COMM2020 Notes COMM2020
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Date Created: 07/10/16
Chapter 1 Aristotle defined rhetoric as the ability in any situation to discover the most appropriate means of persuasion Taught by people known as Sophists educated men who would travel from place to place teaching others how to speak persuasively Classical Greece region had very particular history that gave rise to a focus on public speaking Aristotle divided public speaking into 3 types: o Forensic – arguing in court o Deliberative – arguing in the political assembly o Epideictic – ceremonial speaking Hire a sophist to be successful in court, social life, political life Better known Sophists was Gorgias – he was a big fan of the power of rhetoric o He bragged about how he could use “verbal magic” to get people to do almost anything – even if it wasn’t in their best interests o He told Socrates rhetoric was the best thing that existed Socrates said rhetoric was a “knack” for manipulating public opinion he valued philosophy which he felt revealed real truth Another popular Sophist, Protagoras suggested that everything could be argued and encouraged his students to always know both sides of an argument. He said doing so was the only way to know which side they should believe o Ex: debate, voters, judge His critics said he merely instructed his students to make the worse case look better so they could win the debate Why would that be a problem then and today? o Influence people to do bad things – someone could be a really good speaker in court and make the murderer’s case better so then the murderer gets off The sophist, Isocrates (not related to Socrates) said that it was impossible for any person to know everything in every situation. How do you think his experience as a traveler helped shape that opinion? Plato wasn’t a fan of these traveling speech teachers known as sophists. Socrates believed in truth, justice, and the Athenian way. And if he felt that someone was not living up to high standards of truth and justices he would call them on it – as he did to Gorgias Socrates was arrested and convicted of “corrupting the youth of Athens” and sentenced to death. He drank poison before they could murder him because he refused to break the laws which he felt were more important than any one man Plato studied under Socrates - he didn’t like what he had done o He didn’t trust the people and imagined an ideal society run by a philosopher King Aristotle had faith in the people. He believed that if you had two equally qualified speakers each take a different side of an issue, that the people would naturally prefer the one who was professing the truth How do we make sure that speakers are equally qualified? o Attend Aristotle’s Academy Aristotle’s Academy o Logos – practical reasoning o Pathos – emotional proof o Ethos – speaker credibility Aristotle thought ethos was the most important because we have to trust the speaker first for the other two to matter One of the finest rhetoricians in Rome was name Cicero. He developed what are known as the 5 cannons of rhetoric 5 cannons of rhetoric o Invention – the creative act of identifying the best arguments for your case in a given situation. Cicero warned us to pay attention to the particular situation because he realized that not all audiences are the same o Arrangement – finding the most effective way to organize your case for the topic and the audience (it depends where to put your most important information based on the topic of your audience) o Style – involves your choices of words and how formally or informally you phrase things o Delivery – how you physically and vocally present your speech o Memory – if you’ve ever seen a speaker forget a name or fact and stumble, you know why memory is important Cicero used his considerable skills as a speaker to try to have a positive impact on Roman society. He developed a reputation as a champion of the people and fought against the threat that the government would be taken over by nobility or military dictators 2 The Roman rhetorician Quintilian suggested that every speaker had 5 principle duties: o Defend the truth o Protect the innocent o Prevent criminal behavior o Inspire the military o Inspire the public Socrates and Cicero died for these – they’re still important today Public speaking is important because it is how we construct society’s rules, values, and beliefs When we act upon our awareness that we have a responsibility to our community this it’s called civic engagement – it has decreased in recent times 3 Chapter 2 Managing performance anxiety / building speaker confidence If you experience communication apprehension (sometimes called stage freight), you are not alone 95% of speakers in the US experience some degree of anxiety learning to manage this anxiety is important because people who are perceived to be less anxious are seen as more competent and make better impressions key word above is “appear” there are very many successful people who experience high levels of communication anxiety. But you wouldn’t know it because they have worked hard to cope with it when we speak we communicate in 3 ways: o verbally o visually o vocally believability is an emotional quality. If we don’t connect with a speaker on an emotional level every little of their message is likely to get through the physiology of anxiety what happens is this: your body cannot distinguish between a physically threatening situation (like turning a corner and being confronted by a mountain lion) and an emotionally threatening one (like public speaking) all of the blood flows from your extremities to your core, your heart rate increases, your respiration increases how to manage anxiety? 1. Prepare and practice o Nothing will make you more nervous than not being adequately prepared o Research has shown that practice can reduce anxiety by up to 75% o Always practice by speaking out loud. It isn’t the same to mentally think through your speech o Knowing the main ideas that you want to get across by practicing your speech is the nicest thing you can do for yourself to manage anxiety 2. Breathing – inhale 4 counts, hold 1, exhale 6 counts o Meditation / physical trigger – get in the habit of meditating and learning how your body feels when it is completely relaxed then associate that feeling with a physical trigger 3. Power posing – before you speak get in the habit of stretching out and taking up space listening and ethical considerations in public speaking hearing: the physiological process of processing sounds listening: the psychological process of making sense out of sounds 1. The receive stage: listeners attend to (or ignore) one or more stimuli from the multitude of stimuli that bombard us constantly we pay attention to things that are of interest to us and turn out everything else. *note: what “interests us” is not always that which is in our best interest to hear 2. Comprehend stage: the goal in this stage is to understand a message, not interpret it or evaluate it listeners who know how to ask questions, clarify a speaker’s ideas by paraphrasing them, and those who take careful notes are often the most successful listeners 3. The interpret phase: this is where listeners supply meaning to the messages they sensed the problem there is that words can have