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Biopsych Notes Week 2

by: Anahit Ghaltaghchyan

Biopsych Notes Week 2 PSY 3

Anahit Ghaltaghchyan

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Psych 3-Biopsychology
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Tuesday July 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Psych 3-Biopsychology in Psychlogy at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 07/05/16
▯ Pure and applied research ▯ ▯ Pure research- conducted for the purpose of acquiring knowledge ▯ Applied research: intended to bring about some direct benefit to humankind ▯ Often research projects have elements of both ▯ ▯ ▯ Six major divisions of biopsychology ▯ Physiological  Study of neural mechanisms of behavior. Direct manipulation of brain ▯ Psuchoparmocology  Effect of drugs on brain ▯ Neuropsychological  Brain damage. Usually has a clinical emphasis. ▯ Psychophysiology  Relations between physiological activity and psychological processes  Visual tracking is abnormal in schizophrenics ▯ Cognitive  The neural bases of cognition. Functional brain imaging is the major method of cognitive neuroscience ▯ Comparative psychology  Comparing different species to understand evolution, genetics, and adaptiveness of behavior.  ▯ Converging operations ▯ -Using multiple approaches to address a single research question ▯ - example Korsakoff’s syndrome(memory loss from heavy alcohol use) ▯ Thiamine deficient rats exhibits memory deficits ▯ Alcohol accelerates the development of brain damage in thiamine deficient rats. Alcoholics get most their calories from alcohol. Lack of proper diet and nutrients, which creates a lack of thiamine, resulting in korsakoff’s syndrome ▯ ▯ ▯ Scientific inference  The empirical method that biopsychology’s use to study unobservable phenomenon such as thoughts and feelings  ▯ Critical thinking- the ability to evaluate claims by identifying potential omissions or weakness in the evidence ▯ Delgado claims that a charging bull can be tamed by means of stimulation of its caudate nuclease  Exciting account reported in popular press  Many possible alternative explanations  Morgans canon: give precedence to the simples interoperation for a behavioral observation  Caudate nuclease. Makes the bull not able to use half his body.    ▯ Chapter 2 Evolution, genetics and experience ▯ ▯ From dichotomies to interactions  There is a tendency to think in simple dichotomies when explaining behavior. o Is it physiological or psychological o Is it inhereited or learned o ▯ Is it physiological or psychological ▯ Cartesian dualism: Descartes argued that the universe consist of two elements. Physical matter. Human mind (soul, self or spirit) ▯ ▯ Problem 1- brain damage has an impact on psychological functioning ▯ Ex. Oliver Sacks’ case study of a man with asomatognosia/ Dificiency in awareness of parts of ones own body. Damage to the right parietal lobe ▯ ▯ Is it inherited or learned ▯ ▯ The nature nurture issue ▯ Nurture now encompasses learning and environment ▯ While it is generally accepted that behavior is a product of nature and nurture, many still ask how much is determined by each. But genetics and experimental factors do not merely combine in an additive function ▯ Environment modifies which of your genes you’re going to use ▯ ▯ Human evolution- While Darwin was not the first ro propose that species evolve, he was the frist to compile supporting evidence 4 kinds of evidence  Fossil evidence and evolution  Structural similarities among diverse species  Selective breeding  Quick changes, Evolution observed in progress  ▯ Evolution and behavior. ▯ ▯ Just as physical features contribute to evolutionary fitness, so do behaviors ▯ Some are obvious. The ability to find food and avoid predation ▯ Some are less obvious. Social dominance and courtship display ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Evolution does not result in perfect design ▯ Not all existing behaviors or structures are adaptive  Spandrels- incidental non adaptive byproducts (such as the hip bones of whales) ▯ Not all existing adaptive characteristics evolved to perform their current functions  Exaptations- features that evolved to do one thing, but now are doing something else (such as bird wings)  ▯ Similarities among species does not mean that the species have common origins ▯ Homologous structure- similar structure due to common origin ▯ Analogous- similar structures without a common origin ▯ Convergent evolution- the evolution of similar solutions to the same environmental demands by unrelated species ▯ ▯ Dichotomous trait- traits that occur in one form or the other, never in combination ▯ ▯ True breeding lines- interbred members always produce offsprings with the same trait ▯ ▯ Mendel studies dichotomous traits in true- breeding lines of pea plants ▯ ▯ Mendel crossed brow and white seeds ▯ First generation offspring all had brown seeds ▯ When first generation were bred the result was ¾ brown and ¼ white ▯ ▯ Phenotype- observable traits ▯ Genotype- traits present in the genes ▯ If the dominant trait is present in the genotype, it will be observed in the phenotype ▯ ▯ Each inherited factor is a gene ▯ Two genes that control the same trait are called alleles ▯ Homozygous: 2 identical alleles BB, ww ▯ Heterozygous 2 different alleles (Bw) ▯ ▯ Chromosomes: reproduction and recombinations ▯ ▯ Genes are located on chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell ▯ Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, with an allele on each chromosome ▯ Meiosis- a process of cell division that yields cells with just 23 chromosomes. