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Phil 1180 Week Two Notes

by: Summer Notetaker

Phil 1180 Week Two Notes Phil 1180

Summer Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover Categorical form, Immediate inference, and the Square of Opposition.
Intro into Critical Reasoning
Dr. Miller
Class Notes
categorical, inference, opposition, philosophy
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Notetaker on Tuesday July 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Phil 1180 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Miller in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro into Critical Reasoning in Humanities and Social Sciences at East Carolina University.

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Date Created: 07/05/16
Phil 1180 Categorical Forms: Logical relationships: formal 4 categorical forms: A, E, I, O quantifier subject term copula predicate term A form “All doves are gentle birds.” All: quantifier Doves: subject term Are: copula Gentle birds: predicate term Copula missing if regular verb expresses predicate: All fish swim; all mothers love their children E form “No internal combustion engines are pollution-free.” No: quantifier Internal combustion engines: subject term Are: copula Pollution-free: predicate term Copula missing: No good deed goes unpunished; No vegan eats egg salad sandwiches. I form “Some bridges are in need of repair.” Copula missing: Some reptiles swim; Some trees live for years. O form “Some rich people are not selfish” are not: copula Copula missing: Some dogs wont hurt; Some smokers do not die of cancer. A form is true; all = 100% Positive instances do no prove “all statements true.” False negative instances are the counterexample. Counterexample proves statement false. I form Single positive instance prove true and confirm Negative instance do not matter. O form 2 Same as I form. A: All (subject term) are (predicate term) E: No (subject term) are (predicate term) I: Some (subject term) are (predicate term) O: Some (subject term) are not (predicate term) A and E forms are universal form I and O forms are particular form Matching universal example only confirms Nonmatching universal proves false Matching particular example proves true Nonmatching particular is irrelevant Immediate Inference: Conversion: argument form; premise is ¼ of categorical forms; conclusion is same form with subject and predicate switched Valid for E and I forms Invalid fore A and O forms Conversion of E: valid “No lion is a tiger. No tiger is a loin.” 3 Conversion of I: valid “Some games are team sports. Some team sports are games.” Conversion of A: invalid “All walruses are mammals. All mammals are walruses.” Conversion of O: invalid “Some elected officials are not congressmen. Some congressmen are not elected officials.” Contraposition: argument form; conclusion is same form with subject and predicate switched and replaced by their complement terms Valid for A and O Invalid for E and I Contraposition of A: valid “All wise people are forgiving. All unforgiving people are unwise.” Contraposition of O: valid “Some hunter are not vegetarians. Some non-vegetarians are no non-hunters.” Contraposition of I: invalid “Some inexpensive cars are reliable. Some unreliable cars are expensive.” 4 Contraposition of E: invalid “No responsible parents are unaware of their children’s needs. No parents aware of their children’s needs are irresponsible. Obversion: changing form from affirmative to negative or the reverse; leave subject term alone; replace predicate with term of complement Valid in all four forms A to E and E to A All prudent investors are successful. No prudent investors are successful. No wise person is unforgiving. All wise people are forgiving. I to O and O to I Some men are sensitive. Some men are not insensitive. Some children are not honest. Some children are dishonest. The Square of Opposition: Graphic way of depicting single premise arguments that can be formed using the four categorical forms Subject and predicates are identical for premise and conclusion 5 Categorical statements can be identified as false as well as true. A E I O Contradictories: Contradictory forms at opposite corners have opposite true values; one is true, other always false. A and O form All rats are rodents. It is false that some rats are not rodents. I and E form Some rodents are mice. It is false that no rodents are mice. A and O form It is false that all rodents are disease carriers. Some rodents are not disease carriers. Contraries: Form across top of square; A and E are contrary; one is false and one is true. One true, other is false; one false, other is not always true. All whales are mammals. It is false that no whales are mammals. VALID 6 It is false that all whales are carnivores. No whale are carnivores. INVALID It is false that no whales are migratory. It is false that all whales are migratory. INVALID No whales are fish. It is false that no whales are fish. VALID Subcontraries: I and O form; both can be true, both cannot be false True sub implies nothing about other; false sub implies other to be true. Some cities are built along coastlines. Some cities are not built along coastlines. INVALID. True does not imply true. It is false that some cities are built on the moon. Some cities are not built on the moon. VALID. False implies true. Some cities are not ancient. It is false that some cities are ancient. INVALID. True doe not imply false. It is false that some cities are not built by people. Some cities are built by people. VALID. False implies true. Some= at least one Some are not= at least one is not Subalternation: True flow down. False flows up. 7 Statements at the top of the square imply statements below. A form implies I form All colonels are officers. Some colonels are officers. VALID. E form implies O form No admirals are in the army. Some admirals are not in the army. VALID. False does not flow down. False universals do not imply false particulars. It is false that some yoga instructors are not flexible. It is false that no yoga instructors are flexible. VALID. True does not flow up. True particular statements do not imply true universals. 8


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