different meanings E.g., “you can never put too much water in a nuclear reactor.” Sometimes listeners are so certain they know what a speaker means that they stop listening The goal of the speaker should be to anticipate problems in the interpreting stage and to attempt to counteract them 4. The evaluate stage: this is when listeners think more deeply about the message and evaluate both the message and the speaker 5. The respond stage: listeners communicate agreement, disagreement, confusion, boredom, and so forth, through a variety of nonverbal expressions * just because everyone is looking at you doesn’t mean they are actively listening * 6. the memory stage: this is when listeners decide what parts, if any, of your message they will attempt to store in their long term memory your goal should be to help listeners decide what was most important and to help them store that information 2 Chapter 3 Research and Preparation One way to kick off that creative process is by coming up with a research question They are open-ended (they can’t be answered with a simple yes or no) They are clearly focused on only one topic The answer to a good research question will generate a thesis statement or argument for you whole speech The point in asking questions is trying to come up with a topic – the 4 keys to selecting a good speech topic: 1. Select a topic that fits the requirements of the assignment. Most importantly, make sure your presentation is neither longer nor shorter than the guidelines you have been given. If you are not given a specific amount of time to speak then you should ask 2. Select a topic that showcases your experiences and knowledge 3. Select a topic that interests you. You should be enthusiastic to share what you know with other people. This will help immensely not only in creating your message, but also with the visual and vocal components of your presentations 4. Select a topic you can make interesting and/or useful to your audience. You will know you have a good speech topic when you can list at least one major benefit your audience will receive by listening to your speech. You should develop a “specific purpose” that sums up in a simple sentence what your audience will gain from the speech Once you have your topic we start researching. Good researchers seek information with an open mind and don’t simply look for evidence that supports their original idea Research – what to avoid and what to do Things to avoid when conducting research Plagiarism o Incremental plagiarism: most common type. It happens when you fail to give credit for parts of a speech borrowed from a source. It’s easy to do because you can cut and paste o Patchwork plagiarism: this is when you steal ideas from more than one source and link them together without referencing them. In music this is called a mash up – if you combine other people’s words to make something new it’s still plagiarism o Global plagiarism: this is when you steal an entire speech or paper that someone else did Our goal as ethical speakers is to find different types of information that will improve our speech and to give credit to the sources of that information 3 types of information we should be on the lookout for: 1. Background information – this is material that provides context for the topic you are speaking about. It covers things like definitions of key concepts and important individuals associated with a topic 2. Tangential information – this is evidence that’s used to provide color and capture an audience’s interest. This includes things like unique stories and startling statistics When you use statistics you should make them meaningful by relating them to your audience Round off numbers with stats and use graphs 3. Evidentiary information – information that supports the main points within a speech and is directly related to your topic Factual examples, stats, expert opinions and even demonstrations You should always try to give more than one example to support each of the main points in your speech o What one person finds convincing another may not o The more examples you have of a phenomenon the less likely people will think it was the result of chance Keys to a successful demonstration: 1. If you object is not large enough to be easily seen by your entire audience use pictures of the objects on a PowerPoint or poster 2. Practice the demonstration until you can perform it smoothly while simultaneously speaking and maintaining eye contact 3. Keep demonstration short (30 seconds or less) 4. Clear demonstrations with instructor – no guns, drugs, alcohol, or other questionable material 2 Chapter 4 - Delivery The number one reason speakers fail to meet their goals is lack of audience analysis You should think about the particular audience you will speak to not only in terms of your topic – what they want to hear, but also your delivery – how they want to hear it Key part of delivery is articulation Articulation: the production of clear and distinct speech sounds. To articulate means to physically product the sound needed to convey a word Many speakers run words together and/or leave off the endings of some words o Ex: whadayamean? Instead of: what do you mean? People sometimes worry that because they have an accent they will be judged by others as less competent. In reality, the ability to articulate clearly is far more important For example, it is possible to speak in a southern accent and say, “going fishing” no “gon fishin” Pronunciation: this is the accepted standard of how a word sounds. If your speech included several mispronounced words, the audience may begin to doubt your credibility. When we think of nonverbal communication most people think about a speaker’s body. However, most nonverbal behaviors come from the voice Speakers who have vocal variety (a relaxed, conversational style that includes variations in volume, tone, pitch, emphasis, rate, and the effective use of pauses) are seen as most credible Volume: loudness and softness of your voice. The key to volume is air. If you have trouble being loud enough you need to practice being louder. If you are a ‘loud person’ you should practice projecting while speaking softly Tone: the emphasis on a sound to express emotion. What is a monotone? Why is it considered boring? If you are emotionally invested in what you are saying it is highly likely you will vary your tone of voice as you speak Pitch: the highness and lowness of your voice o a rising pitch at the end of a sentence usually signals a question, while a falling pitch indicates a statement o speakers should be careful not to use an upward pitch at the end of declarative sentence because this is often perceived as a sign of insecurity or a desire to gain approval Emphasis: stressing a word in order to give it significance Rate: how fast or slow you speak. Varying your rate is important in maintaining listener attention. Try speaking faster to convey excitement and slower to emphasize key points or to build suspense Pauses: a well-times pause can help emphasize the importance of a point. In general, most novice speakers hate the silence that could make them seem more confident. Their nervousness causes them to fill that silence with verbalized pauses Verbalized pauses: when we fill what should be the silence between the words in our speech (ex: um, like) although the majority of nonverbal communication is vocal (EXAM), the body does play an important role in communication we communicate by using posture, gestures, and movement Posture: the position of your body Gesture: a physical movement used to convey a message (usually with your hands) Movement: using the space in the room to convey a message (where you stand and/or move during your speech Posture, movement, and gestures do’s and don’ts: o DO: try to maintain a relaxed yet straight posture o DO NOT: slump, hunch your shoulders, or put all your weight on one hip o DO: let your arms rest at your side o DO NOT: cross your arms, put hands in your pockets, hide your hands behind yourself, or strangle your note cards o DO: put one foot forward and lean slightly forward on it o DO NOT: sway back and forth o DO: move around occasionally. Movement is an excellent way to signal a transition, or to emphasize your excitement o DO NOT: pace back and forth Basic rules for gestures: 1. The best guestures are natural ones 2. the larger the audience the bigger your gestures need to be to seem “normal” Appearance is another important component of speech delivery People judge your appearance as their first clue as to your status and credibility Face expressions and eye contact: people enjoy listening to speakers who smile, who look at us when they speak, and who seem to enjoy giving the speech 2 Not only do these things increase your likability; they also affect people’s perceptions about your credibility. Thus, they are crucial in persuasive speaking When speakers appear tense 1. Observation: the speaker is nervous – the speaker is not prepared, is inexperience or is uncertain 2. Observation: the speaker won’t look us in the eye – the speaker is lying, trying to manipulate us, or doesn’t respect us 3. Conclusion: listening in not worth my time Thus, making eye contact is hugely important. And its not enough just to glance at people in your audience. When you make eye contact you should try to hold it for 3-5 seconds. If your eyes move away too quickly this will make you look nervous/dishonest Methods of delivery 1. Extemporaneous speaking (speaking from brief notes or visual aids). I highly recommend this method of delivery for the majority of speaking situations. 2. Impromptu speaking (a speech given without prior knowledge of the topic). Just because you have little or not time to prepare your remarks does not mean you don’t give reasons to support your point of view. You can use personal, family, and humorous instances to support your points 3. Manuscript delivery (AKA reading your speech). It is very difficult to maintain eye contact and to have good vocal variety when reading. However, there are situations in which manuscript delivery is called for. a. If you must use a manuscript, make sure it is doubled-spaced and 16-point font, place the manuscript into a stiff binder, practice holding the binder high enough that you can glance down without having to move your head, practice until you are able to sound authoritative yet conversational and your movements seem natural 4. Memorized delivery – has a lot of drawbacks. It is difficult to make your delivery relaxed, spontaneous, and believable if you are trying to recall a memorized text a. The key to a powerful memorization delivery is to know your material so well that you don’t focus on the words, but rather on getting across the emotions those words stir up in you b. Focusing on the emotions you want to share (esp. when you are doing memorized delivery) has 2 benefits: 1. It forces you to put attention on your audience where it should be and 2. If helps you freak out less when you forget a word or stumble a bit 3 4 Chapter 5 Some speeches lend themselves to presentation aids (aka: visual aids), but not all speeches require them If a presentation aid helps you achieve your goals as a speaker, you should use them. If not, then don’t use them just for the sake of using them Multimedia presentation: combines video, audio, pictures, and notes into one medium When we speak we can use either traditional aids like models, objects, and graphs or technological aids like PowerPoints and videos, or a combo of the two Presentation aids can also be used as data to support an argument Frame of reference: an individual’s perspective of the world Visual aids can clarify or confuse your audience depending upon their frame of reference We want to create visuals with both contrast and harmony Contrast concerns how images “stick out” from the background Harmony is when all parts of the image work together Using presentation aids: Occam’s Razor: one should not increase, beyond what is necessary, the number of entities required to explain anything In other words: avoid PowerPoint poisoning Too many slides/too many bullets = not knowing what’s going on How to avoid PowerPoint poisoning How many visuals should I use? Length of speech Divide by 2, add 1 Ex: 6-minute speech = max 4 visuals Using aids during the speech Reference the visual aid Continue to make eye contact with the audience Ensure aid is visible to entire audience Remember: visual aids are not giant cards To do list for presentation aids Practice Be sure the aids are big enough Test the technology before the speech Have a backup plan in place Keep them as simple as possible and use as few as possible Chapter 6 “what is” – the speaking environment – or, what Lloyd Bitzer called, “The Rhetorical Situation” when we think of great speeches we usually think about the person who gave them o Mention “I have a dream” the first thing you probably think about is MLK When Bitzer says that rhetoric is situational, what he means is that it is created for pragmatic reasons – to get something done. There are three key elements to any rhetorical situation 1. Exigence – Bitzer defines an exigence as, “an imperfection marked by urgency.” It’s a problem. Something is not right in the world, and the speaker thinks that if they say something about it, they can make the problem go away, or at least make things better a. Not all problems can be solved by rhetoric b. In any situation there may be many exigencies, but there is always one controlling exigency 2. Audience – every rhetorical situation has an audience. Is an audience anyone who hears the speech? No, it’s only people who are capable of listening AND of being mediators of change 3. Constraints – these are the persons, events, objects and relations which can constrain the decision and action needed to removed the exigence. They often included: beliefs, attitudes, documents, facts, images, interests and motives There are 2 classes of constraints: 1. What Aristotle called “Artistic proofs” – things that can be managed by the speaker For example: let’s say I’ve been asked to perform comedy in Texas. What might I not want to do? That’s in my control The second type are what Aristotle called “inartistic proofs” – things outside the speakers control We want justice – we wanted to know that people who were responsible would be made to pay for their actions We wanted security – people wanted to know that it wouldn’t happen again We wanted to know that the economy would be okay His OBJECTIVE was the reassure and rally the American people – his 3 main points were connected with his audience’s needs, wants