PSY101 Notes Chapter 6,7,11,12,13 Prof. Dr. Larry Hawk
PSY101 Notes Chapter 6,7,11,12,13 Prof. Dr. Larry Hawk PSY 101
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Chapter 6 Reinforcement- event that increases future p of most recent R Punishment- event that decreases future p of most recent R Observational Learning pg 229-230 S-O-R Psychology o Learning depends on thinking. Cognitive conditioning o Our interpretation of the situation affects conditioning. Latent Learning o Learning that’s not directly observable. o Implies that reinforcement isn’t necessary for learning. Observational Learning o Learning by watching others o In many cases we learn by watching models: parents, teachers, and others who are influential to us. o Many psychologists regard observational learning as a form of latent learning because it allows us to learn without reinforcement. o We can merely watch someone else being reinforced for doing something and take our cues from them. o Observational learning of aggression Albert Bandura and his colleagues demonstrated that children can learn to act aggressively by watching aggressive role models. Does exposure to media violence such as films, movies or video games contribute to real-world violence? No, but they cause children to be more aggressive. Correlation vs Causation? Are we sure? Biological influences on learning pg 233-236 Our biology influences the speed and nature of our learning in complex and fascinating ways Conditioned Taste Aversions o Psychologist Martin Seligman went out to dinner with his wife. He ordered a steak with his favorite topping. 6 hours later, he felt nauseous and became ill. He recovered but his love for the steak didn’t. From then on, he couldn’t even think of, let alone taste the steak without feeling like throwing up. o Classical conditioning can lead us to develop avoidance reactions to the taste of food. In contrast to most classically conditioned reactions, which requires repeated parings between the CS and UCS, conditioned taste aversions typically require only one trial to develop. The delay between the CS and UCS in conditioned taste aversions can be as long as 6-8 hours. Conditioned taste aversions tend to be remarkably specific and display little evidence of stimulus generalization. Can eat spaghetti, manicotti and other dishes similar to lasagna but cannot eat lasagna itself. Chemotherapy for patients and using scapegoat food. Preparedness and Phobias o Seligman proposed that we can explain the distribution of phobias in the population by means if preparedness We’re evolutionary predisposed to fear certain stimuli more than others. Steep cliffs, poisonous animals posed a threat to our early human ancestors but household items like knives or forks didn’t because they weren’t around back then. Aside from preparedness, genetic influences probably play a role in the acquisition of certain phobias. Instinctive Drift o The tendency for animals to return to innate behaviors following repeated Learning Fads o Sleep-Assisted Learning Learning new materials while asleep Also recent evidence demonstrates that while were asleep, participants can acquire classical conditioned responses to smells. The fact that we can learn classically conditioned associations while asleep doesn’t mean that we can learn new facts, let alone new languages while asleep. o Accelerated Learning Companies promise consumers ultrafast techniques for learning. Using different techniques supposedly allow learners to gain access to intuitive aspects of their minds that otherwise remain inaccessible. o Discovery Learning Giving students experimental materials and asking them to figure out the scientific principles on their own. In the long-term, it may encourage students to learn how to pose scientific questions on their own because students may never figure out how to solve certain scientific problems independently. o Learning styles Most research shows that certain teaching approaches like setting high-standards for students and providing them with the motivation and skills to reach these standards work best regardless of students’ learning styles. Spatial, analytical, holistic and verbal learners. Chapter 11 Motivation o Goal directed o Biological and psychological factors o Varies with context (internal, external) o No unifying theory but many attempts Theories & Views o Motivation as instinctive energy (Lorenz) or drive (Hull) Energies build up in nervous system and must be discharged; inherited tendency (hardwired) Acted upon, once an outlet is available. Consider food and sex o Hull says motivation is about drive o As motivation to eat gets greater... BUT… o We don’t always strive for rest o And we often perform better with moderate arousal Yerkes-Dodson curve Motivation as homeostasis (Cannon) o Equilibrium; maintenance of an optimum level of conditions within an organism Ex: temperature. o We sometimes seek equilibrium… As human beings, we have motivations that pushes us away from equilibrium Competing motivations Some motivations might be stronger like social motivations Often competing different motivations against each other’s. Clearly a need to consider external forces o Incentive theories Back to learning theory Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation Be aware of possible overjustification effect – when > extrinsic motivation than nec. Is provided, intrinsic motivation may decline. o Short-term reinforcement internalize the results for better long-term results. o Reinforcement with grades is powerful Prioritizing