Chapter 7 Notes
Chapter 7 Notes Bio 301
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Nichols on Tuesday July 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 301 at Calhoun Community College taught by Felecia Ewing in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at Calhoun Community College.
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Date Created: 07/05/16
Chapter 7 Thursday, June 30, 201611:59 AM • Cellular Respiration ○ Metabolic Pool Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can be used as energy sources □ Catabolism (release energy) produces molecules that can also be used for anabolism (stores energy) and other compounds □ Complex series of catabolic reactions in which the energy of food molecules is transferred to ATP (36-38 molecules) ○ Requires oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide Often involves complete breakdown of glucose to CO2 and H2O □ Glucose is a high energy molecule □ Mitochondria use this energy released from the slow breakdown of glucose to build ATP □ NAD+ and FAD are oxidation -reduction coenzymes "cab drivers" ○ Mitochondria Double membrane □ Outer membrane is smooth □ Inner membrane is convoluted Christae Outside - inter-membrane space Inside - matrix Origin of mitochondria AND CHLOROPLAST □ Have their own DNA Circular loops □ Have 70s ribosomes □ Can reproduce independently of the cell □ Killed by some bacterial antibiotics □ Evidence - symbiotic bacterial cells Living together □ Bacteria cells were captured in a vacuole and put to work making ATP for eukaryotic cells ○ Oxygen fuels cellular respiration The steady stream of O2 into the cell enables it to cary out aerobic respiration continually ○ Reaction groups Glycolysis □ Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells Sugar splitting Glucose is split into two 3 carbon molecules in glycolysis (Pyruvate) ◊ Steps: 2 ATP are used to activate glucose (6 carbon) that Aerobic - presence O2 splits into 2 PGAL (3 carbon) 4 ATP are gained when PGAL is oxidized to form Anaerobic - absence O2 pyruvate 2 ATP are used to activate glucose (6 carbon) that splits into 2 PGAL (3 carbon) Aerobic - presence O2 Anaerobic - absence O2 4 ATP are gained when PGAL is oxidized to form pyruvate Oxidation of PGAL and subsequesnt substartes results in four high-energy phospate groups, which sunthesize four ATP – Substrate level phosphorylation When an enzyme passes a high energy phosphate to ADP to form ATP NET ATP = 2 – ATP created = 4 – ATP used = 2 Believed to be the oldest group of energy releasing reactions in cells ◊ Evidence: occurs in cytoplasm, NOT in a separate organelles ◊ Blood cells use this because they don’t want to use the oxygen they are trying to transport to cells around the bods Can happen with or without Oxygen All living things do some form of glycolysis Transition / Prep Reactions □ Occurs in the matrix □ Connects glycolysis to the citric acid cycle Cytoplasm to matrix of mitochondria ◊ Steps: Pyruvate is oxidized to a 2-carbon acetyl group that is attached to CoA NADH is formed, waste carbon dioxide is removed The 2 acetyl-coa's are transported to the citric acid cycle Blood stream takes CO2 to lungs to be exhaled Krebs's Cycle (citric acid cycle) □ Occurs in the matrix Cycle turns twice for each original glucose molecule ◊ Steps: Each Acetyl-CoA joins with a 4-carbon oxaloacetate and a 6 carbon citrate molecule Complete oxidation follows as 4CO2, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP molecules are formed 6 carbons originally in glucose have become CO2 Electron Transport System □ Occurs on the cristae □ Energy is captured and ATP is produced □ ETSP alone produces 32 to 34 molecules of ATP □ Enzymes on cristae pump H+ into the inermembrane space causing an electrochemical gradient Chemiosmosis is dependent on us setting up the electrochemical gradient ◊ Cristae contain ATP synthase complex ◊ Steps: The H+ are pumped across the membrane by carriers which establishes and electrochemical gradient gradient As H+ flows through the channel of complex down a gradient from High to low. As they flow the enzyme synthesizes ATP from ADP+P Oxidative phosphorylation refers to the reduction of ATP as a result of energy released by the electron transport system – Oxygen receives the energy spent electrons from the last of the carriers on the cristae, then joins with H+ and water forms Calculations: NADH in the electron transport system = 3 ATP Read pages 123, 127, 130-131 FADH+ in the electron transport system = 2 ATP What Where Begin End Glycolysis cytoplasm Glucose 2 Pyruvate 2 NAD+ 2 NADH 2 ATP 2 ATP 2 ADP + 2P Transition Matrix 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl 2 CoA 2 CO2 2 NAD+ Kreb's Matrix 2 Acetyl 6 NADH 6 NAD+ 2 FADH2 2 FAD 4 CO2 2 ADP + 2P 2 ATP E.T.S. Cristae 8 NADH 28 ATP 2 FADH H2O Transition:
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