Biopsych Notes Week 2
Biopsych Notes Week 2 PSY 3
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Tuesday July 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Psych 3-Biopsychology in Psychlogy at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 07/05/16
▯ Pure and applied research ▯ ▯ Pure research- conducted for the purpose of acquiring knowledge ▯ Applied research: intended to bring about some direct benefit to humankind ▯ Often research projects have elements of both ▯ ▯ ▯ Six major divisions of biopsychology ▯ Physiological Study of neural mechanisms of behavior. Direct manipulation of brain ▯ Psuchoparmocology Effect of drugs on brain ▯ Neuropsychological Brain damage. Usually has a clinical emphasis. ▯ Psychophysiology Relations between physiological activity and psychological processes Visual tracking is abnormal in schizophrenics ▯ Cognitive The neural bases of cognition. Functional brain imaging is the major method of cognitive neuroscience ▯ Comparative psychology Comparing different species to understand evolution, genetics, and adaptiveness of behavior. ▯ Converging operations ▯ -Using multiple approaches to address a single research question ▯ - example Korsakoff’s syndrome(memory loss from heavy alcohol use) ▯ Thiamine deficient rats exhibits memory deficits ▯ Alcohol accelerates the development of brain damage in thiamine deficient rats. Alcoholics get most their calories from alcohol. Lack of proper diet and nutrients, which creates a lack of thiamine, resulting in korsakoff’s syndrome ▯ ▯ ▯ Scientific inference The empirical method that biopsychology’s use to study unobservable phenomenon such as thoughts and feelings ▯ Critical thinking- the ability to evaluate claims by identifying potential omissions or weakness in the evidence ▯ Delgado claims that a charging bull can be tamed by means of stimulation of its caudate nuclease Exciting account reported in popular press Many possible alternative explanations Morgans canon: give precedence to the simples interoperation for a behavioral observation Caudate nuclease. Makes the bull not able to use half his body. ▯ Chapter 2 Evolution, genetics and experience ▯ ▯ From dichotomies to interactions There is a tendency to think in simple dichotomies when explaining behavior. o Is it physiological or psychological o Is it inhereited or learned o ▯ Is it physiological or psychological ▯ Cartesian dualism: Descartes argued that the universe consist of two elements. Physical matter. Human mind (soul, self or spirit) ▯ ▯ Problem 1- brain damage has an impact on psychological functioning ▯ Ex. Oliver Sacks’ case study of a man with asomatognosia/ Dificiency in awareness of parts of ones own body. Damage to the right parietal lobe ▯ ▯ Is it inherited or learned ▯ ▯ The nature nurture issue ▯ Nurture now encompasses learning and environment ▯ While it is generally accepted that behavior is a product of nature and nurture, many still ask how much is determined by each. But genetics and experimental factors do not merely combine in an additive function ▯ Environment modifies which of your genes you’re going to use ▯ ▯ Human evolution- While Darwin was not the first ro propose that species evolve, he was the frist to compile supporting evidence 4 kinds of evidence Fossil evidence and evolution Structural similarities among diverse species Selective breeding Quick changes, Evolution observed in progress ▯ Evolution and behavior. ▯ ▯ Just as physical features contribute to evolutionary fitness, so do behaviors ▯ Some are obvious. The ability to find food and avoid predation ▯ Some are less obvious. Social dominance and courtship display ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Evolution does not result in perfect design ▯ Not all existing behaviors or structures are adaptive Spandrels- incidental non adaptive byproducts (such as the hip bones of whales) ▯ Not all existing adaptive characteristics evolved to perform their current functions Exaptations- features that evolved to do one thing, but now are doing something else (such as bird wings) ▯ Similarities among species does not mean that the species have common origins ▯ Homologous structure- similar structure due to common origin ▯ Analogous- similar structures without a common origin ▯ Convergent evolution- the evolution of similar solutions to the same environmental demands by unrelated species ▯ ▯ Dichotomous trait- traits that occur in one form or the other, never in combination ▯ ▯ True breeding lines- interbred members always produce offsprings with the same trait ▯ ▯ Mendel studies dichotomous traits in true- breeding lines of pea plants ▯ ▯ Mendel crossed brow and white seeds ▯ First generation offspring all had brown seeds ▯ When first generation were bred the result was ¾ brown and ¼ white ▯ ▯ Phenotype- observable traits ▯ Genotype- traits present in the genes ▯ If the dominant trait is present in the genotype, it will be observed in the phenotype ▯ ▯ Each inherited factor is a gene ▯ Two genes that control the same trait are called alleles ▯ Homozygous: 2 identical alleles BB, ww ▯ Heterozygous 2 different alleles (Bw) ▯ ▯ Chromosomes: reproduction and recombinations ▯ ▯ Genes are located on chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell ▯ Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, with an allele on each chromosome ▯ Meiosis- a process of cell division that yields cells with just 23 chromosomes. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Modern genetics ▯ ▯ The human genome project ▯ ▯ Selective breeding of maze bright and maze dull rats. Breeding, shove results to both corners. Environment makes a huge difference, when both kinds of rats are treated by the same environemt ▯ ▯ ▯ Nercous system central and peripheral ▯ ▯ Central is the brain and spinal cord ▯ Peripheral is located outside the skull and spine, serves to bring info into the CNS and to carry signals out of the CNS ▯ ▯ Peripheral nervous system can be further sub divided. Somatic (external environment) which contains your sensory (afferent, go toward the CNS) and motor (efferent carry information away from CNS out to distant parts of your body) ▯ autonomic (internal environment). Concerned with regulating your internal organs. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. Both are efferent. ▯ Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerces have opposite effects ▯ Sympathetic stimulates organizes and mobilizes energy resources ▯ The fight or flight. Feeding fleering fighting and sex ▯ ▯ Parasympathetic, acts to conserve energy (relax) ▯ ▯ ▯ Sympathetic come out of the thoracic and lumbar ▯ ▯ Parasympathetic come from sacra; and cervical ▯ ▯ ▯ Second stage neurons are far from the target organ in sympathetic. Opposite in parasympathetic ▯ ▯ ▯ Meninges, ventricles, and cerebrospinal flud (CSF) ▯ ▯ The CNS is encased in bone and covered by three meninges. Dura mater- tough outer membrane ▯ Arachnoid membrane- web like ▯ Pia mater- adheres to CSN surface. Impermeable to liquids. Allows for CSF ▯ ▯ cerebrospinal fluid CSF ▯ provides extra protection. serves as a cushion. Between pia mater and arachnoid. Located in ventricles in your brain ▯ ▯ Protecting the brain ▯ ▯ Physical protection ▯ Skull meninges and CSF ▯ ▯ Chemical protection the blood brain barrier, tightly packed cells of blood vessels walls prevent the energy of many molecules. Prevents most chemicals from going into the brain, like drugs ▯ ▯ ▯ Neurons- specialized cells for the reception conduction and transmissions of electro chemical signals. Come in any sizes and shapes ▯ ▯ Buttons is how one neuron sends a signal to another signal, into the synapse ▯ ▯ Glial cells- the forgotten cells. Outnumber neurons 10:1 Support neurons Recent evidence of glial communication ad modulatory effects of glia on neuronal communication ▯ Four classes of glial Oligadendrocytes, extensions rich in myelin, create myelin sheaths in CSN Schwann cells similar to function in oligendrocytyes but in PSN, can guide axonal regeneration Astrocytes- largest glia. Many functions Microglia- involved in response to injury or disease ▯ Myelin providing glia CNS- olig PSN- Swhwann ▯ Cluster of cell bodies in CNS nuclei PSN- gaglia ▯ Bundles of axons CSN tracts PSN nerves ▯ ▯ Neuroanatomical techniques ▯ ▯ Golgi stain- slows for visualization of individual neurons. Internal details are invisible, only shows the silhouettes ▯ Nissl stain- selectively stains cell bodies. Colors the cell bodies ▯ Electron microscopy- provides information about the details of neuronal structure. Very detailed. Shows terminal buttons and the cell body very close up. ▯ ▯ Medial located along mid line of the body. For example, near spinal cord ▯ Lateral- on the outsides ▯ ▯ Dorsal- points towards the back (spine) of an animal/human. ▯ Ventral points toward the chest/stomach ▯ ▯ Anterior is front, posterior is back ▯ ▯ Humans - ventral ▯ ^ anterior ▯ dorsal ▯ pointed down- posterior ▯ ▯ ▯ Sections of the brain ▯ ▯ Horizontal- a slice parallel to the ground ▯ Frontal(coronal)- slicing bread or salami ▯ Sagittal- a mid sagittal section separates the led and right halves. ▯ ▯ Spinal cord ▯ Gray matter- inner component primarily cell bodies ▯ White matter- outer area, mainly myelination axons of neurons ▯ Dorsal SC afferent- sensory. Closest to the back. Caries to the CNS. If damaged, damage sense of outside world ▯ Ventral SC- efferent motor. If damages, damage motor control ▯ ▯ ▯ Major structures of the brain ▯ ▯ Forebrain Telencephalon- Cerebral cortex Diencephalon. ▯ Midbrain Mesencephalon……Messo- middle ▯ Hindbrain Metencephalon Myelencephalon ▯ Myelcephalon= medulla. Composed largry of tracts Origin of the reticular formation o PLAYS A ROLE IN AROUSAL, SLEEP, CARDIAC FUNCTION AND RESPRIRATION ▯ metencephalon many tacts travel through here pons- ventral surface (also contains reticular formation) cerebellum. Coordination and motor control ▯ Mescencephalon- midbrain Tectum contains the inferiod and superior colliculi and tegmentum consist of the periaqueductual gray substaitia nigra and the red nucleus ▯ Diencephalon Thalamus (reciprocal connections with cotex seneory relay station) Hypothalamus (plays large role in endocrine function ▯ Telencephalon – cerebral cortex Convolutions serves to increase surface area. Wrinckles Longitudinal fissure, a groove that separates right and left hemisphere Corpus Callosum – largest hemisphere connecting tract. How the two hemispheres communicate ▯ ▯ Central and lateral fissure (separates frontal and temporal lobes) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ CHAPTER 4- Neural conduction and synaptic transmission ▯ How neurons send and receive signals ▯ ▯ Resting membrane potential Recording the membrane potential- difference in electrical charge between inside and outside of cell The inside of the neuron is negative with respect to the outside Resting membrane potential is about -70mV Set the outside to 0 and the inside is -70 in comparison ▯ ▯ Two key ions Sodium and potassium ion ▯ At rest- there are more sodium ions outside the cell than inside ▯ There are moe potassium ions inside the cell than the outside ▯ ▯ Ions move in and out through ion specific channels ▯ The resting potential is negative largely because of the presence of negatively charged proteins within the cell and a high concentration of Cl- ions inside the neuron Proteins inside an atom are associated with a negative charge
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