Motivations o Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization Delay of gratification / delay discounting o Postponing immediate gratification for long-term goal (Mischel) o Predicts long-term social, academic, clinical outcomes o More generally, delayed rewards are discounted o Measure of impulsivity? Hunger o Physiological mechanisms o Short term Hypothalamus o Long term 4 F’s of human behavior o Eating disorders Obesity Anorexia o Physiological and psychological Hunger and Satiation Obesity o Excessive body fat, resulting in excessive body weight o Focus on BMI o Preferences o 2ndleading death in the U.S o How do we become obese? And why have rates increases so much? How we live changes this High intake (“toxic” environment) And/or low energy expenditure Summary o Variety o Directed at achieving goals o Salience depends on biological and psychological factors o Understanding motivation can help us modulate our own desires and behavior, achieve our own goals. Chapter 12 Stress, Coping and Health Stress – a type of response that consists of the tension, discomfort or physical symptoms that arise when a situation called stressor (a type of stimulus) strains our ability to cope effectively. Event, response, transaction o Stressful events Major life events (and traumatic) Deaths, marriage, positive events can also cause stress Increase of anxiety or depression A traumatic event is a stressor that’s severe that can produce long-term psychological or health consequences A major life event might not have the same effect as daily hassles. Daily Hassles (and uplifts) Minor events that strain out ability to cope. Every day hassles contribute to stress Acute vs chronic Stressful events can affect health Traumatic stressors and resilience Many experience Most resilient (depends on resources, etc) Chronic/Traumatic Stress Long-term effects o Caregiving, illness o Stress as a response 3 system perspective Subjective, overt/behavior, physiology Stress researchers study stress as a response, they assess people’s psychological and physical reactions to stressful circumstances. Corticosteroids – hormones that active the body and prepare us for stressful circumstances. Selye’s Gas General Adaptation Syndrome o Emphasis on events, response o Stressors ARE important o Selye recognized a connection between stress response of animals, including stomach ulcers and increases in the size of the adrenal gland which produces stress hormones Universal triad: ulcers, adrenals glands, thymus o Stage 1: fight or flight response (someone attacking our immune system) alarm phase (alarm) o Stage 2: maintain the body to fight the stressor through a long time to achieve homeostasis (resistance) o Stage 3: Exhaustion, stress goes down (exhaustion) o Stress as a transaction Stressors, stress mediators, stress Reponses Stress is a subjective experience, not all people react to the same stressful events in the same way. Does the amount of stress depend entirely on the event? Given event affect some more than others Depends on situation (e.g death of loved one) The effects of multiple stressors Stress: Lazarus & Appraisal Cognitive appraisal 1 (primary) o We first decide whether the event is harmful before making a second appraisal o Threat o Loss? o Challenge? Cognitive appraisal 2 (secondary) o Coping strategy by which we problem-solve and tackle life’s challenges head-on. o Exceed my resources? o Stressed? Cope with it Do something to distract it Need to pull out the emotion of it Venting When we’re optimistic and think we can achieve our goals, we’re especially likely to engage in problem-focused coping. Strategy in which we tackle life’s challenges head-on. o Ex: improve our performance on the next test When situation arise that we can’t avoid or control, we’re more likely to adopt emotion-focused coping Strategy in which we try to place a positive spin in our feelings or predicaments and engage behaviors to reduce painful emotions. o Ex: After the breakup of a relationship, we may remind ourselves that we were unhappy months before it occurred and reenter the dating arena. Coping: Social Support Relationships with people and groups that can provide us with emotional comfort, personal and financial resources. Coping: Relaxation Relaxation are about equally effective in reducing stress and treating anxiety, insomnia and the side effects associated with cancer chemotherapy. o Health Psychology Heart disease Smoking, stress, poor diet Top killer, in the US for women as well Traditional risk: o Many risk factors are associated with smoking, high cholesterol and high blood pressure o High blood pressure, cholesterol, cigarettes Stressful life events can also cause the heart disease risk factors Stress is also associated with behavioral risk factors for heart disease such as poor diet and lack of exercise. Heart disease may actually be due to the overlap between stress and risk factors. o Accounts for only 50% Psychoneuroimmunology Exams, caregiving, cancer tx Behavior changes weight Type A Behavior Pattern (vs Type B) o Friedman & Rosenman (1950s) o Type A Behavior Pattern (Competitive, time urgent, hostile and aggressive, perfectionist, controlling, etc) Problems: Dimensional Replications Most important subcomponent for heart disease Hostility – associated with the risk factors of heart disease such as alcohol consumption, smoking and weight gain. Associated with greater cardiovascular stress reactivity which hypertension Aggression o Type B Behavior Pattern Relaxed, one thing at a