Full notes for Introductory Psychology
Full notes for Introductory Psychology PSY 101
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09/16/2014 ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Introductory Psychology -PSY 101 ▯ ▯ Class Notes + Study Guide ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. ▯ ▯ Psychologists study mental disorders. ▯ ▯ Behavior is any action of an organism that we can observe and record, and many actions qualify. ▯ ▯ Science is an approach to gaining understanding of the natural world through systematic observations. ▯ ▯ Wilhem Wundt founded the first lab devoted to psychological research. ▯ ▯ Edward Titchener introduced structuralism ▯ ▯ William James thought about the minds functions. ▯ ▯ Francis Galton thought about individual differences in psychological traits, and created the tools and statistical techniques to study them. ▯ ▯ Psychology has 3 main levels of analysis: Biological (Brain mechanism, Role of Genes, Hormonal influence) Psychological (Learning, Thought, Perception, Emotion) Social & Cultural (How it influences behavior etc.) ▯ ▯ Psychology Subfields: Biological Psychologists (Link between brain and behavior) Developmental Psychologists (How behavior and thinking changes over time) Cognitive Psychologists (How people perceive the world and how they form memories, think, and solve problems) Social Psychologists (Study how we interact, and how we view and affect one another in social interactions) ▯ Research: Some Psychologists conduct Basic Research in which the aim is to increase knowledge of some phenomenon – To build theories. Applied Research tackles practical problems. For example, selecting people who are likely to succeed in a particular job. ▯ ▯ Counseling Psychologists help people cope with challenges of all sorts. (academic, vocational, marital etc.) ▯ ▯ Clinical Psychologists assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. ▯ ▯ Human Factors Psychologists use principles of perception and cognition to design devices and interfaces that people interact with. ▯ ▯ Industrial Psychologists study relationships between people and their working environment to increase productivity, improve personal selection, and promote job satisfaction. ▯ ▯ Chapter 1 – Psychology & Common Sense ▯ ▯ Common sense describes what has happened after the fact more easily. ▯ ▯ Human visual system is most sensitive to light with wavelengths between 510-570 nm. ▯ ▯ The Scientific Method ▯ A Theory is an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations. ▯ ▯ A Hypothesis is a testable prediction implied by a theory. ▯ ▯ Generating Research Questions: Everyday observation ( observing the world around you and asking why people behave the way they do) ▯ Example: The Bystander effect (Diffusion of Responsibility) Personal Experience (Psychologists want to understand their own tendencies, and foibles) Replication (seeing whether a basic finding can be observed again with different participants and under different circumstances) ▯ ▯ After finding a question, psychologists establish operational definitions. ▯ ▯ Operational Definition is a specific statement of the procedures used to define research variables, so as to allow others to replicate the original observations. ▯ ▯ Choosing a research design: ▯ Three major types of research design Setting (Lab OR Field) Methods (Descriptive, Correlational, or Experimental) ▯ ▯ - Descriptive methods The case study (An in depth investigation of a single or very few subjects) ▯ Jean Piaget Case Study Parrot (Alex) Case Study ▯ ▯ A Survey is an investigation of many cases in less depth by asking people to report opinions and behaviors. Survey is a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative sample of people. One that accurately portrays the population of interest. ▯ ▯ Naturalistic observation is recording behavior in its natural environments and describing it in detail. Primatologist Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees Psychologists use naturalistic observation to study the effects of social interactions on peoples’ behavior ▯ ▯ The purpose of Experimental methods is to explore cause & effect by manipulating one or more factors, while holding other factors constant. ▯ ▯ Variables Anything that can fluctuate Types: Independent and Dependent ▯ ▯ The Independent Variable is an aspect of the situation or individuals that can vary independently of other variables. The variable whose effect is being studied. Example: Online Vs Classroom. ▯ ▯ The Dependent Variable is the one that may change in response to manipulating the Independent Variable. Example: The score on the test. ▯ ▯ Example: Does breastfeeding children have an impact on their intelligence later in life? The Independent Variable is whether mothers breast feed (Experimental Condition) or use formula (Control Condition). Random Assignment: Controlling for other variables such as parental intelligence and environment. The Dependent Variable is the child’s intelligence test score at the age of 8. ▯ Random Assignment is assigning participants by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between groups that could affect the dependent variable. ▯ ▯ Extraneous Variables (aka Confounding Variables) are other variables that might affect the result. ▯ ▯ The purpose of Correlational methods is to observe relationships between variables. ▯ ▯ Correlation Coefficient is a statistical index (-1 to 1) of the relationship between two variables. ▯ ▯ A Scatter plot is a graphical cluster of dots, each represent the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship. The number of points suggests the strength of the relationship. ▯ ▯ ▯ Correlation and Causation Correlation does not imply Causation. Variable A could cause Variable B but Variable B could also cause Variable A (Directionality problem) A third variable could be causing Variable A and B. ▯ ▯ Spurious (False) Correlations arise because of a third variable, which is also called an extraneous or confounding variable. ▯ ▯ The Milgram experiments 65% of test subjects went all the way with the shocking of the learner. ▯ ▯ Research Ethics: 1. Obtain Informed Consent from participants. 2. Protect the participants from harm. 3. Maintain Confidentiality. 4. Debrief. Chapter 1 Review: Why do we need psychology? Common sense only takes you so far. It makes the world a better place. ▯ ▯ How do psychologists ask and answer questions? The Scientific Method. Establishing Operational Definitions. ▯ ▯ Chapter 2: The Biology of the Mind ▯ ▯ The basic assumption: everything psychological is biological. ▯ ▯ Phrenology is a popular but wrong theory claimed that bumps on the skull could reveal mental abilities. ▯ ▯ The goal of biological psychology is to study the link between biological activity and psychological events. ▯ ▯ Nervous System Neural Communication. ▯ ▯ ▯ Sensory Neurons carry messages from the body’s tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal cord for processing. ▯ ▯ Motor Neurons carry messages from the brain out to the body’s tissues. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ How Neurons Communicate: ▯ When a neural impulse reaches the terminal of an axon, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap and they bind to receptor sites of the receiving neuron. Ones that don’t bind get reabsorbed by the sending neuron. ▯ ▯ Neurotransmitters to know: 1. Acetylcholine 2. Dopamine 3. Serotonin 4. Norepinephrine 5. GABA 6. Glutamate ▯ ▯ Each of the brain’s neurotransmitters has a designated pathway where it operates. ▯ ▯ The Nervous System Peripheral Central Nervous Nervous System System Somatic Autonomic Nervous Nervous Brain Spinal Cord System System The The Sympathetic Parasympathe System tic System ▯ ▯ The Somatic Nervous System enables voluntary control of skeletal muscles. ▯ ▯ The Autonomic Nervous System controls our glands and the muscles of our internal organs. ▯ ▯ The Sympathetic System expands energy. It accelerates the heart rate and blood pressure. ▯ ▯ The Parasympathetic System conserves energy. It decelerates the heart rate and blood pressure. ▯ ▯ The brain contains 40 billion neurons. Each neuron has 10,000 connections with other neurons for approximately 400 trillion synaptic connections. Clinical Observation (Phineas Gage) Lesions and Transections. Anterograde Amnesia (H.M) ▯ ▯ Neuroimaging techniques: Transcraneal magnetic stimulation induces temporary lesions in which a magnetic field is passed over a particular brain region. EEG (Electroencephalogram) provides amplified tracings of waves of electrical activity in the brain. fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) detects changes in blood oxygenation in different brain regions. ▯ ▯ Older Brain Structures: Sustain basic life functions and enable memory, emotions, and regulate basic drives. ▯ ▯ The Medulla is the base of the brainstem that controls involuntary functions such as heartbeat and breathing. ▯ ▯ The reticular formation filters incoming stimuli (from spinal cord) and relays information to other areas of the brain. ▯ ▯ The thalamus receives information from all the senses (except smell) and routes it to higher brain regions. Ex: from eyes to cortical areas for vision. ▯ ▯ The cerebellum (“little brain”) is attached to the rear of the brainstem. It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance; also plays a role in learning motor skills. ▯ ▯ The Limbic System includes the hippocampus, which is involved in the acquisition of memories. The Limbic System also includes the amygdala, which regulates fear and aggression. ▯ ▯ The hypothalamus, which regulates the FOUR F’s, fighting, fleeing, feeding, and reproduction. ▯ ▯ The Cerebral Cortex: At least 2/3 of the total mass of the brain. 2 mm deep layer. Convoluted. ▯ ▯ Each brain hemisphere is divided into four lobes that are separated by prominent fissures. ▯ ▯ Occipital Lobes are involved in vision; contains the visual cortex. (In the back of the head) ▯ ▯ Damage of visual cortex disrupts consciousness. ▯ ▯ Temporal lobes are involved in hearing, understanding language, and storing autobiographical memories; it contains the auditory cortex. ▯ ▯ Wernicke’s area spans the region between temporal and parietal lobes. Wernicke’s Aphasia is the impairment in the ability of understanding language. ▯ ▯ Parietal lobes are involved in sensations of touch, pain, and temperature; it contains the somatosensory cortex. ▯ ▯ The sensory cortex (parietal cortex) receives information from skin surface and sense organs. ▯ ▯ Frontal lobes are involved in motor function, language, memory, and executive functions. ▯ ▯ The motor cortex is the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements. ▯ ▯ Mapping of the Motor Cortex: Wilder Penfield was able to map the motor cortex in wide-awake patients by stimulating different cortical areas and observing the body’s response. ▯ Association areas are found in all four of the lobes and are responsible for integrating information, linking sensory input with stored memories. Unlike the motor cortex and the sensory cortex, probing association areas doesn’t trigger any observable response. But these areas are responsible for specific functions. For example, damage to association areas in the frontal lobe can alter a person’s personality, removing inhibition and disrupting the ability to reason. The Brainstem is the oldest and innermost region of the brain, which is responsible for primal functions. Limbic system is associated with emotion and drive. Cerebral cortex is a convoluted mass that enables higher level functions. Questions not covered in class – Our Divided Brain (page 76-81) ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception ▯ ▯ The study of how the world out there gets in here… how we construct internal representations of the external world. ▯ ▯ Sensation refers to the stimulation of the sensory organs by physical energy from the external world, and the conversion of this energy into neural signals. This is called transduction. ▯ ▯ Perception refers to our interpretation of what we sense based on our experience, expectations, and surroundings. ▯ ▯ Sensation and perception are not the same. For example, people who suffer from prosopagnosia cannot perceive human faces, but they can perceive objects. ▯ ▯ The absolute threshold for human vision is equivalent to the amount of energy emitted by a single candle on a completely dark night from 30 miles away. While that for hearing is equivalent to the amount of energy emitted by the tick of a watch 20 feet away. ▯ ▯ Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between characteristics of physical stimuli and our perceptual experiences of them, and makes use of signal detection to measure absolute thresholds and other properties of sensation and perception. ▯ ▯ In a signal detection task, across a number of trials, stimuli of different intensities are presented. The test-taker’s task is to indicate when he/she perceives the stimulus. The absolute threshold is the intensity at which he/she is correct 50% of the time. Absolute threshold unit for vision is lumens. ▯ ▯ Stimuli below the absolute threshold are subliminal, and we are influenced by subliminal stimulation. ▯ ▯ The effects of subliminal stimulation are fleeting, and there’s no evidence for powerful, enduring effects on behavior. ▯ ▯ The stimulus input for vision is light energy. Wavelength refers to the distance between one wave peak and the next, and determines hue (color). Visible spectrum (400nm-700nm) Intensity refers to the amplitude of the light wave (its height), and determines brightness. ▯ ▯ The eye ▯ ▯ Light enters the eye through the cornea and passes through the pupil that is surrounded by the iris (a colored muscle that gives the eye its color