applied to more specific and of behaviors than the other traits 2. Preferences e. Habits. Attitudes and types ( difference between habits and traits) i. A specific mode of responding ii. Attitudes imply evaluation iii. A type if a category to describe others f. The proprium i. Org. agent  all aspects that make one unique; includes a sense of 1. B self continuity over time  lag development a. Ex.) I am separate from other indv. ( I am john) 2. Self esteem (year 3 pride) a. I can manipulate and master my environment ( I can turn on the tv 3. Self extension (year 4 possessions) a. I can exist beyond my physical ( this is my bike) 4. Self image ( years 4-6: conscience ~ how others view me) a. I can see myself being like this ( im good at naming colors 5. Self as rational coper (years 6-12 problem solving ) a. I can solve my problems by using my brain ( I can think logically) 6. Propriate striving (adolescence : need induction) a. Long range goals and plans: what will I be in the future? 7. Self as knower (adulthood synthesis) g. Functional Autonomy i. Perseverative functional autonomy  primitive motivational system related to repetitious activities independent of rewards 21 ii. Propriate functional autonomy  higher level of motivation felated to sense of self awareness  interests values goals and sentiments h. The healthy, mature adult i. A healthy persons motives lie in the present or future ii. The healthy mature adult has 1. Capacity for self extension (participation in life) 2/25/16 msn 1. The nature of prejudice a. Factors related to prejudice i. Tendency from experience ii. To form in-groups iii. Tendency to seek a scapegoat to aggress to 2. The study of expressive behavior a. An emphasis on the idiographic approach i. Facial express ii. Style of walking iii. Mannerisms iv. Handwriting 1. Studying expressive behavior provides an indirect measure of personality 3. Evaluation a. Critics i. ii. Lack of scientific rigor iii. Circularity iv. ATheoretical v. Denial of other approaches b. Contributions i. Original concept’s and methodologies ii. Refreshing view of personality Chapter 8: Cattell & Eysenck Trait Paradigm  Focus on genetic and biological  Focus on measurement & scientific rigor 22 1. Cattell’s factor Analytic Theory a. Predict a person would be doing in a given situation b. Correlation c. Factor analysis i. Stats procedure that correlates many variables together ii. Factors = traits 1. I.D 16 factors that were building blocks of personality 2. Cattell’s inductive ( Bottom-up) reasoning a. Begin with observations and measures b. Detect patterns c. Formulate hypotheses d. Arrive theory 3. Types of data a. L-DATA (life record) i. Information about a person’s everyday activities 1. How may times have you gotten tickets b. Q- DATA i. Self ratings on q’s that measure attitudes, opinions and interests 1. Job app have you ever stolen anything from work c. T-DATA i. Objective tests: resistant to faking 1. Word association test, 2. Thematic Apperception Test a. Designed to uncover areas of motivational importance and conflicts of personality 4. Personality as structure of traits a. Surface traits(groups of observations) b. Source traits (causes of behavior) EXAM Q i. Explain surface traits since it’s the cause of the behavior ii. Constitutional vs. Environmental- Mold Traits 1. Enviormental  outside the indv. 2. Cons.  iii. Ability traits (ex.)intelligence) 1. How well we solve a problem/goal 2. Fluid intelligence ( for general intelligence)  to think logically and solve problems in novel situations, Ide of acquired knowledge 3. Crystallized intelligence  a persons depth and breadth of acquired knowledge, it’s the product of edu. And cultural 4. H intelligence related to job performance measures c. Temperament traits( style and tempo) How a person behaves ( spped,energy, and emotion d. Dynamic traits (motivational) : why a person does something 23 i. Ergs(innate) goals created b/c of sex, hunger,curiosity,anger,fear ii. Metargs( learned) 1. Sentiments  centered on classes 2. Attitudes: they refer to a specific course of action to respond a given info  Questions o Exam 3 content 3/11/15 Chapter 9: OP reinforcement 1. Basic assumptions a. It is lawful b. Can be predicted c. Controlled d. Functional analysis i. Look at the measurable experiences ( causes) and measureable behavior aka  cause & effect e. Page 263 2. Types of behavior a. Respondent i. A specific kind of behavior †hat is elicited by a specific kind of stimulus ii. stimulus  behavior iii. all reflexes and condition emotional reactions ( phobias) b. operant i. behavior that is emitted and that produces consequences 1. ex.) complex behavior like driving a car 3. salivation a. Pavlov was interested in dogs that drool when food is nearby 24 b. The dogs started drooling even when pav did not bring him food 4. principle of conditioning and learning a. OP/instrument Cond. i. Reinforcement  behavior is reinforced it Is strengthen ii. OP conditioning has been used to treat autistic cultural engineering 5. Types of reinforces a. Any stimulus that after you give it to a behavior increases the like hood that the behavior will happen again i. Reinforces are defined by what they do and not by what they are! 1. Primary (UNcond.) reinforces a. Related to survival (sex, water, food) 2. Secondary (conditioned) reinforces a. OG neutral but acquires reinforcing qualities through association with primary reinforces (Grades, money) i. Generalize reinforcement  second pair with more then on more primary reinforce 6. OP and shaping behavior a. (+) reinforcement ( adding something does want) i. is added following a desired behavior and the like hood of behavior increases ( pg 274) b. (-) reinforcement ( removing something that a person doesn’t want) i. is subtract following a desired behavior and the like hood of behavior increases (pg 274) c. (+) punishment i. a negative reinforcement is presented(added) following in an undesired behavior and the like hood of behavior decreases d. (-) punishment i. a positive reinforce is removed (subtracted) following an undesired behavior and likehood of behavior increases 25 7. negative reinforcement vs Punishment 8. punishment shortcomings a. outcomes are unpredictable b. it may produce undesirable emotional responses c. indicates only what one should not do and doesn’t give msn d. msn 9. shaping behaviors a. acquisition i. to learn a behavior, reinforce it b. shaping i. differential reinforcement ii. successive approx. 