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soci 101, ch 3

by: Theint Myint

soci 101, ch 3 soci 101

Theint Myint
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.8

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ppt notes
introduction to sociology
jessica coronel
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theint Myint on Thursday July 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to soci 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by jessica coronel in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.


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Date Created: 07/07/16
CH  3  CULTURE     What  Is  Culture?   • Culture:     o Totality  of  learned,  socially  transmitted  customs,  knowledge,  material   objects,  and  behavior   o Ideas,  values,  customs,  and  artifacts  of     groups  of  people   Culture   • Beliefs,  values,  behavior,  and  material  objects  that,  together,  form  a   people’s  way  of  life.   • Culture  is  a  shared  way  of  life.   • Culture  becomes  the  lens  through  which  we  perceive  and  evaluate   what  is  going  on  around  us.     What  is  the  purpose  of  culture?   • Our  major  mode  of  adaptation     • Sets  limits  on  behavior  and  guides  us  along  predictable  paths   • Becomes  internalized     Society   • A  fairly  large  number  of  people  are  said  to  constitute  a  society  when  they  live   in  the  same  territory.   • Members  of  a  society  are  relatively  independent  of  people  outside  their  area,   and  participate  in  a  common  culture.   • Society  is  the  largest  form  of  human  group.   • Members  of  a  society  learn  culture  and  transmit  it  from  one  generation  to  the   next.   • Language  is  a  critical  element  of  culture  that  sets  humans  apart  from  other   species.       Culture  Universals   • Cultural  Universals-­‐  certain  common  practices  and  beliefs  that  all  societies   have  developed   • general  practices  found  in  every  culture  including  courtship,  family,   language,  medicine,  religion,  and  sex  restrictions    -­‐  Many  are  adaptations  to     meet  essential  human  needs     Cultural  Relativism   • Cultural  relativism:  People’s  behaviors  from  the  perspective  of  their  own   culture   • Different  social  contexts  give     rise  to  different  norms  and  values     Sociology  in  the  Global  Community   • Cultural  Genocide   • How  would  you  react  if  you  were  taken  from  your  parents’  home  by  a   government  agent  and  moved  to  a  different  family  with  a  different   culture?   • What  might  be  the  long-­‐term  consequences  of  American  Indian  children’s   removal  from  their  families,  besides  the  destruction  of  their  culture?   • Basically  killing  off  a  culture  (like  hitler  did)     Ethnocentrism   • Ethnocentrism:  Tendency  to  assume  that  one’s  own  culture  and  way  of  life  =   norm  or  is  superior  to  others   o Conflict  theorists:  ethnocentric  value  judgments  serve  to  devalue   groups  and  to  deny  equal  opportunities  (tear  ppl  apart)   o Functionalists:  ethnocentrism  maintains  sense  of  solidarity  (bring  ppl   together  bc  they  have  something  in  common  )     Globalization,  Diffusion,     and  Technology   • Diffusion:  Process  by  which  cultural  item  spreads  from  group  to  group   • McDonaldization:     o Process  through  which  principles  of  fast-­‐food  industry  dominate   certain  sectors  of  society   • Technology:  Information  about  how  to  use  material  resources  of  the   environment  to  satisfy  human  needs  and  desires  (Nolan  and  Lenski)   • Culture  lag:  Period  of  maladjustment  when  nonmaterial  culture  struggles  to   adapt  to  new  material  conditions       Material  Culture   • physical  or  technological  aspects  of  our  daily  lives.     • Including  food,  houses,  factories,  and  raw  materials,  jewelry,  art,   buildings,  hair  styles,  and  clothing.   • That  is,  it  is  no  more  natural  or  (unnatural)  to  wear  gowns  on  the   street  than  it  is  to  wear  jeans.   Nonmaterial  Culture   • the  ways  in  which  we  use  nonmaterial  objects,  such  as  customs,  values,   beliefs,  philosophies,  governments,  and  patterns  of  communication.     • A  groups  way  of  thinking  (beliefs,  values,  and  other  assumptions   about  the  world)  and  doing  (its  common  patterns  of  behavior  and   interaction.       Cultural  Variation   • Subculture:  Is  a  segment  of  society  that  shares  a  distinctive  pattern  of   customs,  rules,  and  traditions  that  differ  from  the  pattern  of  the  larger   society.     • Counterculture:  Subculture  that  conspicuously  and  deliberately  opposes   certain  aspects  of  the  larger  culture   • Culture  shock:  Feeling  disoriented,  uncertain,  out  of  place,  or  fearful   when  immersed  in  an  unfamiliar  culture     Language:  Written  and  Spoken   • Language:  Abstract  system     of  word  meanings  and     symbols  for  all  aspects  of  culture   o Sapir-­‐Whorf  Hypothesis   § Language  precedes  thought   § Language  is  not  a  given   § Language  is  culturally  determined   § Language  may  color     how  we  see  the  world     Nonverbal  Communication   • Nonverbal  communication:  Use  of  gestures,  facial  expressions,  and  other   visual  images  to  communicate   • Learned   • Differs  by  cultures   • Symbols:  gestures,  objects,  and  words  that  form  basis  of  human   communication     Norms   • Norms:  Established  standards  of  behavior  maintained  by  a  society   o Formal  norms:  Generally  written;  specify  strict  punishments   § Law:  government  social  control   o Informal  norms:  Generally  understood  but  not  precisely  recorded   Types  of  Norms   • Mores:  Norms  deemed  highly  necessary  to  the  welfare  of  a  society   • Folkways:  Norms  governing  everyday  behavior   o In  many  societies,  folkways  exist  to  reinforce  patterns  of  male   dominance       Sanctions   • Sanctions:  Penalties  and  rewards  for  conduct  concerning  social  norm   o Positive  sanctions:  Pay  raises,  medals,  and  words  of  gratitude   o Negative  sanctions:  Fines,  threats,  imprisonment,  and  stares  of   contempt   Values   • Cultural  values:  Collective  conceptions  of  what  is  good,  desirable,  and   proper  –    or  bad,  undesirable,  and  improper   • Influence  people’s  behavior   • Criteria  for  evaluating  actions  of  others   • Values  may  change     Norms  and  Values   • Norms  are  the  established  standards  of  behavior  maintained  by  a  society.     • These  are  the  expectations    (or  rules  of  behavior)  that  develop  out  of  a   groups  values.     Values  are  these  collective  conceptions  of  what  is  considered  good,  desirable,  and   proper-­‐or  bad,  undesirable,  and  improper-­‐  in  a  culture  


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