HIST 1010 Week 6 Lecture/Book Notes (Bohanan)
HIST 1010 Week 6 Lecture/Book Notes (Bohanan) History 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Sunday July 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1010 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 07/03/16
World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 6 Book Notes (pgs. 425-439) CHAPTER 15: Europe in the Renaissance and the Reformation Renaissance Culture v Wealth and Power in Renaissance Italy th th • The renaissance happened during the 14 and 15 centuries. - Renaissance: a French word that means “rebirth” used to describe the cultural movement that began in 14 century Italy and looked back to the classical past. • The merchants used a patronage system. - Patronage: financial support of writers and artists by cities, groups, and individuals, often to produce a specific work or works in specific styles. • The renaissance began in the other Italian city of Florence. • Banking families would control the city’s politics and culture. • Wealthy bankers and merchants would build huge palaces, these things appealed to the rich. • Venice, Milan, Florence, the Papal States and Naples competed for territory. • Renaissance Italians invented the machinery of modern diplomacy. - These however, didn’t prevent invasions. v The Rise of Humanism • The humanist, Petrarch claimed that Rome had inaugurated the dark ages. - He showed a deep interest in classical Latin texts. o Humanism: a program of study designed by Italians that emphasized the critical study of Latin and Greek literature with the goal of understanding human nature. § Humanists didn’t reject religion, but they sought to synthesize it. • Humanists put their educational ideas to practice and opened schools. - They disagreed about education for women and never made a school for girls. • The best-known political theorist was Niccolo Machiavelli. - He was most famous for writing “The Prince”. o It is seen as the modern guide to politics in the west. v Christian Humanism • Students from Low Countries went to Italy to absorb the “new learning” of humanism. - They were known as Christian humanities. o Christian Humanities: humanists from northern Europe who thought that the best elements of classical and Christian cultures should be combined and saw humanist learning as a way to bring about reform of the church and deepen people’s spiritual lives. • Thomas Moore became best known for his dialogue, Utopia. • The Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus wrote “The Education of a Christian Prince”. - For him, education was key to moral and intellectual improvement. v Printing and It’s Social Impact • Printing with movable type was invented in China, but printing with metal type was invented in Korea. • Printing improved public and private lives of the Europeans. v Art and the Artist • Due to patronage, certain artists gained great public acclaim and acculation. • The individual portrait emerged as a distinct genre. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 6 • Eventually the center of the renaissance shifted form Florence to Rome. Social Hierarchies v Race and Slavery • Only a few blacks lived in the roman republic. - Muslims and Christian merchants constantly brought in slaves. o They would serve as agriculture laborers, crafts men and seamen. v Wealth and Nobility • The word “class” wasn’t used to classify division. v Gender Roles • An argument about women’s character and nature was known as “debate about women”th - Debate About Women: a discussion, which began in the later years of the 14 century, which attempted to answer fundamental questions about gender and to define the role of women in society. - Women in Spain, England, France, and Scotland, would serve as advisors to the king. • Women that worked wouldn’t earn as much as men. • Gender was the most “natural” form of distinction. Politics and the State in the Renaissance v France • France was depopulated due to the Black Death and the hundred years war. v England • Population was declining due to the Black Death. • Henry VII rebuilt the monarchy and left the country at peace. v Spain • Spain was a conglomerate/independent kingdom. - They excluded aristocrats and great territorial magnates. • A greater persecution of Jews started. - An anti Semitism against Jews happened. o Eventually they were expelled from Spain. v The Hash burgs • Marriage was a way that a person could benefit. Lecture Notes LECTURE #14: 7/01/16 (The European Renaissance) Italian Humanism The renaissance was a period of the revival of the Greeks and the Romans. The renaissance helped in reviving and preserving the Greeks. The concept of humanism is important—this period is an intellectual and cultural trend that celebrates the Greeks. The father of humanism was Petrarch who was still living in the period of the middle ages. He found manuscripts written in Latin (not in the vernacular language)—he saw that it looked so much better than current languages. He realized that language is not static and it evolves. He then became obsessed and wanted to write the way the romans did—in an eloquent manner. Petrarch went and searched many libraries and ransacked places to find forgotten volumes. Monasteries would devote themselves to copying manuscripts. A philogy is the study of how a language changes overtime. Think of the evolution of Shakespeare English to modern day English. Historical linguistics is another way to define philogy. Lorenzo Valla was known as the best philogest among the humanists. “The Donation of World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 6 Constantine” is what really made him famous, due to him realizing that it was forged. Philogy is the heart of what the humanists did. Philogists studied textual corruption due to no printing press and only the use of manual writing to copy scripts—it could lead to a few errors—the Philogists would essentially clean them up. The rise of vernacular literature happened due to people leaning about styles and literary form from the romans, and people trying to play with it. Boccaccio wrote a book called “The Decameron” which was about the plague striking, and a group of people running off to escape it, and then telling stories about it. Humanist Philosophy The revival of Plato happened, due to people becoming interested in the Greeks. Marsillio Ficino was the reason for the Greek revival—he collected many manuscripts. Cosimo de Medici, who was the patriarch of a very wealthy family who became super bankers of Italy, sponsored him. Material goods were a status symbol. The platonic academy was the hub of Plato. After looking into Plato’s work, Ficino realized that gods creatures (humans) were perfect—due to them being able to understand ideal forms. A “Cult of Man” evolved due to Ficino’s realization. Pico was Ficino’s associate that thought that human beings are creatures by free will—they have the ability to rise or descend. Michelangelo was known for painting the Sistine chapel. Northern Humanism Northern Europe began to experience similar trends to the Italian renaissance—called the “northern humanism”. They were interested in studying Christianity from the Roman Empire, known as classical Christianity—due to this particular time being the best for the Christian church. The vulgate was the Latin translation of the bible. Ximenes de Cisneros was a Spanish humanist who was apart of the formation of the polygot bible—an effort to clean up the bible; it had 2 columns (the vulgate and what should have actually been said, with the actual saying in the middle of the 2 columns). Erasmus was a Dutch intellectual that was a scholar for the Greeks. He was very interested in the philosophy of Christ.
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