and future goals: He assured his audience that justice would be done That measures against terrorism would be taken to protect Americans He said “we will all come together to take active steps that strengthen America’s economy and put our people back to work” Bush’s approval rating jumped to 90 percent after his speech from 9/11 It doesn’t matter what field you are in. if you can take people who are uncertain about their future and paint a clear vision of a positive future they will see you as a good leader Page 114 in book The dreaded group presentation situation There are 2 general approaches that good group presentations take: 1. Moderate approach: one person previews the entire presentation by explaining the topic and telling the audience what each speaker will discuss 2. Bookend approach: one person not only introduces the speech, but she/he provides a summary at the end. This asks a lot of the person responsible, but is nice because it creates psychological closure for the audience Whether you take the moderator approach or the bookend, it is vital that you PRACTICE as a GROUP Group presentations where people have rehearsed together are more than the sum of their parts. They can be amazing. It can seem like you all share a common mind The location as situation Small room you won’t need a microphone and you might seriously want to consider doing without visual aids you have more opportunities to interact with your audience. In this type of setting we expect speakers to be more extemporaneous – means more interactive Larger room more likely a speaker will stick closely to a script the harder it is to keep everyone’s attention there is less interaction and people in the audience tend to feel more anonymous more prone to hecklers o heckler: self-aggrandizing member of the audience who tries to distract from the speech by confronting the speakers in the middle of a presentation o someone who interrupts (on purpose of not) a speaker’s presentation pg. 131 Chapter 7 – Audience Analysis Lack of careful audience analysis is the number one reason speeches fail to meet their goals What happens when we hear a message that contradicts our beliefs or value? EX: if someone said ECU football sucks You want to find out as much as possible about the people in your audience so you don’t make false assumptions about them There are 3 types of info. that are most helpful in tailoring your speech to your audience: o Situational o Demographic o Psychological 1. Situational Includes the size of the audience, their knowledge about the topic, and their opinions about you and your topic Things to consider: o Are they attending voluntarily? Voluntary audiences tend to be homogeneous while captive audiences tend to be heterogeneous. Why does knowing this matter? o How much does your audience know about your topic and/or what are their biases when it comes to you and your topic? o Will anyone be speaking before you, and if so, on what topic? Why do you want to know? You can tie what they say into your speech. So you don’t bore people repeating the same stuf 2. Demographic Age: knowing the general age of your audience can be very helpful in selecting supporting materials. Why? So you can relate to them Ethnic/cultural background: why does this matter? Because you can easily ofend someone What is seen as good public speaking in one culture is not necessarily seen the same way in a diferent culture Using wrong gestures – other things matter, while most Americans see making eye contact as a sign of sincerity, there are other cultures like Chinese and Indian (world population centers) who find it of putting Gender: if you are speaking to a mixed-gender group try to select topics/examples that will appeal to everyone. And avoid sexist language (women control the room). Group affiliation: why is it important to know what groups your audience members belong to? You can connect really quickly Marital status, children, elderly parents: why do you want to know these things? To connect or not Occupation, education, college major, and economic status If your audience is homogeneous when it comes to their college education –they’re all college educated – how will it transform your speech? Your topic determines which of the above demographic characteristics is most relevant. Here’s why: if you were giving a persuasive speech about making individuals over 65 take the driving test every year, what categories would be relevant? Age Swimming with dolphins – economic status 3. Psychological Values – deep-seated principles that sere as personal guidelines for behaviors (ex. If you value free speech what are your likely to say someone who thinks TV should be censored?) if you don’t like it, turn it of Beliefs – the mental acceptance that something is true (even if we cannot prove it is true) (ex. You might believe that if you had more money it would make you a happier person) Attitudes – a feeling of approval/disapproval of a person, group, idea, or event (ex. You might approve of the legalization of marijuana for medical reasons, and disapprove of clowns) Needs – a state in which an unsatisfied condition exists Really great persuades can 1) create a need in their audience, 2) explain how to fulfill the need they just created Maslow’s Hierarchy 1. Top 2. Self-actualization needs (self improvement – few people) 3. Esteem Needs (pride, recognition from others) 4. Social needs (love, friendship) 5. Safety needs (job/financial security, protection from crime) 6. Physiological needs (food, shelter, clothing, water, sleep) 7. Bottom Before your listeners can focus on the higher needs, they need to have their move basic needs met. For example, imagine that you have just been mugged (safety). Are you going to be in the mood to hear about how you can evolve to become a deeper and more spiritual person? (Self-actualization) Fitting your message your audience is called framing. Researchers at Stanford have developed a framework for understanding what motives diferent people called the VALS (values, attitudes, and lifestyles) framework According to them, people can be broadly classified into 8 psychological “types”: 1. Innovators – high self-esteem, image conscious 2. Thinkers – make rational decisions and tend to be well informed (like rational appeals) 3. Believers – conservative people who like consistency and value traditional groups (churches) 4. Achievers – motivated by prospect of financial success. Value symbols of success and like people who push them to succeed 5. Strivers – achievers without financial resources. They try to emulate the “bling” of success as best they can 6. Experiencers – have a lot of resources and make a lot of purchases. They like to seem trendy and can be persuaded to “keep up with the jones” 7. Makers – not into trends or image. They take pride in being self-sufficient and listen to info if it is purposeful and practical in their everyday lives 8. Survivors – motivated by need. Poor people. They do what they have to do to take care of basic needs In addition to their psychological profile, audiences have basic predispositions that are important to consider Audience Types (predisposition) Friendly audience: this audience has heard you speak before, heard positive things about you, or likes your topic. They are looking forward to your