Phil 1180 Week One Notes
Phil 1180 Week One Notes Phil 1180
Popular in Intro into Critical Reasoning
Popular in Humanities and Social Sciences
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Notetaker on Monday June 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Phil 1180 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Miller in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro into Critical Reasoning in Humanities and Social Sciences at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 06/27/16
June 27, 2016 Philosophy 1180 Responding to claims: Claim is a statement that’s true or false; questions and opinions are not claims. Disagreeing to claim could include a disagreeing statement as well as the person adding additional claim. Clarifying: claims are often vague/ambitious. Critical thinkers will notice and ask for clarification about whole/part of claim. Ex. “What do you mean?” Focused clarification is better. Ex. “What do you mean by excessive force?” Challenging: ask for reason or evidence that would convince objective person. Challenging is not the same as disagreeing. Critical thinkers will challenge dubious claims as well as their own. Ex. “Do you have any evidence?” Identifying Conclusions: Argument: consists of one or more statements (premise) which are claimed (inferential claim) to be objectively good reason to believe statement (conclusion.) Inferential claim is usually implicit. Premise: reason person believes its true. Indicators: Identify conclusion: placement of indicator words. Two types of indicators: premise indicator and conclusion indicators. Conclusion indicators: point to conclusion statement following indicator; conclusion is sometimes in the middle of the sentence. Ex. “Power corrupts. Therefore, no man should possess unlimited power.” Conclusion indicator: therefore Conclusion: no man should possess unlimited power Premise: power corrupts. Premise indicators are before premise; more than one premise will include “and” or “but.” Ex. “Attending a community college and then transferring to a university is not a good idea for most students. The reason is that academic standards at the community college are much lower.” Premise indicator: “the reason is that” Premise: academic standards are lower One doesn’t always need to use a premise or premise indicators. Having no indicators usually implies that the first sentence is the conclusion. Contrastive introductions: give argument to support opinion; conclusion is the opposite of intro sentence. Basic Concepts: Argument is a premise, claim and conclusion. 2 Inferential claims: no argument without the inferential claim. “Grass is green and the sky is blue. So, grass is not the same color as the sky.” Inferential claim: “so” Arguments: deductive and inductive The difference is the strength of the inferential claim; deductive makes strongest; Validity Validity: absolute claim Valid argument: if the premise is true, so is the conclusion. The premise doesn’t have to be true for the argument to be valid. Invalidity: deductive arguments with faulty reason are invalid. Argument with true premise and conclusion can still be invalid. Validity does no require premise to be true. Invalidity with true conclusion: “Poodles are animals. Dogs are animals. So, poodles are dogs.” Premise doesn’t make the conclusion true. Sound arguments: Sound: valid AND true premise Unsound: invalid AND false premise Premise can be false and conclusion be true; Premise can be false and conclusion be false. 3 Inductive Arguments: strong but not valid; strong: truth of premise Conclusion is probably true; reasoning is poor: weak Weak: truth of premise doesn’t make conclusion likely to be true. Cogent: strong inductive argument with true premises Cogent: strong AND true premise Sound: valid AND true premise Uncogent: weak OR false premise Unsound: invalid OR false premise Valid argument and true premise means conclusion cannot be false. 4
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