soci 101, week 2 ch 2 notes
soci 101, week 2 ch 2 notes soci 101
Cal State Fullerton
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by dy Notetaker on Sunday July 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to soci 101 at Fullerton College taught by jessica coronel in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views.
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Date Created: 07/03/16
Ch 2 RESEARCH METHODS Scientific method • Systematic organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and constancy in researching a prob 5 STEPS 1. Define prob 2. Review literature 3. Form testable hypothesis 4. Select research design, collect and analyze data 5. Develop conclusion Define prob • Operational definition o Abstract concept explained specific enough to let researchers assess the concept Review lit • Refines prob under study o See kinks did see/ anticipate before o Decide if want to continue w/ topic or not Form hypothesis • Hypothesis o Speculative statement about relation between 2+ variables • Variable o Measurable trait that’s subject to change under diff conditions o Independent variable= causes/ influences another variable o Dependent variable= depends on influence of independent variable o IV (time spent studying) à DV (performance on exam) Collecting and analyzing data • Selecting the sample • Sample o Selection of larger population that’s statistically typical of that population o Representative of population going to study • Random sample o Every member of population= same chance of selection • Snowball/ convenience sample o Ppl recruited via word to mouth, posting notices on internet, etc o Convenient • Ensure validity and reliability o Validity= degree the measure reflects the phenomenon being studied o Reliability= extent measure gives constant results Developing conclusion • Supporting the hypothesis o Sociological studies don’t always generate date that support original hypothesis • Controlling other factors o Control variable = constant variable. Test impact of independent variable Research • QUANTative research o Collect and report data in # form o Quick • QUALitative reseatch o Relies on whats observed and naturalistic setting o Focus on small groups and communities Research designs • Detailed plan/method for obtaining scientific data • Survey, observation, experiments, existing sources Surveys= provide info how ppl act/ think • Interview= face to face, phone, webcam • Questionnaire= printed/ written q’s to get info • Can be expensive and time consuming Ethnography • Collect info via direct participation and/or closely watching a group • Being involved • Detailed info about specific groups • Try to describe and entire social setting via extended systematic observation • Observation: socialists joins groups to get accurate sense of how it operates Experiments • Artificially created situations-‐ can manipulate variables • Experimental group= exposed to IV • Control group= not exposed to IV • Hawthorne effect o Unintended influence of observers of experiments on subjects o Observers presentà Ppl act differently Using existing sources • Cost efficient, limited to data • Secondary analysis o Research techniques-‐ use previously collected and publically accessible info and data • Content analysis o Systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rational Ethnics of research • Maintain objectivity and integrity of research • Respect subjects right to privacy and dignity • Protect subjects from personal harm • Preserve confidentiality • Get informed consent • Acknowledge collaboration and assistance • Disclose sources of financial support • Confidentially • Conflict of interest • Value neutrality o Investigators= ethical obligation to accept research findings even if the data is opposite of their personal views to theoretically based explanations or to widely accepted beliefs o (cant let values get in the way of the job even if the job and your personal beliefs conflict) reading graphs o tables and figures= display data and makes it easier to develop conclusions o cross tabulation= show relation between 2+ variables o graphs= easier for public to understand writing research report o finding info o textbook, library catalog, computerized periodical index, newspaper, govt documents, instructor, ask ppl, orgs and agencies o writing report o focus on topic o make outline o work ahead of deadline o read paper aloud o include citations and references