1. responses are getting closer and closer to the desired behavior to maintain reinforcement MSN Chapter 11: Social cognitive theory 3/29/16  people are active agents  social origins of behavior  cognitive processes  learning complex behavior in the absence of reinforcement 1. reciprocal determinism  behavioral, personal, and environmental factors constitute a system that mutually influence one another over time 2. cognitive social person variables a. encoding strategies: How We See Experience i. Behavior—outcome expectancy: what should I expect if I act this way? 1. If I act thsthen this will happen 26 ii. Stimulus—outcome expectancy: what should I expect to see next? 1. If I raise my hand, then the teacher will call on me iii. Subjective Values: what is worth having or doing 1. Is it worth coming to class? iv. Competencies: What We Know and Are Capable of Doing 1. Will swim if you know how to swim 2. Examples a. Knowing the structure of the physical world b. Social rules c. Rehearsal strategies for learning v. Self- Regulatory systems and plans: How Do We Attain Our Goals 3. Self-System a. Self regulated behavior i. Performance Standards 1. Intrinsic: self approval (pride) & self criticism (dissatisfaction) ii. Goals and plans 1. Able to think future orientated a. Ex.) Want to be an A student  so I must do this and this b. Self efficacy (Can I do it) i. What one is actually capable of doing c. Perceived Self-Efficacy ( competency think I can do it) i. What one thinks one can do 1. If you think you can = you can ii. Sources of Info about self-Efficacy 1. Performance prior success strengthens one’s perceived self—efficacy—the reverse is also true too 2. Vicarious experiences  they can do it, then I can 3. Verbal Persuasion  encouragement from others 4. Emotional arousal  how fearful or calm we are in a given situation iii. People with a High Self-Efficacy 1. Attempt difficult tasks 27 2. Persist in their efforts 3. Remain calm during task 4. Organize task-related thoughts logically iv. People with Low Self-Efficacy 1. Do not attempt desired activities 2. Give up when they encounter difficulty 3. Become anxious during task performance 4. Become “rattled” by failing to think analytically about the task d. Self—Exonerating Mechanisms i. Euphemistic Labeling 1. Employers “downsizing”/” rightsizing” 2. Referring to torture as “enhanced interrogation 3. Genocide becomes “ethic cleansing” a. Ex.) former Yugoslavia 4. Watergate participants did not talk of themselves as criminal conspirators but rather as “team players” carrying out a “game plan” ii. Advantageous Comparison 1. Comparing the extreme to the lowest e. Moral Conduct i. Displacement responsibility 1. Nazi soldiers said “I did because I was ordered to” ii. Diffusion of Responsibility 1. “collective crimes incriminate no one” said Napoleon iii. Disregard/ distortion of consequences 1. The tobacco and gun industries have long used this technique, denying that their products harm others iv. Dehumanization 1. Treating the people that do jobs as just what they are… just JOBS 2. A transgender Latina discussed being objectified by men: 3. Attribution of blame a. Blaming women of be raped  why was dressed like that, she didn’t say “no” 3/31/16 28 1. What motivates human beings? a. Expectation of reinforcement i. Behavior—outcome expectancy 1. If your dad hugging, you and kissing you then your little brother will expect the same thing 2. Learning by observation: The development of behavior a. The distinction b/w learning and performance (knowing vs. Doing) b. Bobo Doll experiment i. Results ii. Vicarious reinforcement group was exposed iii. Summary 3. Learning novel responses 4. Important factors in learning a. Attention (observing the model) i. Characteristic of the model 1. Ex.) charisma ii. Reward consequences iii. Characteristics of the observer b. Retention  remembering what the model did i. Mental images ii. Verbal instructions iii. Delayed modeling c. Motor reproduction  doing what the model did i. Conception—matching d. Motivation  wanting it i. Reinforcement 1. Info  behavior—outcome expectancy 2. Incentive 5. Learning on emotional response a. Emotional response can also be conditioned vicariously i. Vicarious conditioning  process of learning emotional reactions by observing others 1. Intense, monkeys saw their parents wee afraid of snakes  they became afraid then 2. Partic. Who observe a model exhibiting an emotion is called an emotional response? 6. Dysfunctional expectancies & psychotherapy a. Changing undesirable behavior i. Dysfunctional expectancies 29 ii. Psychotherapy 1. Partic. Modeling  live model w/partic. 2. Symbolic modeling 7. Mischel a. Consistency of behavior i. Personality Coe(r=.30) 1. Trait paradigm a. Assumes stable across time and situation b. Cannot predict situation—specific behavior ii. The consistency paradox 1. Discrepancy b/w intuition & empirical finding iii. Interactionism 1. Both  people & situation are important b. Delay of gratification i. The ability to delay gratification increases w/: 1. Age 2. Intelligence 3. Shorter intervals of delay 4. Modeling 8. Current emphasis on Cognition a. Irrational beliefs create maladjustment example 9. Evaluation a. Criticisms i. Mental events cannot cause behavior ii. Important aspects of personality neglected iii. Lack of unification ( mini-theories w/out integration) b. Contributions i. Emphasis on human empirical research 30 31


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