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soci 101, week 2 ch 2 notes

by: dy Notetaker

soci 101, week 2 ch 2 notes soci 101

Marketplace > Fullerton College > soci 101 > soci 101 week 2 ch 2 notes
dy Notetaker
Cal State Fullerton

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notes on ch 2
introduction to sociology
jessica coronel
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by dy Notetaker on Sunday July 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to soci 101 at Fullerton College taught by jessica coronel in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views.

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Date Created: 07/03/16
Ch  2  RESEARCH  METHODS     Scientific  method     • Systematic  organized  series  of  steps  that  ensures  maximum  objectivity  and   constancy  in  researching  a  prob     5  STEPS     1. Define  prob   2. Review  literature   3. Form  testable  hypothesis     4. Select  research  design,  collect  and  analyze  data   5. Develop  conclusion       Define  prob   • Operational  definition     o Abstract  concept  explained  specific  enough  to  let  researchers  assess   the  concept     Review  lit     • Refines  prob  under  study     o See  kinks  did  see/  anticipate  before     o Decide  if  want  to  continue  w/  topic  or  not     Form  hypothesis   • Hypothesis   o Speculative  statement  about  relation  between  2+  variables     • Variable   o Measurable  trait  that’s  subject  to  change  under  diff  conditions     o Independent  variable=  causes/  influences  another  variable   o Dependent  variable=  depends  on  influence  of  independent  variable     o IV  (time  spent  studying)  à  DV  (performance  on  exam)     Collecting  and  analyzing  data   • Selecting  the  sample   • Sample   o Selection  of  larger  population  that’s  statistically  typical  of  that   population     o Representative  of  population  going  to  study     • Random  sample   o Every  member  of  population=  same  chance  of  selection     • Snowball/  convenience  sample   o Ppl  recruited  via  word  to  mouth,  posting  notices  on  internet,  etc     o Convenient     • Ensure  validity  and  reliability     o Validity=  degree  the  measure  reflects  the  phenomenon  being  studied   o Reliability=  extent  measure  gives  constant  results   Developing  conclusion     • Supporting  the  hypothesis     o Sociological  studies  don’t  always  generate  date  that  support  original   hypothesis     • Controlling  other  factors     o Control  variable  =  constant  variable.  Test  impact  of  independent   variable     Research     • QUANTative  research   o Collect  and  report  data  in  #  form     o Quick     • QUALitative  reseatch   o Relies  on  whats  observed  and  naturalistic  setting     o Focus  on  small  groups  and  communities     Research  designs     • Detailed  plan/method  for  obtaining  scientific  data     • Survey,  observation,  experiments,  existing  sources       Surveys=  provide  info  how  ppl  act/  think     • Interview=  face  to  face,  phone,  webcam     • Questionnaire=  printed/  written  q’s  to  get  info     • Can  be  expensive  and  time  consuming       Ethnography     • Collect  info  via  direct  participation  and/or  closely  watching  a  group     • Being  involved     • Detailed  info  about  specific  groups     • Try  to  describe  and  entire  social  setting  via  extended  systematic  observation     • Observation:  socialists  joins  groups  to  get  accurate  sense  of  how  it  operates     Experiments   • Artificially  created  situations-­‐  can  manipulate  variables     • Experimental  group=  exposed  to  IV     • Control  group=  not  exposed  to  IV     • Hawthorne  effect       o Unintended  influence  of  observers  of  experiments  on  subjects     o Observers  presentà  Ppl  act  differently     Using  existing  sources     • Cost  efficient,  limited  to  data     • Secondary  analysis   o Research  techniques-­‐  use  previously  collected  and  publically   accessible  info  and  data     • Content  analysis   o Systematic  coding  and  objective  recording  of  data,  guided  by  some   rational       Ethnics  of  research     • Maintain  objectivity  and  integrity  of  research   • Respect  subjects  right  to  privacy  and  dignity     • Protect  subjects  from  personal  harm     • Preserve  confidentiality     • Get  informed  consent     • Acknowledge  collaboration  and  assistance     • Disclose  sources  of  financial  support     • Confidentially     • Conflict  of  interest     • Value  neutrality     o Investigators=  ethical  obligation  to  accept  research  findings  even  if   the  data  is  opposite  of  their  personal  views  to  theoretically  based   explanations  or  to  widely  accepted  beliefs     o (cant  let  values  get  in  the  way  of  the  job  even  if  the  job  and  your   personal  beliefs  conflict)       reading  graphs     o tables  and  figures=  display  data  and  makes  it  easier  to  develop  conclusions     o cross  tabulation=  show  relation  between  2+  variables     o graphs=  easier  for  public  to  understand       writing  research  report     o finding  info     o textbook,  library  catalog,  computerized  periodical  index,  newspaper,   govt  documents,  instructor,  ask  ppl,  orgs  and  agencies     o writing  report   o focus  on  topic   o make  outline     o work  ahead  of  deadline   o read  paper  aloud     o include  citations  and  references        


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