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soci 101, wk 1, ch 1

by: Theint Myint

soci 101, wk 1, ch 1 soci 101

Theint Myint
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.8
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introduction to sociology
jessica coronel
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theint Myint on Sunday June 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to soci 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by jessica coronel in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views.


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Date Created: 06/26/16
CH 1 UNDERSTANDING SOCIOLOGY why study sociology • Knowledgeà better decisions • Create preventative measures (like taking birth control etc) • It happens often • Interesting • Learn about the “normal” by learning about the “odd” Sociology • Scientific study of social behavior and human groups • Different societies= different customs • Focuses: o How relationships= influence ppl’s attitudes and behavior § Society= helps mold a person o How society develops and changes overtime • In attempt to understand social behaviors, socialists rely on unique types of creative thinking • C. Wright Mills= describe such thinkings as the sociological imagination Sociological imagination- C wright mills • Awareness of the relation between an indiv and the wider society • Ability to view society as an outsider would • Looks beyond limited understanding of human behavior • Personal issuesà social issues Sociology and the social sciences • Science= body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation • Natural science= study physical features of nature and how they interact and change o Chem, bio, geology, physics • Social science= study social features of humans and how they interact and change o Anthro, psych, political science, economics Why study the influence society has on people’s attitude and behavior • Seek to understand ways people interact and shape society • Examine social relations scientifically o Global recession o Marital patterns o Recession impact on education Early thinkers Augute Conte = father of sociology • Systematic investigation of behavior • Coined term “sociology” Harriet Martineau • Study social behavior in Britain and US • Emphasized impact of economy, law, trade, health, and population on social problems (want to bring awareness) • Translated lots of comte’s work into English/ helped get his work out Herbert Spencer • Studied evolutionary change in society (look @ change overtime) Emile Durheim • Did not limit interests to 1 aspect • Behavior must be understood within the larger social context • Developed fundamental theses to help explain all forms of society • Religion and SUICIDE • “anomic” = loss of direction felt in a society when social control of indiv behavior becomes ineffective o total institutions (jails, military etc) à no control over what you’re doing o can be when you try to transition from total institution back into societyà have a hard time fitting in bc you’re use to being told what to do Max Weber • understand behaviorà learn the subjective meaning ppl attach to actions • understand what it means to them and why they did what they did • diff things= diff meaning to diff people • verstenen= understanding, insight • ideal type: construct for evaluating specific cases (like a model/ outline) objective= quantative= #’s, proven facts/ data- grounded/ no change subjective= qualitative= opinion based, can change (emotions, values, myths, etc) Karl Marx • society divided into classes that class in pursuit of different interests (owners vs working class) • worked w/ engles • Communist manifesto o working class= should overthrow existing class system • emphasize group identification and associations that influence 1’s place in society • à act different based on who’s around Modern Developments WEB DuBois • Black socialist assisted struggle for racially equal society • Knowledge= essential in combating prejudice • Focused on religion @ community level • “Double consciousness” o division of indiv’s identity into 2+ social realities o (what it’s like to be black in white Americaà need to be different person/ have diff behaviors etc (slang at home, professional outside home) Robert Merren • combined theory + research • developed explanation of deviant behavior • MACRO sociology= large scale phenomena or entire civilizations o Student SAT scores • MICRO sociology= stresses study of small groups often through experimental means o Teacher interactions w/ students • Micro influences macro Pierre Boudreu • Capital= $, wealth, powerà sustains indivs and fams from 1 gen to the next • Cultural capital o Noneconomic good reflected in knowledge of language and arts o Being aware/ knowing that ___ painted this • Social capital o Collective benefit of social networks o Who you know, how you articulate • Ppl w/ capital= edu on all levelsà go further in life 20 cent developments Charles Horton Cooley • used sociological perspective to examine face to face groups (when ppl actually interact in their presence) Jane Adams • combined intellectually inquiry + social service work + political activist • cofounded HULL HOUSE (for working women, poverty, like refuge place) major theoretical perspectives/ theories/ paradigms 1. functionalist--------à MACRO 2. conflict -----------à MACRO 3. symbolic interactionist --à MICRO socialist perspective= all 3 functionalist perspective • everything works together • emphasize way how society structures= maintains stability • Talcott Parsons o View society as vast network of connected parts o Each helps maintain the system as a whole o (like a bike; need all parts to function properly) • manifest functions o open, stated, conscious functions o intended and recognized consequences of an aspect of society o school intended to teach you à you learn • latent functions o unconscious/ unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes o bullying, stress, meeting spouse • dysfunctions o elements/processes of society that may disrupt a social system of reduce it’s stability/ credibility conflict perspective • assumes social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups • conflict= essential for society or else you wouldn’t be where you are now • the Marxist view o conflict= part of everyday life in all societies o conflict theorists= interested in how institutions may melt maintain privileges of some groups and keeps others subservient o (those w/ more edu= go further, while those w/o edu= stuck) o need conflict so society can run smoothly • the feminist perspective o inequality in gender= central to all behavior and organization o often allied w/ conflict theory o proponents= tend to focus on MACRO level o broadened social behavior by extending analysis beyond male point of view interactionalist perspective • generalized about everyday forms of social interactions to explain society as a whole • humans= viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects • nonverbal communications: gestures, facials, postures • manipulation of symbols= seen in dress code • George Herbert mead o Founder of interactionalist perspective • Erving Geoffman o Dramaturgical approach= ppl are seen as theatrical performers o Ppl= constantly acting o Front stage= ready to perform (like a speech) o Back stage= what do to get to front stage (research, writing speech, etc) Sociological approach • Gain broadest understanding of society by drawing on all major perspectives, noting where they overlap/diverge • Each perspective= offers unique insights into the same issue • Researchers work= always guided by his/her theoretical view point Applied and clinical sociology • Applied sociology o Use soci w/ intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organization o Try to see outcome, hands on • Clinical sociology o Facilitating change by altering social relations or restructuring social institutions • Basic sociology o Seeks profound knowledge of fundamental aspects of social phenomena Developing a sociological imagination • Theory in practice • Research today • Thinking globally o Globalization § Worldwide integration of govt policies, cultures and social movements and financial markets through trade and exchange of ideas • Significant of social inequality o Social inequality § Conditions where members of society= differ in amount of wealth, prestige or power • Speaking across race, gender and religious boundaries • Social policy throughout the world


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