and dilates or constricts in response to light intensity through a process called accommodation), the lens focuses the light on the retina. ▯ ▯ The retina is the light sensitive inner surface of the eye. It contains rods and cones in addition to neurons that process visual information. Cones enable color vision and are concentrated in the fovea. Rods enable black and white vision and are concentrated away from the fovea. ▯ ▯ The light energy triggers neural impulses in rods and cones then in bipolar and ganglion cells. Ultimately, the neural impulses are transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve. The bundle of nerve fibers that exits in each eye. ▯ ▯ Retina is where transduction occurs. ▯ ▯ After it exits the eyes, visual information percolates upward to the brain. Feature detectors in the occipital lobe receive information from the optic nerves, and respond selectively to the specific features of a scene, such as edges, lines, angles, and movements. Feature detectors then pass information to areas that respond to more complex patterns such as faces. ▯ ▯ By implanting electrodes in cats brains and recording activity of specific cells, feature detectors were first identified by David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel, a discovery for which they were awarded a Nobel prize in 1978. ▯ ▯ More recently, the areas that respond to more complex patterns have been pinpointed using neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI. For example, the region that responds to faces is called the fusiform face area. ▯ ▯ The brain is masterful at multitasking, also known as parallel processing. Information about color, movement, form, and depth is processed simultaneously by different brain regions. ▯ ▯ Achromotopsia: a condition in which people lack color vision. ▯ ▯ Taste is aka gustation ▯ ▯ Read page 234-242 ▯ ▯ The Ear ▯ ▯ ▯ (1) The outer ear funnels sound waves to the eardrum. (2) The bones of the middle ear amplify and relay the vibrations through the oval window into the cochlea. (3) The resulting pressure changes in the cochlear fluid cause the basilar membrane to ripple, bending the hair cells on the surface. ▯ ▯ ▯ Loudness: The amount of energy in a wave, which is determined by the wave’s amplitude, relates to the perceived loudness, and is determined by the number of hair cells in the inner ear activated. ▯ ▯ Pitch is determined by the wave’s frequency, and our experience of pitch is determined both by which hair cells are activated (high-pitched tones), and by the frequency of neural signals traveling up the auditory nerve (low-pitched tones). ▯ ▯ Because we have two ears, sounds that reach one ear faster than the other ear cause us to localize the sound. ▯ ▯ Skin sensations include pressure, warmth, cold, and pain, but there is no simple relationship between what we feel at a given spot and the type of specialized nerve ending found there. ▯ ▯ Sensors in the skin, as well as the joints, tendons, bones, and ears enable kinesthetic sense—your sense of the position and movement of your body parts, and a companion vestibular sense monitors position and movement of the head. ▯ ▯ Biological influences: sensory receptors called nociceptors detect hurtful temperatures, pressure, or chemicals. ▯ ▯ Psychological influences: our mental state can influence the degree to which we experience pain. ▯ ▯ ▯ Each of our taste buds contains 50-100 receptors cells, which differ in terms of which molecules they respond mostly to (sweet-tasting, salty- tasting, etc.) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Airborne molecules reach receptors at the top of your nose. Sniffing swirls air up to the receptors. The receptor cells send messages to the brain’s olfactory bulb, and then onward to higher regions of the brain. ▯ ▯ Information from the taste buds travels to an area not far from where the brain receives olfactory information, which interacts with taste. ▯ ▯ Visual Organization (pp. 234-242) ▯ ▯ - End of Exam 1 Material ▯ ▯ Sleep Theories ▯ ▯ Sleep protects: Sleeping in the darkness when predators loomed about kept our ancestors out of harm’s way. ▯ ▯ Sleep helps us recover: Sleep helps restore and repair brain tissue. ▯ ▯ Sleep helps us remember: Sleep restores and rebuilds our fading memories. ▯ ▯ In one study, participants performed better on a memory test after an interval of sleep than after an equal interval of being awake. ▯ ▯ Sleep may play a role in the growth process: During sleep, the pituitary gland releases growth hormone. Older people release less of this hormone and sleep less. ▯ ▯ We all dream. The average person spends about 600 hours per year, dreaming some 1500 dreams. ▯ ▯ For both men and women, 80% of dreams are marked by at least one negative event, such as being attacked, pursued, or rejected. Most dreams incorporate previous days’ experiences and preoccupations. ▯ ▯ Wish Fulfillment – Dreams provide a “psychic safety valve” through which we express unacceptable feelings, and fulfill forbidden wishes ▯ ▯ Freud believed that our dreams are symbolic, and that interpretation of the “latent content” of dreams is critical to uncovering these forbidden wishes and desires. For example, he believed that long, cylindrical objects are symbolic of the male reproductive organ ▯ ▯ Information Processing- Dreams play a role in filing away memories. Consistent with this theory, hippocampal place cells that fire as a rat learns a maze also fire during REM sleep. ▯ ▯ Physiological Function – Brain activity during REM sleep provides the brain with periodic stimulation, and especially in infants, this may help to establish neural pathways. And, in fact, infants spend much of their sleep in REM. ▯ ▯ Activation Synthesis – Dreaming is nothing more than the brain’s attempt to make sense of random neural activity that spreads upward through the brain from the brainstem. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity ▯ ▯ People differ in many aspects of psychological functioning. For example, some people possess a “Type A” personality and are aggressive, ambitious, and controlling, whereas others possess a “Type B” personality and are passive and easy-going. ▯ ▯ Yet, we are also similar in some aspects of our psychological functioning. For example, whether we live in the Arctic or tropics, we divide the color spectrum into similar colors. ▯ ▯ Behavioral Genetics is the study of effects of environmental and genetic factors, and their interplay, on differences in psychological traits ▯ ▯ Genes are our Codes for Life ▯ ▯ Every cell in your body contains chromosomes (in the Nuclues), 23 donated from your mother, and 23 from your father. ▯ ▯ Identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg and are genetically identical, whereas fraternal twins develop from separate fertilized eggs and share half their genes, just like siblings. ▯ ▯ Correlation Between IQs of Family Members ▯ Identical twins reared together .86 ▯ Fraternal twins reared together .60 ▯ Siblings reared together .47 ▯ ▯ Even identical twins separated at birth and raised apart tend to be more similar in their psychological makeup than fraternal twins. ▯ ▯ Obviously, some of these similarities are pure coincidence. But research has revealed that identical twins separated at birth are indeed more similar to less genetically-related pairs in a number of traits. ▯ ▯ Correlation Between IQs of Family Members ▯ Child and biological parent by whom child is reared .42 ▯ Child and biol. mother separated from the child by adoption .31 ▯ Child and unrelated adoptive mother .17 ▯ ▯ Surprisingly, in many traits, adoptive children do not closely resemble their adoptive parents and are more similar to their biological parents. ▯ 2 ▯ Heritability (denoted h ) of a trait is a mathematical estimate of the extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to their differing genes; it can range from 0 to 1. ▯ ▯ A trait can be found to be substantially heritable, but this does not imply that group differences, such as those between men and women, are heritable. ▯ ▯ The goal of molecular genetics is to identify specific genes that influence behavior. ▯ ▯ The APOE4 gene has been linked to Alzheimer’s Disease, which both Ronald Reagan and Charlton Heston developed. ▯ ▯ The ACTN3 gene has been linked to high-level success in sprinting ▯ ▯ Natural selection: Organisms’ varied offspring compete for survival. Certain behavioral characteristics increase odds of survival in a particular environment. Offspring that survive reproduce and pass on their genes. ▯ ▯ Over a 40 year span, Dmitry Belyaev and colleagues in Russian produced a breed of foxes that are “docile, eager to please, and unmistakably domesticated.” ▯ ▯ Evolutionary psychologists believe our tendencies as humans have been shaped by evolution. For example, some women’s experience of nausea in the first three months of pregnancy predisposes them to avoid foods that may be toxic to the fetus. ▯ ▯ Have different adaptive challenge for men and women led to gender differences in psychological functioning? Evolutionary psychologists believe the answer is yes. Men are responsible for spreading genes, and across cultures, they are found to be more likely to initiate sex than women, and to desire and think about sex more than women. Also, across cultures, men judge women as more attractive if they have a youthful appearance. According to evolutionary psychologists, this is because young women have a better chance of conceiving than older women. ▯ ▯ Whether early environment is impoverished or enriched has a major impact on brain development: Rosenzweig and Krech found that rats raised in an enriched environment developed a larger, and thicker, cortex than rats raised in an impoverished environment. ▯ ▯ A trained brain: A well-learned finger-tapping task, practiced thousands of times, activates more motor cortex neurons (in orange) than were active in the same brain before training. ▯ ▯ This same sort of brain plasticity is seen in humans. In one study, researchers found that London taxi cab drivers had larger hippocampal brain regions responsible for spatial memory than did controls. ▯ ▯ Parents do matter, especially at extremes. For example, abused children are prone to abuse their own children as adults. Somewhat surprisingly, however, shared environmental influences on personality and intelligence are fairly small (around 10%). ▯ ▯ There are large influences of peers on a variety of behaviors and traits. Psychologist Judith Rich Harris concludes that peers play a larger role in shaping personality than do parents. ▯ ▯ Culture: Behavior, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group transmitted from one generation to the next ▯ ▯ Many other animals are social. However, nearly all other animals lack the means to preserve innovations, and in so doing, to build a culture. What separates humans from all other animals is mastery of language. ▯ ▯ Wolves, for example, are social animals, and yet they function almost exactly as they did 10,000 years ago. By contrast, on an ever day basis, you and I use technologies that were unimaginable only a century ago. ▯ ▯ Each cultural group has norms—rules for expected and accepted behavior. For example, cultures differ in norms regarding personal space —the portable buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies. North Americans tend to prefer more personal space than do Latin Americans. ▯ ▯ And when our personal space is invaded, we feel uncomfortable. Lyndon Johnson was known to be a “close talker.” ▯ ▯ As case in point, consider cultural changes in the United States since the 1960s. Some changes are positive. Women are more likely to marry for love than out of economic need, and rights of minority groups have expanded. But some are negative. There is more divorce, delinquency, and depression. ▯ ▯ Cultures vary in the extent to which they give priority to the expression of personal identity or group identity. Cultures that give priority to the independent self are high in individualism, while those that give priority to the interdependent self are high in collectivism. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Differences in individualism vs. collectivism influence how we make attributions about our success and failures. ▯ ▯ Differences in individualism vs. collectivism also have an influence on child-rearing. Many Asians and Africans live in cultures that greatly value emotional closeness, whereas Westerners place a greater emphasis on development of independence. ▯ ▯ Much is made about differences between males and females in the popular press, and there are some striking differences. Women have a keener sense of smell than men, and are twice as vulnerable as men to depression and anxiety. And girls tend to be more cooperative and less competitive in their play than boys. On the other hand, men are more prone to physical aggression than women (the male-to-female arrest ratio in the United States is 10 to 1), and are more dominant, forceful, and independent than women. ▯ ▯ However, some of the most talked about gender differences are actually quite small. For example, the average difference between females and males in self-esteem is only about .2 standard deviations. ▯ ▯ There appears to be no evidence that women are better at multitasking than men. ▯ ▯ We are the product of nature and nurture. Genes are all-pervasive but not all-powerful. Culture is all-pervasive but not all-powerful. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Learning ▯ ▯ Learning is a relatively permanent behavior change due to experience ▯ We learn by Conditioning, which is the process of learning associations ▯ ▯ Classical Conditioning ▯ ▯ ▯ Example of Classical Conditioning: Pavlov’s Experiments ▯ ▯ Classical conditioning–a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ The initial stage of learning when a neutral stimulus is linked to an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Spontaneous Recovery is the reappearance of a weakened conditioned response after a pause ▯ ▯ Generalization is the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses ▯ ▯ The learned ability to discriminate between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus ▯ ▯ John Garcia discovered that organisms are predisposed to learn associations that help them adapt and survive. Contrary to what many before Garcia believed, some associations are learned more readily than others. ▯ ▯ Former drug users often feel a craving when they are again in the drug-using context—with people or in places they associate with previous highs. Thus, drug counselors advise addicts to change environment. ▯ ▯ Advertisers pair previously neutral stimuli (brands) with erotic images with the idea that the brand will itself elicit the same positive response as the image. Classical conditioning is the basis of the adage that “sex sells.” ▯ ▯ As demonstrated by John Watson, emotional responses can be understood as developing through classical conditioning. Watson conditioned an 11-month old infant named “Little Albert” to fear white rats. ▯ ▯ Acrophobia- Fear of heights. ▯ Ophidiophobia- Fear of snakes. ▯ Selachophobia- Fear of sharks. ▯ ▯ Stimulus generalization—when a stimulus is similar enough to the CS to elicit the CR ▯ ▯ Stimulus discrimination—when a stimulus is not similar enough to the CS to elicit the CR ▯ ▯ Operant Conditioning ▯ ▯ ▯ Thorndike’s Law of Effect: Behavior followed by a pleasant outcome (a “reward”) is likely to happen again. ▯ ▯ Using Thorndike's law of effect as a starting point, Skinner developed the operant chamber (“Skinner box”) to study operant conditioning. ▯ ▯ Shaping–a procedure in which reinforcers (such as food) guide an animal’s actions toward desired behavior (also known as the method of successive approximations). ▯ ▯ Reinforcer–any event that strengthens (increases the frequency of) a preceding response. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Primary reinforcer: An innately reinforcing stimulus ▯ ▯ Conditioned reinforcer: a stimulus that gains its power to reinforce through its association with a primary reinforcer ▯ ▯ Punishment–any event that weakens (decreases the frequency of) a preceding response. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Latent learning–a type of learning that becomes apparent only when there is incentive to demonstrate (and in the absence of reinforcement). ▯ ▯ Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive. For example, it’s easy to train a pigeon to peck to obtain food, but not to flap its wings to obtain food. Or to teach cats tricks that involve leaping high and landing on their feet! ▯ ▯ At school: Skinner introduced the concept of teaching machines that shape learning in small steps and provide reinforcements for correct rewards. ▯ ▯ In sports: shaping can be used to train complex skills such as hitting a golf ball. ▯ ▯ At work: rewarding specific, achievable behaviors, rather than vaguely defined “merit,” increases workplace productivity ▯ ▯ At home: In children, reinforcing good behavior increases the occurrence of these behaviors. Ignoring unwanted behavior decreases their occurrence. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Bandura’s Experiments ▯ A child watches an adult actor behave either in an aggressive manner toward a stand-up doll (“Bobo”) or in a neutral manner. The child is taken to a room containing a few toys, and a Bobo doll. ▯ ▯ Learning by Observation ▯ ▯ Applications of Observational Learning Prosocial vs. Antisocial Effects ▯ Prosocial models can have positive effects on behavior, but antisocial models can have negative, even destructive, effects. ▯ ▯ Memory ▯ ▯ The Phenomenon of Memory - Learning that has persisted ▯ ▯ Memory is not defined in terms of the length that the learning has persisted. We can remember some information for a lifetime, but other information for only a few seconds. ▯ ▯ Memory is the foundation of identity ▯ ▯ To remember any event, we must get the information into our brain (encoding), retain that information (storage), and later get it back into consciousness (retrieval). ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Encoding Automatic Processing Effortful Processing ▯ ▯ We use automatic processing to encode information such as the sequence of the day’s events, and the frequency of events such as the number of times we run into a friend. Automatic processing occurs unconsciously. ▯ ▯ But for other information, we must use effortful processing. We must consciously attend to and process it to form durable and accessible memories. ▯ ▯ Rehearsal is a form of effortful processing that involves conscious repetition of material. Ebbinghaus, a pioneer of the study of memory, studied the impact of rehearsal by teaching himself nonsense syllables (e.g., JIH, BAZ, etc.). ▯ ▯ Ebbinghaus found that the more times he practiced the list of nonsense syllables on Day 1, the fewer repetitions he required to relearn it on Day 2. The bottom-line: The more time we spend learning novel information, the better we learn it. ▯ ▯ But we retain information better if our rehearsal is distributed across time, which is a phenomenon called the spacing effect. ▯ ▯ How we engage information also has an impact of memory. Encoding information in terms of its meaning (deep processing) leads to better memory than encoding it in terms of a superficial characteristic (shallow processing). ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Mnemonic–a strategy for improving memory for some material, which makes use of imagery (mental pictures) or chunking (organizing items into familiar, manageable units). ▯ ▯ Iconic memory–sensory memory for visual information, which lasts about 200 ms. ▯ ▯ Echoic memory–sensory memory for auditory information, which lasts about 3 seconds. ▯ ▯ Working memory–the memory system responsible for holding information in an active, conscious state. Working memory has a limited capacity (about 7 items) and a limited duration (about 20 seconds). ▯ ▯ Long-term memory–the memory system responsible for permanent storage of information with a theoretically limitless capacity. ▯ ▯ However, this isn’t to say that memories we store in long-term memory are always accurate! They’re often not. Flashbulb memories are extremely vivid recollections of surprising events, but even they be inaccurate. ▯ ▯ Long-Term Potentiation–the prolonged strengthening of potential neuronal firing which provides a basis for learning and remembering associations. Above, one receptor site (gray) before LTP, and two receptors sites after. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ When you encode into memory a target piece of information, you associate it with other bits of information about your surroundings, mood, location, etc. These bits of information can serve as retrieval cues. ▯ ▯ Putting yourself back in the context where you experienced something can prime memory retrieval (“awaken” associations between what you are trying to recall and your surroundings). ▯ ▯ Much of what we sense, we fail to encode, and what we fail to encode, we will never remember ▯ ▯ Even after encoding something well, we sometimes later forget it. Hermann Ebbinghaus, who you learned about earlier, learned lists of non-sense syllables and then attempted to re-learn them. ▯ ▯ This same forgetting curve is found for other types of material: The course of forgetting is initially rapid and levels off with time. This could be because of decay of the physical memory trace. ▯ ▯ Proactive interference occurs when something you learned earlier disrupts your recall of something you experience later. ▯ ▯ Retroactive interference occurs when new information makes it harder to recall something you learned earlier. ▯ ▯ Sleep may provide some protection against retroactive interference. ▯ ▯ The bottom-line is that forgetting can occur at any memory stage. As we process information, we filter, alter, or lose much of it. ▯ ▯ Misinformation effect—after exposure to misinformation, many people misremember. ▯ ▯ Sigmund Freud proposed that we repress painful memories to protect our self-concept and minimize anxiety. ▯ ▯ Thinking and Language ▯ ▯ Thinking Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Some problems we solve by trial-and-error, and others by using algorithms—methodical, step by step procedures that guarantee a solution. However, algorithms are time-consuming, and thus we often use heuristics—sample thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems efficiently. Heuristics are usually speedier but more error prone. ▯ ▯ ▯ Obstacles to Problem Solving ▯ Confirmation bias–our tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore contradictory evidence. Fixation – our inability to see a problem from a new perspective, employing a different mental set. Functional Fixedness – our tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions. The Representativeness Heuristic – judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes. The Availability Heuristic – estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; that is, how readily they come to mind. o For example, although flying is much safer than driving, many people insist on driving. ▯ Our use of intuitive heuristics (representative and availability) and our eagerness to confirm the beliefs we already hold (confirmation bias) combine to create overconfidence—a tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgments. This can create problems, big and small. ▯ ▯ Participants read about supposedly new research findings—one supporting use of the death penalty as a deterrent, and the other refuting it. Participants were most impressed with the study that confirmed their own beliefs about the death penalty. ▯ ▯ Belief Perseverance – our tendency to cling to our initial concepts even after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited. ▯ ▯ Framing – the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments. ▯ ▯ Curtis Daniels III Patchwerk Recording Studios, Atlanta, GA ▯ ▯ -End of Exam 2 material ▯ ▯ Chapter 10- Intelligence ▯ ▯ Intelligence is a mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solving problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. ▯ ▯ Charles Spearman believed we have one general intelligence— and he had a good reason for believing this. Spearman found that people who do well on one test of mental ability tend to do well on all others, implying that there is a “key ingredient” for success across tests, which he identified using a statistical tool called factor analysis, and which he called the general factor. ▯ ▯ Gardner’s theory – intelligence is best thought of as multiple abilities that come in packages. ▯ ▯ Savant syndrome – a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing. ▯ ▯ For Gardner, a test score reflecting “general intelligence” is essentially meaningless, because a person can have weaknesses in some areas, but strengths in others. ▯ ▯ Sternberg’s theory – distinguishes among three intelligences… ▯ 1. Analytical Intelligence ▯ 2. Creative Intelligence ▯ 3. Practical Intelligence ▯ ▯ Creativity – the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable, such as works of art… ▯ ▯ Research suggests that people who are highly creative know a lot about their domain (expertise), think about things in novel ways (imagination), are willing to go against trends (personality), and are driven by interest, satisfaction, and challenge rather than external pressure. ▯ ▯ English poet Lord Byron had a very large head, and a very large brain—5 pounds compared to an average of 3 pounds. ▯ ▯ One review of 37 brain-imaging studies revealed associations between intelligence and brain size in specific areas, especially frontal lobes, and the correlation between overall brain size and intelligence is around .30. ▯ ▯ How does the “mental machinery” of some who scores well on intelligence tests differ from that of someone who does not? In the test of perceptual speed above, a stimulus is flashed and is then replaced by a masking image. The critical question is: How long does a person need to glimpse the stimulus to answer the question correctly? ▯ ▯ Francis Galton had a fascination with measuring human traits, and devised the first tests of mental ability, which he administered to people in his laboratory at the 1884 London Exposition. ▯ ▯ Alfred Binet, with the help of his assistant Théodore Simon, developed the first standardized test of intelligence for the purpose of identifying French schoolchildren who were in need of special help in school. ▯ ▯ Binet also introduced the concept of mental age – the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. ▯ ▯ Subsequently, Stanford University psychologist Lewis Terman translated the Binet-Simon into English. The Stanford-Binet is now one of the most widely administered tests of intelligence in the world. ▯ ▯ Terman also used the intelligence quotient as a way of expressing a person’s score— ▯ Mental Age *100 ▯ Chronological Age ▯ ▯ Aptitude tests—tests like the ACT that are designed to predict your future performance ▯ ▯ Achievement tests—tests designed to asses what you have learned. ▯ ▯ There are two major steps in standardizing a test. The first is to establish a procedure for administering the test, and the second is to administer the test to a standardization sample to establish norms for the test, and to determine whether the test has acceptable measurement properties ▯ ▯ Reliability refers to the extent to which a test yields consistent results (scores), as