Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6 Notes Bio 301
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Nichols on Tuesday July 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 301 at Calhoun Community College taught by Felecia Ewing in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at Calhoun Community College.
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Date Created: 07/05/16
Chapter 6 Notes Thursday, June 30, 2010:27 AM • Plant Cells ○ Have a cell wall Rigid □ Gives support to the plant Plasmodesmata □ Channels in the cell wall that allow for communication between adjacent cells Middle lamella □ Plant "glue" Proteins, carbohydrates pectin ○ Have a large central vacuole Occupies 90% of the cell Storage of reserve materials and waste products □ Mainly water □ Helps build turgor pressure Helps maintain shape Surrounded by tonoplast (membrane) ○ Lack centrioles They have asters □ They still produce spindle fibers and move chromosomes They are still able to move chromosomes ○ Have Plastids Chloroplast □ Green plastids □ Site of photosynthesis Know formula for the test ◊ 6CO2 + 6H2O + solar energy --> C6H1206 + 6O2 ◊ REDOX reaction CO2 reduced – Gains electrons and H ions H2O oxidizes – Looses electrons Process by which green plants and certain other organisms use the energy of light to convert H2O and CO2 into the simple sugar glucose All organisms use the molecules produced as a source of chemical energy (nutrient source) ◊ Consumers Also creates O2 ◊ Fuels cellular respiration ◊ Forms ozone shield that protects us from UV rays Like cellular respiration, photosynthesis is a complex series of reactions best considered as reaction groups ◊ Two groups Light dependent reactions – Requires solar energy – Light reaction – Chlorophyll absorbs solar energy and – Chlorophyll absorbs solar energy and energizes the electrons Step 1 - Electrons move down electron transport chain Step 2 - Water is split OR oxidized Step 3 - Solar energy provides energy to create ATP and NADPH Light independent reactions – Does not require solar energy – Dark reaction – Calvin cycle reaction – Takes place in the stroma A series of reactions that produce carbohydrates Specifically glucose CO2 is taken up fixed and reduced to a carbohydrate Requires input of ATP and NADPH Step 1 - carbo dioxide fixation CO2 is covalently bonded (fixed) to RuBP Enzyme responsible for bonding = carboxylase or rubisco When bonded to rubisco (5 carbon molecule) a 6 carbon molecule will spontaneously split into two 3-carbon molecules called PGAL (G3P) Step 2 - CO2 is reduced – Importance: G3P is the product of the calvin cycle that can be converted to a variety of organic molecules Used for synthesis of starch and cellulose Starch storage form of glucose Cellulose structural component Fiber since indigestible Q plants can utilize the hydrocarbon skeleton of PGAL to form fatty acids and glycerol, which are combined in plat oils Corn, sunflower Add Nitrogen and we can from amino acids WHERE: ◊ Mesophyll tissue (in leaves) Cells containing chloroplast Specialized for photosynthesis Specialized for photosynthesis HOW: ◊ CO2 enters the leaf through the stomata Regulated by guard cells Oxygen gas comes out ◊ H2O diffuses into chloroplasts from the roots ◊ Chlorophyll and other pigments in thylakoid membranes absorbs solar energy Light reactions □ Found in green leaves of plants Structure ◊ Double membrane Outer membrane is smooth Inner membrane is folded into "stacks of flattened sacs" – GRANA Individually thylakoid (one flattened sac) Contains chlorophyll ◊ The fluid filled are outside the thylakoid is the stroma Chromoplast □ Colored plastids Petals □ Found in brightly colored plant parts of flowers and fruits Leucoplast □ White plastids □ Energy storage Potato (starch) □ Found in fruits, stems, or roots
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