The Great War
The Great War HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Torie Pierce on Wednesday June 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878 at Clayton State University taught by Dr. Jelani Favors in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views.
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Date Created: 06/29/16
1. “The Great war” and the Roaring 20’s pt.1 a. The world at War and the Dawning of the American Century i. Entangling alliances 1. George Washington warned them about getting involved with Europe 2. Secret treaties and the rise of global colonialism was a big thing in Europe a. Germany-Austria Hungary-Italy formed an alliance in 1882 i. Formed the Triple Alliance (Then central Powers) b. Russia and France (1894) c. Great Britain and France (1904) d. Russia and Great Britain (1907) i. Russia France and Great Britain formed the Triple Entente (The allies) ii. An assassination ignites World Conflict 1. June 28, 1914- Serbian nationalist (zealously patriotic to their country, want to expand their country) assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austro-Hungarian Throne) a. Austria Hungary declared war with Serbia but Russia had secret treaties with Russia. But then Great Britain rushed to Russia’s aid 2. The Lethal Mix: a. Ethnic tension (tribal groups who don’t get along with people in their country) b. Nationalism (desire to defend ones borders) c. Global Imperial ambitions d. Escalating militaries e. Secret alliances and treaties 3. Total war in Europe Con.t a. The industrial revolution made the Great War Europe’s deadliest war yet i. Began in Europe ii. Most important impact driving industrial revolution was efficiency. Learning to do things better, smarter, faster 1. Railways and telegraphs (quicker transportation of communication, troops and weapons) 2. Machine guns 3. Flame Throwers (widely used weapon to burn enemies, foliage) 4. Tanks iii. Chemical weapons introduces during WWI 1. Mustard Gas 2. Chlorine Gas 3. Tear Gas iv. The Dawn of Aerial Combat 1. Trench Warfare in the “Great War” a. Worst European military conflict prior to WWI i. Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) ii. 150,000 dead b. “The great war” (1914-1918) i. 8 million soldiers killed ii. 7 million civilians killed iii. 115,00 Americans soldiers lost their lives 2. The Great war” and the Roaring 20’s pt.2 a. The world at War and the Dawning of the American Century b. Woodrow Wilson and the secretary of state talk about freedom and being involved in being the champions of democracy but African Americans lost right of vote and women don’t have right to vote i. Danger of the High Seas 1. The formality of Neutrality 2. 1917- American loans to the allies exceeded $2 billion dollars, nearly one hundred times to the amount lent to Germany 3. May 7, 1915-German U boat torpedoed the British Passenger ship Lusitania a. It was carrying American weapons and citizens b. Germany back off for a while 4. January 31, 1917- German government declared submarine warfare against all submarines because they believed the ones going to their enemy were supplies c. The Zimmerman Telegram: “The Last Straw” (officially got the U.S involved in the war) i. March 1, 1917- British intelligence intercepted (stole) a telegram from German foreign minister author Zimmermann 1. The telegram asked Mexico to attack the U.S ii. April 6,1917, the U.S officially entered the war on the side of the Allies iii. President Woodrow Wilson created the Committee on Public Information (CPI) 1. Used propaganda to prepare Americans minds for the idea of being involved in the war 2. A campaign to “Americanize” immigrants was the objective d. Mobilizing the home front ( Politics of White Womanhood) i. The CPI was led by George Creel (a former muckraker), a progressive Era journalist ii. Produced 75 million pamphlets expanding government policy iii. Placed ads advocating war in magazines and newspapers iv. Produced pro war films v. Sent out 75,00 speakers to promote war 1. The politics of white womanhood-women are under attack e. Mobilizing the home front i. Colleges offered “war Study courses” and created reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) ii. In May of 1917, congress passed the selective service Act- required men to register for the draft at age of 18 iii. 1918-Congress passed the sedition act which made it illegal to speak out against the government (the war) iv. Did send out troops who made a difference f. Waging War and Waging Peace i. Nov. 11, 1918-an armistice ended “The great war” ii. Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles whose terms stated: 1. Germany had to take sole responsibility for starting the war 2. Germany must pay huge reparations to the allies by giving up land and billions by payment 3. Germany must limit its army and navy and promise not to manufacture or purchase armaments 4. Set the stage for WW2 g. The Bolshevik Revolution and Red scare i. The greatest phenomenon to come out of WWI was the birth of the Russian communism ii. The czars of Russia were overthrown by the Bolsheviks (communists) who were led by Vladimir Lenin and took in the teaching of Karl Marx’s where the workers unite. iii. In march of 1918, Lenin’s new govt. signed a treaty with Germany and Withdrew from the war iv. Reorganized itself as the union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) v. The deep fear that became associated with the threat of communism was known as “The red Scare” 1. The Fear of the Spread of Communism was known as “Red Scare” 3. The Great war” and the Roaring 20’s pt.3 a. Labor, Immigrants, and Conservative America i. Anarchy-Europeans were seen as being anti government ii. The world at War and the Dawning of the American Century iii. Immigrants faced continued repression during this period (1900- 1920 iv. Many immigrants resented being targeted as un-American v. Radicals and labor militants became a target for govt. investigations b. Red Scare and Repression i. The fear of Red Scare escalated into a series of raid conducted by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer ii. Jan.1920-federal agents arrested 6,000 alleged radicals in 33 cities iii. Most arrestees were not provided due process and over 500 were deported c. “The Business of America is Business”: Boom Industries in Post War America i. Following the postwar depression in 1920 and 1921, the American economy grew through the rest of the decade ii. Mass production created numerous “boom industries’: 1. Automobile 2. Aviation 3. Chemicals (Du Pont-paints plastics) 4. Radio and motion picture (film industry became one of the 5 largest businesses in America) d. Will the Boom Go Bust? i. The rising national income reflected salaries and dividends, not wages. ii. 1929- 71% of the U.S families earned less than what the Bureau of Labor Statistics regarded as necessary for a decent living standard
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