assessed by the consistency of the scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting. ▯ ▯ Validity refers to the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure. ▯ ▯ Ian Deary and colleagues at the University of Edinburgh (Scotland) retested 80-year-old Scots, using an intelligence test they had taken as 11-year olds. Across seven decades, scores correlated .66. ▯ ▯ Using the same sample, these researchers also found that IQ correlates with longevity: Among girls scoring in the highest 25%, 70 percent were alive at age 76, compared to only 45 percent of the girls who scored in the bottom 25%. ▯ ▯ Mental retardation is a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence test score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to normal demands of independent living. ▯ ▯ Lubinski and colleagues found that individual differences in IQ matter even at the high end of the scale. ▯ ▯ The logic of twin studies: If intelligence (or any other trait) is influenced by genetic factors, then the most genetically similar people should have the most similar intelligence test scores. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Heritability: an estimate of the proportion of the variability in a trait that is attributable to genetic factors (heritability estimates for intelligence range from 50% to 75%). ▯ ▯ But this graph also shows evidence for a contribution of environmental influences. For example, identical twins separated at birth and reared apart are less similar than identical twins reared together. ▯ ▯ In one study, Romanian orphans who had minimal interaction with caregivers were observed to suffer delayed development. ▯ ▯ On the bright side, “enrichment” experiences such as Head Start and musical training can enhance intelligence—although the benefits are modest. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Greater male variability: Boys are overrepresented in the low extreme and the high extreme of the distribution. ▯ ▯ There are also gender differences in mean levels of mental abilities. Females are better spellers than males, and are better in remembering locations of objects. ▯ ▯ Males tend to be better in spatial visualization. ▯ ▯ Even when gender differences are found, there is always substantial overlap between the score distributions for males and females. ▯ ▯ Differences in intelligence test scores are also found between ethnic groups. However, it is important to keep in mind that nature draws no sharp boundaries between races. ▯ ▯ Even if the variation between members within a group reflect genetic differences, the average difference between the group may be wholly due to the environment. Imagine that seeds from the same mixture are sewn in different soils. Height differences within each window box will be genetic, but the height difference between the boxes will be environmental ▯ ▯ Stereotype threat – a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype ▯ ▯ Chapter 12 - Emotion, Stress, and Health ▯ ▯ Emotions are a mix of physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and consciously experienced thoughts. ▯ ▯ James-Lange theory: The theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. ▯ ▯ Cannon-Bard theory: the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotions ▯ ▯ Two-factor theory: the theory that to experience emotions one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal ▯ ▯ Chapter 5 – Developing Through the Life Span ▯ ▯ Nature / Nurture: How do genetic inheritance (nature) and experience (nurture) influence our development? ▯ ▯ Continuity / Stages: Is development a gradual, continuous process like riding an escalator, or does it proceed through a series of separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder? ▯ ▯ Stability / Change: Do our early personality and intellectual traits persist through life, or do we become different people as we age? ▯ ▯ Conception- (a) Sperm cells surround an ovum. (b) As one sperm penetrates the egg’s jellylike outer coating, a series of chemical events begins that will cause sperm and egg to fuse into a single cell. Development commences. ▯ ▯ Prenatal Development - (a) The embryo grows and develops rapidly. At 40 days, the spine is visible and the arms and legs are beginning to grow. (b) Five days later, the inch-long embryo’s proportions have begun to change. (c) By the end of the second month, when the fetal period begins, facial features, hands, and feet have formed. (d) As the fetus enters the fourth month, its about 3 ounces and could fit in the palm of your hand. ▯ ▯ Prenatal exposure to teratogens, which are harmful agents such as viruses and drugs, increases risk to problems later in life. For example, smoking during pregnancy increases risk of ADHD in children. ▯ ▯ On the bright side, good prenatal nutrition has been linked to positive outcomes, such as having a IQ in childhood. Improved prenatal nutrition is one possible explanation of historical increases in intelligence test scores. ▯ ▯ Contrary to William James’ assertion that they are little “blank slates” that experience the world as a “blooming, buzzing confusion,” newborns come into the world equipped with automatic responses ideally suited for survival. ▯ ▯ For example, when something touches an infant’s cheek, it reflexively turns toward that touch, opens its mouth, and roots for a nipple. And when and if it finds a nipple, it begins sucking. An infant will also reliably turn its head toward a human voice. ▯ ▯ Infants also show habituation—a simple form of learning that occurs when an organism shows a decrease in response to some stimulus after repeated presentation of that stimulus. ▯ ▯ Studies of habituation in infants reveals that they are sensitive to novelty in their environments, and this is a window into the infant’s mental processes. ▯ ▯ Brain development unfolds through maturation—a biologically programmed growth process. In humans, at birth, the brain is immature, but as the child matures, neural networks grow increasingly more complex. As they do, the infant’s capabilities surge… ▯ ▯ As an infant’s muscles and nervous system mature, more complicated skills emerge. Babies roll over and then sit. They then crawl on all fours, and as the cerebellum develops, they eventually walk, usually around a year old. ▯ ▯ Cognition refers to all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. ▯ ▯ Our earliest memories seldom predate our third birthday—a phenomenon called infantile amnesia. ▯ ▯ Developmental psychologist Jean Piaget devoted his career to understanding how cognition develops. ▯ ▯ Schema – a mental model of something in the world ▯ ▯ Assimilation – the process of interpreting experiences in terms of our schemas ▯ ▯ Accommodation – the process of adjusting schemas ▯ ▯ Infants lack object permanence—the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived. Piaget thought that this capability