speech Neutral audience: these individuals consider themselves open to what you have to say, but they are looking for reasons to believe you. They want logic and facts, not emotions and will appreciate if you demonstrate credibility and authority Uninterested audience: these people plan on zoning out while you speak. You will have to pull them in and connect with them to succeed Hostile audience: they don’t like/trust you and/or don’t like your topic. However, if you remain calm and support what you say with expert data all hope is not lost Chapter 8 – Language Language choices are important for 4 reasons: 1. Language can clarify your ideas and arguments by creating vivid mental images a. Even though listeners may not have personally experienced what you are talking about, they can experience it through the mental image you create 2. Language can influence your audience’s attitudes and behaviors a. People would more likely reject a “death tax” more than an “estate tax” 3. Language can make your ideas personally resonate with audience members 4. Language can add to audience interest and enjoyment a. To be successful at this you should use language that is simple, specific, vivid, and forceful Simple It’s important to keep your language simple because between 1999-2001 companies whose CEO’s used clear language lost an average of $4.1 billion and companies whose CEO’s used confusing jargon lost an average of $26.7 billion Specific Abstract words: describe intangible concepts that are difficult to picture. Have you ever seen health? Concrete words: describe tangible things listeners can picture. Have you ever seen an apple? Using specific language is especially important in persuasion. Your goal is to influence other people’s CHOICES not to distort or confuse choices You should avoid ambiguous words and euphemisms Euphemisms mask unpleasant realities (hiding what really happened) Vivid 2 keys to creating vivid language 1. Picture in your mind what you are describing and you will find it easier to create that mental picture for your audience – see, hear, taste, smell, touch 2. Use the active voice (active verbs) Forceful Involves the effective use of volume, emphasis, and pitch. In persuasion it adds to the confidence an audience has in a speaker Stylistic Devices When they are employed wisely, stylistic devices can make an average speaker appear to be an extraordinary speaker Alliteration – the repetition of consonants (usually the first or last letter in a word) Antithesis – two parallel but contrasting ideas contained in one sentence (ex: give me liberty or give me death!) Assonance – the repetition of vowel sounds Hyperbole – deliberate exaggeration. As long as you are careful your audience doesn’t take it at face value it can arouse emotion and even subtly persuasive Onomatopoeia – the use of words that sound like their meaning (“buzz”, “bang”, “crack”) Parallelism – similarly phrased ideas presented in succession (we will not tire. We ill not falter. And we will not fail) Personification – assigning human qualities or feelings to animals, objects, or concepts The fact that there are so many stylistic devices points to an interesting thing about language – it is very malleable By thinking critically about the stories they tell and the drama they would have us act as characters’ in Walt Fisher – the narrative paradigm Or, how to analyze a story The narrative paradigm suggests that human beings are essentially storytellers Narrative = story, paradigm = a way of looking at and understanding the world The narrative paradigm assumes: 1. People are essentially storytellers 2. We make decisions on the basis of good reasons, which vary depending on the communication situation 3. History, biography, culture, and character determine what we consider good reasons 4. Narrative rationality is determined by the coherence and fidelity of our stories 5. The world is a set of stories from which we choose in order to make sense of our experiences and try to live the “good life” It also says that everyone can judge a story’s coherence and fidelity as long as they have a little common sense Narrative coherence: does the story hang together? Do the characters act in the way we would expect them to act? Does the story seem probable? Narrative fidelity: does the story “ring true” with stories we know to be true Fisher doesn’t believe in the abstract logic of the expert. He believes in the “good reasons” of the common person. And those stories create the dramas we live in Kenneth Burke – dramatism (I don’t want any drama! Sorry, it’s all drama) For Aristotle rhetoric was about persuasion For burke rhetoric is about identification Identification is based on the sharing of substance (becoming consubstantial with others) Examples of substance include physical characteristics, talents, occupation, experiences, personality, beliefs and attitudes We come to trust and believe in people with whom we share substance For Burke, persuasion is the purposeful act of attempting to get audience to see your version of reality as true The Pentad was his method for determining someone’s motives. Burke looks at people and want to know: why do they do what they do? o Act – what was done o Scene – where it was done o Agent – who did it o Agency – how they did it (with what “tools”) o Purpose – why they think they did it Biased words Anchorman, chairman, fireman, mankind, male nurse Neutral alternatives Newscaster, chair/chairperson, firefighter, humankind/humanity, nurse Every ethical speaker remembers: LANGUAGE CREATES REALITY Chapter 9 – organization / attention getters 5 cannons of Rhetoric why disposition – organizing your speech – is vitally important: 1. when you are organized it gives you confidence 2. when you present information in an organized fashion, your audience believes you have high credibility and are a competent person (Wendy’s boss at FYA) 3. organized information is easier for people to understand; therefore, it holds their attention better Organization begins with a general purpose: to inform, to persuade, or to entertain (celebrate) Your specific purpose: tells your audience what you will inform them about, or persuade them to believe or do, or who or what you will celebrate Topical: when each main point is a category of the main topic (ex: the three most unforgettable people I met on my trip to Italy. Or, the three things you should make sure you do before repelling off a bridge) Chronological: when you arrange your main points in a step-by-step order by dates (ex: phases of college life: disorientation, figuring things out, panic – when you realize you’re about to graduate and have to enter the real world. Or, turning point moments in my life) Causal: when your main points have a cause-effect or effect-cause relationship (ex: why people smoke and the ways smoking harms out health. Stress on college students) Note: it’s very easy for cause-effect organization to lead to a persuasive speech Persuasive patterns of organization Reason pattern Very similar to topical pattern – each main point offers a reason to believe a fact, hold a value, or advocate a particular plan. Reason 1 Reason 2 Reason 3 – at this point you probably think you should do it o Example: exact purpose: to persuade my audience that Bigfoot exits Photographic evidence