time, express feelings o Initial support Heart disease Reactivity PNI- Stress and the common cold Sheldon Cohen (1991) Viruses hurts the immune system Correlation with the higher the stress, the higher the cold What about other diseases? Health Behavior Change Trans-theoretical Model o We cannot focus on only one stage o Need others things to make its sustained o Pre-contemplation, Preparation, Contemplation, Action, Maintenance Effective Treatments o Medications Nicotine replacement Bupropion Varenicline (and learning) Honing motivation Dealing with smoking triggers Avoid, alter, substitute Aversive smoking Motivational Interviewing o Motivational interviewing, in its simplest form, is a goal-oriented conversational style. o MI views conversations about behavior change between two people as a collaboration focused on strengthening a person’s motivation and commitment and aiding in resolving ambivalence to change. o By using specific language and inquiry as well as compassion and understanding to elicit the client’s reasons for change, a motivational interviewer guides the client in discovering his or her own reasons to create a catalyst for decisions and actions. o Psychological reactance o People don’t like being told what to do Traditional “Intervention” techniques o Can be effective, but takes practice Strategies Supportive Cost-benefit analysis Develop discrepancy Roll with resistance Reflective listening Ask, don’t tell Stress and Health Disease and health are psychosomatic o Influenced by a person’s experiences and reactions to those experiences o The Heat of the Moment Active Coping Motivated Performance Task o Important, self-relevant goal (e.g giving a speech) o The Biopsychosocial Model of Challenge and Threat Diagram o Empirical Examples Performance Quality Coping Ability Resilience o Athletic Performance College athletes Assessed physiological experiences Assessed performance throughout the season o Coping ability Positive: image of Jesus Negative : image of demons o What doesn’t kill you makes your stronger Some stress may result in better coping over time. Chapter 13 Social Psychology Humans are social species o Attributions - Process of assigning causes to a behavior o Fundamental attribution error- tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influence on other people’s behavior o When we try to figure out why people, ourselves included, did something, we’re forming attributions o Some attributions are: Internal vs external – dispositional vs situational Internal When we conclude that Joe Smith robbed a bank because he’s impulsive External When we conclude Bill Jones robbed a bank because his family was broke. Or social pressures. Conformity o Maintaining/changing behavior to match other’s or follow norms o Norms Rules that (implicitly or explicitly) govern a group Shared, enforced beliefs Ex: sex,, drugs and rock and roll o Asch experiment (1951) Conformity varies across situations, people, culture, time Individual differences in personality plays a key role in conformity Pressured from people, following their answers rather than believing your own thoughts Sometimes we go along with a group because what they say convinces us they are right. Deindividuation o The tendency of people to engage in a typical behavior when stripped of their usual identities o When we are deindividuated, we become more vulnerable to social influences including impact of social roles. o Makes us behave more like a member of a group and less like an individual. o Can either makes us more or less aggressive Compliance o Compliance here means a response to direct and covert requests o Persuasion o Techniques: Foot-in-the-door This involves asking someone to do a small favor for you, in hopes they will be more willing to agree to a bigger favor in the future. You get your foot in the door, and then ask for more. Door-in-the-face In this scenario, you start with a grand request and scale it down right off the bat. Try asking your friend to give babysit your nephew every weekday. When they say no, you can ask if they could just take him to the park then for a couple hours on Monday. After the every day request, this one seems much more manageable. Whereas if you'd started with the smaller park request, your friend would likely have declined. This technique is often more effective. Lowball Persuasive technique in which the seller of a product starts by quoting a low sales price and then mentions all of the add-on costs once the customer has agreed to purchase the product. Once the buyer agrees to purchase the product, the seller mentions all of the desirable or needed add-on that come along with the product. Obedience o Behavior change following demand (authority) o How obedient are we? In matters small and large… o Stanley Milgram (1974) Did one of the most controversial and influential experiment in psychology One teacher, one learner, random assignment Wanted to see how far people would go to comply with requests given from perceived authority. To test this, Milgram decided to see if participants would shock another person simply because an authority figure told them to. If the learner gets a question wrong, he gets shocked Humans are sustained to social influences, good and bad o Application: Prison Guards Iraqi Prisoner Abuse (Abu Ghraib) Nature? Nurture? Social? o Norms, compliance, obedience Stanford Prison Experiment Ethics Assigned normal people to be prisoners and guards People adapted to their roles and conflict arose because guards were being too abusive to the