emerges suddenly around 8 months, but developmental psychologists now believe it emerges gradually. ▯ ▯ They also believe that Piaget and followers underestimated young children’s competence. For example, developmental psychologist Karen Wynn has found that infants are capable of very primitive math. ▯ ▯ Piaget believed that until about the age of 7, children are incapable of basic mental operations. For example, he demonstrated that children lack the concept of conservation—the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape. ▯ ▯ He also noted that children are egocentric—that they have difficulty perceiving the world from another’s point of view. ▯ ▯ They grasp the concept of conservation, and develop the mental ability to understand mathematical transformations at the age of 7-11. ▯ ▯ By age 12, reasoning has expanded from the concrete to encompass abstract thinking. Children become capable of thinking hypothetically and of deducing consequences. ▯ ▯ However, critics have again pointed out that Piaget underestimated children’s competence. They note, for example, that in specific domains, children are capable of abstract thought much earlier than 12 years of age. ▯ ▯ The bond that keeps infants close to their caregivers is evident immediately after birth. ▯ ▯ In the 1950s, psychologists Harry and Margaret Harlow studied attachment in monkeys. The prevailing view had been that infants form attachment with the mother for the simple reason that she provides nourishment. The monkeys preferred the comfort of the cloth mother over the nourishing mother. The Harlows called this basis of attachment contact comfort. ▯ ▯ As you know, adolescence begins with puberty, when hormones trigger physical changes, including primary sex characteristics (reproductive organs, genitalia) and secondary sex characteristics (e.g., breasts in girls, lowering of voice in boys). ▯ ▯ Beyond formal operations, a critical milestone is the development of morality—discerning right from wrong and developing character. ▯ ▯ Lawrence Kohlberg proposed that moral reasoning develops through a series of stages. Children obey rules to avoid punishment and gain rewards (preconventional morality). By adolescence, they follow rules simply because they are rules (conventional morality). Finally, some eventually judge actions based on a well-developed set of ethical principles (postformal morality). ▯ ▯ Identity: a self-definition that unifies the various selves into a consistent and comfortable sense of who one is. ▯ ▯ Adolescence is a time of diminishing parental influence, and growing peer influence. ▯ ▯ Sensory abilities decline in later adulthood. For example, older adults may develop a condition called presbycusis—a loss of sensitivity to high-pitched tones—which may cause difficulty in comprehending speech. ▯ ▯ There is also a very steep rise in the incidence of dementia—the most common cause of which is Alzheimer’s Disease, a neurological disease which strikes 3% of the world’s population by the age of 75. Underlying Alzheimer’s is a loss of brain cells and deterioration of neurons that produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ▯ ▯ There are also large age-related declines in tests of fluid intelligence—tests of abstract reasoning where prior experience is of no benefit. ▯ ▯ However, the good news is that there are age-related increases, or at least stability, in scores on tests of crystallized intelligence—tests that tap our accumulated knowledge. ▯ ▯ This is one explanation for the paradox of aging—the observation that adults can maintain high levels of skill throughout adulthood despite declines in fluid intelligence. ▯ ▯ More good news is that physical activity—and especially aerobic exercise—has been found to boost cognitive functioning in older adults. ▯ ▯ There is also some evidence to suggest that intellectual activity prevents age-related decline in cognition, but the jury is still out on this issue. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Successful aging: Biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors affect the way we age. With the right genes, we have a good chance of aging successfully if we maintain a positive outlook, and if we remain active and connected to social networks. ▯ ▯ Chapter 14 - Social Psychology ▯ ▯ The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. ▯ ▯ The power of the situation can be harnessed for good, or for evil. ▯ ▯ Fundamental attribution error – the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition ▯ Attributions differ: Some people blamed the New Orleans residents for not evacuating before Katrina. Others attributed their inaction to the situation—to their not having transportation. ▯ ▯ Attitude – feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events. ▯ ▯ Foot-In-The-Door – the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. ▯ ▯ Role-Playing – When we adopt a new role, we strive to follow social prescriptions. In the famous Stanford Prison experiment, a toxic situation triggered degrading behaviors among those assigned to the guard role. ▯ ▯ Cognitive Dissonance – the idea that we act to reduce discomfort when our actions conflict with our attitudes (or beliefs). ▯ ▯ Conformity – adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. ▯ ▯ Conditions that strengthen conformity: (1) The group has at least three people. (2) The group is unanimous. (3) The individual is made to feel incompetent. (4) Culture strongly encourages respect for social standards. ▯ ▯ The most fundamental lesson of our study is that ordinary people, simply doing their jobs, and without any particular hostility on their part, can become agents in a terrible destructive process. ▯ - Stanley Milgram ▯ ▯ Social facilitation – stronger responses or better performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. ▯ ▯ Deindividuation – the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster anonymity. ▯ ▯ Groupthink – the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives ▯ ▯ Prejudice – an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members ▯ ▯ Discrimination – an unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members ▯ ▯ Automatic prejudice – People view a White or Black face, immediately followed by a gun or hand tool, which is then followed by a mask. ▯ ▯ Automatic prejudice – Participants are more likely to misperceive a tool as a gun when it was preceded by a Black face than by a White face. ▯ ▯ Social inequalities – When resources are unequally distributed, the “haves” develop attitudes that justify things as they are. For example, slave owners developed attitudes about slaves that “justified” their enslavement. ▯ ▯ Ingroup and Outgroup – People with whom we share a common identity (ingroup) and people who we perceive as different or apart (outgroup). ▯ ▯ If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions. Talk