Film evidence Fossil evidence Problem solution pattern Problem Solution Benefits o Example: exact purpose: to persuade my audience to do away with speed limits Costly tickets Organize an angry mob to overthrow government Freedom, etc. Problem solution pattern 2 Problem Solution Action o Example: exact purpose: to persuade my audience to give blood on a regular basis There is a real need for blood The solution is obvious; we all need to give blood on regular basis Tell audience exactly how to do so Problem-cause-solution pattern Problem Cause Solution o Example: exact purpose: to persuade my audience to support building wider roads for drunk drivers We spend millions of dollars trying to educate people not to drink and drive and punishing those who do. And still people continue to die on our roads Cause: America is a drinking culture. America is a driving culture. There is not good public transit in most places. Therefore, people are likely to drink and drive Knowing that people will drink and drive we should do everything we can to lessen the impact. And a good way would be to widen our roads so drunk drivers are less likely to hit other vehicles (Ross, 1994) Stock issues pattern Harms Consequences Solution/call to action o Example: exact purpose: to persuade my audience to lower drinking age to 15 Binge drinking, drinking and driving, etc. Alcohol abuse, DUI, etc. Introduce young people to drinking with adults. Need to change laws and culture. Here’s what you can do. Be specific! well-organized reason pattern speech JFK speech about MLK being shot - riots everywhere except Indianapolis Value: we should turn from hatred and violence and toward peace and understanding Reason 1: this is what MLK taught Reason 2: I know what it’s like to want revenge – my family member was killed, but we must get beyond the pain Reason 3: the vast majority of both white and black people want to live together in a peaceful and just land 5 goals of a good introduction 1. Write and deliver a compelling attention getter Types of attention getters: Definitions/explanations Demonstrations – needs to be brief, yet impressive Fables, sayings, poems, and rhymes – delivery is key Instances – brief examples Instances – detailed narratives (real or hypothetical) Humor – make sure it relates to your topic Asking either a rhetorical question or an actual question – it’s a good way to get your audience involved Reference the occasion – this is especially important if you are giving a special occasion speech Startling facts 2. State your thesis or argument, which simultaneously introduces the topic of your speech and makes it relevant to your audience – motivate your audience to listen 3. Establish credibility 4. Preview your main points that you will discuss in the body of your speech. It is wise to do so in as few as words as possible and to select those words carefully 5. Your introduction should provide a smooth transition to the body of your speech Chapter 10 – Types of Informative Speeches 1 Speeches about objects- it will probably seem counterintuitive because we don’t tend to think of ourselves as objects, but one of the most common speeches about objects is a speaker’s introduction of him/herself to an audience. Why do you think this is considered a speech about on object?- objectifying ourselves Objects can also include people other than the speaker, as well as places, and actual objects. When giving a speech about an object you might want to explain its history, and you should definitely explain its purpose and the various ways it can be used *raffaello object speech- quads- they are mechanically simple, uses demonstrations, explains how it is used,- this video was a demonstration on how not to do things! *in formative speaking it is important to avoid using jargon relation to a specific activity. *Simplify it for your audience!!! The preceding informative speech about an object did have something going for it- cool visual aid. When employed judiciously, visual aids can help people understand very complex concepts, as in the following speech: (effective use)- Tan Le- brainwaves- used a demonstration- way more memorable- Evan made the box drift away with his brain- in addition to the visual aids, how did the speaker help you to understand her research? “each individual’s cortex is folded differently, like a fingerprint.”- using metaphors to help the audience understand 2 Speeches about Processes- normally follow a chronological pattern because sequence is important. Usually “how to” speeches. They can also be used to explain social processes (“how to get elected,” “how to celebrate a catholic mass,” “how interest rates work”) What would happen if you explained how to bake a cake out of order?- chronological order is VERY important!- explain each step in detail but also explain how each step leads to the next. For the mot part, audiences for informative speaking are passive. They want to receive new information and are most likely to listen to speakers who demonstrate high initial credibility. Ethical informative speaking requires us not to skew information in favor of one interpretation- *say I am an expert in this topic to hook the listener in your opening!* *Michael Green- how to make the world a better place- its not just about economics we have to change the way people think as well- social processes 3 Speeches about events- these speeches combine elements of both speeches about objects and speeches about processes. The goal is to detail the important of an event in order to do that you should: • Explain the parameters of the event • Explain who the key players are • Establish the background of the event • Use active voice and vivid description- will keep audience interested the most! *very brief speech about an event- Steve Jurvetson- rockets- you can see the combination of 1. objects = rockets 2. processes = launches, flights, crashes *replays a part of the clip “this is when they realize, and thats me over there taking the photos” - that is the power of active voice- you can put us into the scene in an emotional way- put us in the experience! *no background in the rocket speech- b/c the background wasn’t the interesting part of the speech! he wanted to get people excited about building rockets *another short speech that uses visual aids very effectively- Peter Demanatis (sends people into space)- what was the point of this speech- to get people interested in space travel- he should have omitted some of the background info to make it better. the lesson- if you are informing people about an event, the most interesting material is the event! 