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Modern genetics ▯ ▯ The human genome project ▯ ▯ Selective breeding of maze bright and maze dull rats. Breeding, shove results to both corners. Environment makes a huge difference, when both kinds of rats are treated by the same environemt ▯ ▯ ▯ Nercous system central and peripheral ▯ ▯ Central is the brain and spinal cord ▯ Peripheral is located outside the skull and spine, serves to bring info into the CNS and to carry signals out of the CNS ▯ ▯ Peripheral nervous system can be further sub divided.  Somatic (external environment) which contains your sensory (afferent, go toward the CNS) and motor (efferent carry information away from CNS out to distant parts of your body) ▯  autonomic (internal environment). Concerned with regulating your internal organs. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. Both are efferent.  ▯ Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerces have opposite effects ▯ Sympathetic stimulates organizes and mobilizes energy resources ▯ The fight or flight. Feeding fleering fighting and sex ▯ ▯ Parasympathetic, acts to conserve energy (relax) ▯ ▯ ▯ Sympathetic come out of the thoracic and lumbar ▯ ▯ Parasympathetic come from sacra; and cervical ▯ ▯ ▯ Second stage neurons are far from the target organ in sympathetic. Opposite in parasympathetic ▯ ▯ ▯ Meninges, ventricles, and cerebrospinal flud (CSF) ▯ ▯ The CNS is encased in bone and covered by three meninges. Dura mater- tough outer membrane ▯ Arachnoid membrane- web like ▯ Pia mater- adheres to CSN surface. Impermeable to liquids. Allows for CSF ▯ ▯ cerebrospinal fluid CSF ▯ provides extra protection. serves as a cushion. Between pia mater and arachnoid. Located in ventricles in your brain ▯ ▯ Protecting the brain ▯ ▯ Physical protection ▯ Skull meninges and CSF ▯ ▯ Chemical protection the blood brain barrier, tightly packed cells of blood vessels walls prevent the energy of many molecules. Prevents most chemicals from going into the brain, like drugs ▯ ▯ ▯ Neurons- specialized cells for the reception conduction and transmissions of electro chemical signals. Come in any sizes and shapes ▯ ▯ Buttons is how one neuron sends a signal to another signal, into the synapse ▯ ▯ Glial cells- the forgotten cells.  Outnumber neurons 10:1  Support neurons  Recent evidence of glial communication ad modulatory effects of glia on neuronal communication ▯ Four classes of glial  Oligadendrocytes, extensions rich in myelin, create myelin sheaths in CSN  Schwann cells similar to function in oligendrocytyes but in PSN, can guide axonal regeneration  Astrocytes- largest glia. Many functions  Microglia- involved in response to injury or disease  ▯ Myelin providing glia  CNS- olig  PSN- Swhwann ▯ Cluster of cell bodies in  CNS nuclei  PSN- gaglia ▯ Bundles of axons  CSN tracts  PSN nerves ▯ ▯ Neuroanatomical techniques ▯ ▯ Golgi stain- slows for visualization of individual neurons. Internal details are invisible, only shows the silhouettes ▯ Nissl stain- selectively stains cell bodies. Colors the cell bodies ▯ Electron microscopy- provides information about the details of neuronal structure. Very detailed. Shows terminal buttons and the cell body very close up. ▯ ▯ Medial located along mid line of the body. For example, near spinal cord ▯ Lateral- on the outsides ▯ ▯ Dorsal- points towards the back (spine) of an animal/human. ▯ Ventral points toward the chest/stomach ▯ ▯ Anterior is front, posterior is back ▯ ▯ Humans - ventral ▯ ^ anterior ▯  dorsal ▯ pointed down- posterior ▯ ▯ ▯ Sections of the brain ▯ ▯ Horizontal- a slice parallel to the ground ▯ Frontal(coronal)- slicing bread or salami ▯ Sagittal- a mid sagittal section separates the led and right halves. ▯ ▯ Spinal cord ▯ Gray matter- inner component primarily cell bodies ▯ White matter- outer area, mainly myelination axons of neurons ▯ Dorsal SC afferent- sensory. Closest to the back. Caries to the CNS. If damaged, damage sense of outside world ▯ Ventral SC- efferent motor. If damages, damage motor control ▯ ▯ ▯ Major structures of the brain ▯ ▯ Forebrain  Telencephalon- Cerebral cortex  Diencephalon. ▯ Midbrain  Mesencephalon……Messo- middle ▯ Hindbrain  Metencephalon  Myelencephalon  ▯ Myelcephalon= medulla.  Composed largry of tracts  Origin of the reticular formation o PLAYS A ROLE IN AROUSAL, SLEEP, CARDIAC FUNCTION AND RESPRIRATION ▯ metencephalon  many tacts travel through here  pons- ventral surface (also contains reticular formation)  cerebellum. Coordination and motor control  ▯ Mescencephalon- midbrain  Tectum contains the inferiod and superior colliculi  and tegmentum consist of the periaqueductual gray substaitia nigra and the red nucleus  ▯ Diencephalon  Thalamus (reciprocal connections with cotex seneory relay station)  Hypothalamus (plays large role in endocrine function  ▯ Telencephalon – cerebral cortex  Convolutions serves to increase surface area. Wrinckles  Longitudinal fissure, a groove that separates right and left hemisphere  Corpus Callosum – largest hemisphere connecting tract. How the two hemispheres communicate ▯ ▯ Central and lateral fissure (separates frontal and temporal lobes) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ CHAPTER 4- Neural conduction and synaptic transmission ▯ How neurons send and receive signals ▯ ▯ Resting membrane potential  Recording the membrane potential- difference in electrical charge between inside and outside of cell  The inside of the neuron is negative with respect to the outside  Resting membrane potential is about -70mV  Set the outside to 0 and the inside is -70 in comparison ▯ ▯ Two key ions  Sodium and potassium ion  ▯ At rest- there are more sodium ions outside the cell than inside ▯ There are moe potassium ions inside the cell than the outside ▯ ▯ Ions move in and out through ion specific channels ▯ The resting potential is negative largely because of the presence of negatively charged proteins within the cell and a high concentration of Cl- ions inside the neuron  Proteins inside an atom are associated with a negative charge 


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