prisoners. They experienced demand characteristics to behave in accord with their designed roles. Needed to be stopped because of terrible abuses Implications for change/prevention? For us? o Application: Getting Help Bystander effect Kitty Genovese (1964) Angel Torres (2008) Latane and Darley Diffusion of responsibility- reduction in feelings of personal responsibility in the presence of others o Responsibility decreases when there’s a group of people Social loafing- phenomenon whereby, individuals become less productive in groups o We work the hardest when we’re alone In order to prevent this, we must reduce anonymity and be aware Pluralistic ignorance- error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do. o Ex: We look around and notice that nobody is responding, we assume that the situation isn’t an emergency. We assume that we’re the only one who thinks the situation is an emergency. o Application- Altruism and Helping Altruism- helping others for unselfish reasons Using interpersonal influence for good reasons Enhance persuasion (more in a few minutes)…think about conformity (and perceived norms), compliance, obedience, … MULTIMEDIA: Helping a Stranger Simulation Enlightenment effect – learning about psychological research can change real-world behavior for the better. 25% of students w/o lecture did not help vs 43% of students that helped due to lecture about bystander intervention. Social Perception and Cognition o Stereotypes -- A belief (or set of beliefs) about people in a particular category o Prejudice – an attitude, generally negative, toward members of a group Explicit prejudices- prejudices that we’re aware Implicit prejudices- prejudices that we’re unware o Discrimination – unjust or prejudicial treatment o Scapegoat hypothesis- claim that prejudice arises from a need to blame other groups for our misfortunes. o Just-world hypothesis- claim that our attributions and behaviors are shaped by a deep-seated assumption that the world is far and all things happen for a reason. o Why? Isolation, competition, learning (social) Robbers Cave Research shows that people from diverse groups who work together toward shared goals will end up with lower levels of prejudice. o Possible to overcome? Working together o More generally, how do we think about attitudes… Attitudes- about all kinds of things Attitude Change o Attitude- belief that includes an emotional component Attitudes reflect how we feel about an issue or a person. o Behavior When you’ve got them by the… Cognitive dissonance – unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting thoughts or beliefs. o Because we dislike this state of tension, we’re motivated to reduce it or eliminate it. Some scholars contend that it’s not dissonance itself that’s responsible for shifting out attitudes, but rather threats to our self-concept. Only certain conflicts between attitudes produce cognitive dissonance, namely those that challenge our views of who we are. Self-perception theory- theory that we acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviors Impression management theory- theory that we don’t really change our attitudes, but report that we have so that our behaviors appear consistent with our attitudes. Psychology Memory (Chapter 7) Recall vs Reconstruction The three systems of Memory 3 modules with different information Mind as a computer o Processing modules Sensory Memory Using tones or sounds Memory fades with time Most of us have vast capacity of sensory memory but we don’t see it Role of attention Short-term Memory 7+/-2 chunks of information Within a few seconds, the memory will decay or fade Need to recall in order to prevent fading = rehearsal Proactive/Retroactive interference o Often happens where new materials interfere with older materials that are already memorized (class room example) o This is active or working memory…rehearsal/maintenance rehearsal Active memory Ongoing structure Ex: writing notes, flashcards Working memory Involved with physical skills such as dancers, players etc. Very critical because we use it all the time It decays very quick if we don’t do anything about it Limited in capacity because 7+/-2 chunks of information Ex: muscle memory Chunking = putting meaning into something in order to make it very easy to recall KEY = CREATING MEMORY, ORGANIZING Long-term Memory But there are many types of long-term memory Unlimited storage space o Explicit memory Memories that we can recall intentionally and of which we can have conscious awareness Semantic and Episodic o Implicit memory Memories we don’t deliberately remember or reflect on consciously Procedural memory o Memory for how to do things, including motor skills and habits Priming o Our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we’ve encountered similar stimuli Conditioning Habituation The three processes of Memory o Encoding mnemonics, encoding specificity o Storage and schemas o Retrieval come in many forms Bio of memory and memory loss o Memory loss Amnesia Anterograde vs retrograde o People can’t remember what happened before or after o Retrograde can happen as Alzheimer’s o Famous case of H.M (1953), Clive Wearing o Hippocampus removed to cure seizures Reconstructing Memory o Eyewitness identification and testimony o Leading the witness… o False memory- believed to be a memory but does not correspond to real events o Recovered memory- reports of long-lost memories, prompted by clinical techniques Many recovered memories are false memories
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