4 Speeches about concepts- inform an audience about beliefs, values, or theories. the goal is not to convert the audience to a particular point of view. Therefore, if you are asked to present an informative speech about a belief, value, or they, you should ask yourself if you can be objective about it. We like informative speakers that are passionate and interested, but not dogmatic. Speeches about concepts should find a way to connect the audience to the speaker and the topic. Your goal should be to make the idea (no matter how seemingly abstract), concrete and relevant to the audience. Note how the following speaker makes two of the most abstract concepts imaginable- the meaning of life and the meaning of death- and makes them concrete and relevant *Bj Miller- 1. the difference between suffering and regret. vivid example: frank who has prostate cancer and HIV goes white water rafting- because he doesn’t want to have regrets. Suffering can be good. the most important lessons we ever learn are the result of suffering. thats a pretty philosophical idea that you don’t hear everyday. Regret is never good! takeaway: It’s better to risk suffering than to live with regret. other interpretations are possible. Chapter 11 – Informative Speaking The goal of informative speaking is to share new knowledge with an audience If they don’t remember what you share, have you met that goal? Keys to helping your audience remember your speech: Grab attention with the very first words (Old Spice commercial) – not what you say, how you say it Use acronyms and other mnemonic devices. There are two basic types of popular mnemonic devices: o Those involving rhyme o Those involving a phrase where the first letter of each word stands for another word (BRB) Both techniques have shown to be very effective for aiding memory Repeat information like commercials do (It takes hearing a commercial six times before it gets stuck in your head) Reflect with your audience on a situation/problem they face Get audience involved in answering questions Use emotional examples – the lunch lady comic book convention Compare ideas to your audience’s experiences Encourage your audience to share what they’ve learned with others Steps in preparing an informative speech 1. Analyze your audience. What do they know about the topic? How can you make it interesting to them? 2. Determine your topic (thesis sentence), exact purpose (what your audience will know after listening to your speech), and main points 3. Prepare a rough draft of your main points 4. Research for both verbal and visual supporting materials 5. Determine how to best organize your main points. Don’t simply present them in the order you wrote them without thinking about the content 6. Plan your intro and conclusion. You should write, practice them out loud, and revise. Select your words carefully for impact. Cicero once noted that speakers who carefully crafted the style of their intros would continue to speak in that eloquent style even when the rest of their speech was delivered extemporaneously 7. Make a practice outline. Use key words only. Whatever you do, do no try to memorize your speech – an extemporaneous speech should be a little different every time you deliver it 8. Before you practice your speech take time to critically think about what you have just created Sample Informative Outline – topical organization with 3 main points 1. Intro a. Attention getter (pull us in – don’t give up the topic in your attention getter) b. Thesis (explain in one sentence what your topic will be) c. Preview of main points 1,2,3 2. Main point #1 3. Main point #2 first sentence should repeat key words 4. Main point 3 first sentence should repeat key words from preview 5. Conclusion a. Review main points 1,2,3 b. Restate thesis c. Make either a final statement or a callback to the attention getter Questions you should ask yourself after you have written your outline 1. Is my attention getter is attention grabbing and not a simple statement of the topic? 2. Does my preview convey my 3 main points in as few words as possible? 3. Have I repeated the EXACT SAME key words throughout the outline? 4. The main purpose for selecting my speech topic was… 5. The key question in my mind when I chose this topic was… 6. The most important info in the speech is… 7. The main conclusions I want to present are… 8. The key concepts that must be clear to my audience for them to understand the speech are… 9. The main assumptions I am taking for granted that might be questioned are… 10. If my audience takes my speech seriously, the consequences that will likely follow are 11. If my audience fails to take my speech seriously, the consequences that will likely follow are… 12. Besides my point of view – the one expressed in my speech – what is another point of view I might take on my topic? Why should speakers ask these sort of questions? What might be the consequences of skipping this step and just delivering what wound up in the first draft of your outline? Suggestions for effective practice 1. Practice in front of friends/family and ask them (before you speak) to see if you are a. Making strong contact b. Speaking loudly enough and with vocal variety c. Making strong gestures and not employing “adaptors” 2. Notice how they react to your attention getter. If it doesn’t feel right, ask for feedback 3. Ask them if the structure seemed clear and if they were able to easily follow the main ideas in your speech (keeping in mind they are not experts) 4. If you are using visual aids – practice with them and practice what you will do if they don’t work 5. How long do you think you will have to practice intelligently a. 10,000 hours – Josh Kaufman says 20 hours Chapter 12 – Persuasive Speaking There are 3 basic types of questions that persuasive speeches revolve around: questions of fact, value, and policy 1. Questions of fact: something that can proven or disproven (Ex: missing socks and unicorns) a. Facts are usually he basis for informative speeches. When would someone try to persuade an audience about a fact? Evolution, global warming 2. Questions of value: a persuasive speech about the rightness or wrongness of an idea, action, or issue. (Value words: right/wrong, just/unjust, moral/immoral, beautiful/ugly) 3. Questions of policy: “should statements” usually involving an institution (Ex: ECU should have more parking for undergraduate students) Most persuasive speeches involve trying to convince other to hold (or uphold) a particular value, or that because of their values they should act in a particular fashion, or that an institution should do something because of something we should all value Suzanne Somers – she was an actress on a show called 3’s Company – when she left the show it looked like her career was over. She then did a pilot called “She’s the Sheriff” Then she developed and marketed the Thigh Master and she made millions of dollars and revitalized her career Suzanne Somers did what all great persuaders do. She sold her audience a positive vision of the future. She developed her vision by creating a strategic storyline A strategic story provides a means of connecting the dots between the future you want and the future your audience wants Suzanne Somers’ strategic story line tells them “you can have” o Nice legs like me, working out only 10 times 3 times a week, for only $29.95 The real genius of her pitch is this: where is her audience and what are they doing as they watch her infomercial? They are on the couch watching TV Sample Persuasive Outline Objective: what specific actions do you want your audience to take as a result of your speech? Strategic storyline: what is the vision of a positive future you want your audience to grasp? Develop your storyline into 3 main points that target your audience’s agenda. (what are their needs, wants, and desires?) what 3 specific things will they gain by adopting your proposal Main point #1 – targeted message: make a claim about your audience’s future and provide evidence that