Week 3 Notes Biopsych
Week 3 Notes Biopsych PSY 3
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Friday July 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Psych 3-Biopsychology in Psychlogy at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 07/08/16
07/08/2016 ▯ Basal ganglia ▯ A heterogeneous collection of interconnected sub cortical nuclei ▯ Part of neural loops that receive cortical input and send output back to the cortex via the thalamus ▯ Modulate motor output and cognitive functions, including learning ▯ ▯ Descending motor pathways” 4 paths from motor cotex to the spinal cord ▯ ▯ 2 dorsolateral ▯ Corticospinal (starts at the cortex, goes to the spinal cord) ▯ Corticorubrospinal (rubro- red) cortex-àmiddleàspine ▯ 2 ventromedial ▯ corticospinal ▯ cortico-brainstem- spinal tract cortex àbrainstemà spinal cord ▯ both corticospinal tracts are direct ▯ ▯ DORSOLATERAL (2) ▯ ▯ Corticospinal- direct ▯ Descending from PM cortex through the medullary pyramids, then decussates (switches sides) ▯ Single neurons travel from PMC down into spinal cord ▯ Control of wrists, hands, fingers toes ▯ Same single neuron stretches from all the way down ▯ Corticorubrospinal (indirect) ▯ PMCàsynapse at red nuclease (midbrain) and decussate àtravels down dorsolateral spinal cord ▯ Distal muscles (far away from spine) of arms and legs ▯ ▯ ▯ 2 VENTROMEDIAL tracts ▯ corticospinal direct ▯ descends ipsilateraly (stays on the same side) ▯ axons branch and innervate interneurons bilaterally along the spine ▯ does not go through the medullary pyramids unlike the dorsolateral pathway ▯ cortico-brainstem-spinal (indirect) ▯ interacts with various brainstem structures and descends bilaterally, carrying information from both hemisphere ▯ terminates at several points along spinal cords ▯ **both ventromedial tracts control proximal muscles, meaning close to the spinal cord ▯ DIFFERENCES ▯ ▯ dorsolateral ▯ one direct tract, one that synapses in the brain stem ▯ terminate in one contralateral spinal segment ▯ distal muscles ▯ limb movements ▯ ▯ ventralmedial ▯ one direct ▯ one that synapses in the brain stem ▯ more diffuse ▯ bilateral innervations ▯ proximal muscles ▯ posture and whole body movements ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Sensorimotor spinal circuits- controlling muscles ▯ Motor unit ▯ A motor neuron+ muscle fibers that innervates ▯ All these fibers contract when the motor neurons fires ▯ Number of fibers per unit varies ▯ Fine control àfewer fibers/neurons ▯ Muscle ▯ Many individual muscle fibers bound together and attached to bone by a tendon (piece of tissue that connects tissue to a bone) ▯ Motor pool ▯ All the motor neurons that innervate the fibers of a single muscle ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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