supports that claim Main point #2 – targeted message: make a claim about your audience’s future and provide evidence that supports that claim Main point #3 – targeted message: make a claim about your audience’s future and provide evidence that supports that claim Review 3 main points and make a call to action Application The first thing you have to figure out when using the outline above is exactly what you want from your audience The reason Suzanne Somers was so successful was that she created a story that people could project themselves into They could envision themselves in the future with nicer legs without having to workout hard or having to spend a lot of money Aristotle wrote that there are 3 important factors that determine the success or failure of any persuasive act. He called them: 1. Ethos (speaker credibility) – most important, the other two won’t matter if people don’t believe you 2. Pathos (emotional appeals) 3. Logos (practical reasoning/rational appeals) In terms of ethos, or speaker credibility: What one quality do you think audiences find most important in a speaker? sincerity Note: sincerity is very hard to fake. Your lack of sincerity usually comes out in your nonverbal communication When people are not being sincere how do their voices sound? Do they make a lot of eye contact? What do they do with their hands? What about their feet? When someone is taking your picture what do they say? How many times have you heard, “say cheese?” and what kind of smile do you produce? You wind up with a “cheesy” fake smile. The same thing happens to most people when they try to fake sincerity Thus, wise persuasive speakers only attempt to persuade others about goals and causes that they passionately believe in Although Aristotle separated pathos (emotion) and logos (rationality) they are most powerful when they work in combination Example: imagine your drinking water is full of heavy metals that can cause cancer and birth defects Argument – in speech an argument doesn’t mean a fight. It means that you present a claim and support that claim with evidence Evidence ------ warrant ------- claim Good persuasive speeches should have between 2-5 main points (3 is ideal). And each main point should begin with a claim and the rest of the point should be dedicated to supporting that claim with quality evidence Your speech will be especially strong if each of those 3 main points makes a claim about how the future of your audience will be positive if they do what you are proposing What kind of evidence is best? As a general rule, you should use the type of evidence that will be most persuasive to your particular audience Definitions, examples, statistics, analogies, comparisons, and contrasts, anecdotes, quotations, and expert testimony are all potentially wonderful However, there is one type that I believe is crucial in every speech Daniel Kahneman won a Nobel Prize by providing strong evidence for the following proposition… vivid examples are far more influential in shaping decisions than abstract information, even if the info is more accurate Vivid examples are more persuasive than abstract info because they connect both sides of our brains simultaneously. They are logical and emotional, or in Aristotle’s terms, they have both logos and pathos Chapter 13 – Reasoning and Persuasion Evidence – supports the logical arguments of a speech and includes factual instances, expert and personal opinions, and statistics o Ex: claim- ECU should not be allowed to raise tuition yet again When you make a claim and support it with evidence, you are making an argument How well your argument will be received depends upon a number of factors, one of which is the words you use to make it “An argument is a collective series of statement to establish a definite proposition.” Sounds good, right? And just like using vivid examples, that matters a lot to actual audiences Logical sounding words and phrases such as therefore, as a result, it is only logical that, and it is possible to conclude, have a surprising ability to persuade people that a speech is logical regardless of its actual logical content Therefore, while it would be unethical to use these phrases in a presentation devoid of logic, it would be foolish not to employ them when you are presenting logical arguments Also, we trust people who have “been there done that.” Speakers who support their assertions with firsthand experiences are considered trustworthy and are more persuasive than those who refer only to high-prestige sources Statistics tend to be most persuasive to audience members who already support the speaker. Why do you think that is the case? Audiences are more easily persuaded when the arguments they hear are novel or new. (even old arguments presented in a new or unusual way may be successful) Practical Advice for Successful Persuasion – the “Dos” 1. Use logical sounding words and phrases 2. Provide vivid examples 3. Only use stats once the audience is on your side (don’t open with stats) 4. Provide the with novel info to support your points Logical Fallacies – the “Don’ts” 1. Ad hominem (attack the person): instead of dealing with the quality of your opponent’s arguments you attack your opponent 2. Ad populum (if it’s popular it is right) 3. Ad ignoratiam (appeal to ignorance): saying that because something cannot be proven false, it must be true 4. Begging the question: asserts that something is true because it is true. (aka: circular reasoning) 5. Hasty generalization: occurs when a conclusion is based upon too few examples or isolates examples 6. Post hoc ergo propter hoc (after this, therefore because of this): when someone claims one thing caused another simply because one event followed the other 7. Slippery slope: when someone says that if we take one step in a direction we will invariably go all the way Practical Techniques for Compliance Gaining Reciprocation: if someone gives us something The professional world is vital to “show good listening.” If you are a good audience for someone when they speak they will feel obligated to return the favor Commitment and consistency: once you committed to an action you tend to defend that decision even if it was a bad one. Why? Because we don’t like “flakes.” And we don’t want to see ourselves as “flaky” Commitment and consistency is why the “foot in the door technique” works. If you can get someone to make even a small commitment (“get your foot in the door”) their desire to be consistent can then be used to get them to make larger commitments. Social proof: if other people are doing it or believe it, you are more likely to want to do it or to believe it Practical application: in any group if you can locate the most influential person/people and persuade him/her/them, everyone else will likely follow Likeability: if I like you (usually because we are alike in one or more ways), I am more likely to be influenced by you o The evaluator who only provided praised was like best o This held true even when the men fully realized that the flatter stood to gain from their liking him o The praise did not even have to be accurate to work. It was just as effective when it was untrue as when it was true Authority: you tend to be influenced by people whom you see as authority figures
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