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by: Lexi Ginwright

Chem Chemistry 1210

Lexi Ginwright

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About this Document

General Chem 1
Ted Clark
Class Notes
Chem, Chemistry
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lexi Ginwright on Tuesday July 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 1210 at Ohio State University taught by Ted Clark in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Chem 1 in Chemistry at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 07/12/16
The Aware Mind: Consciousness Questions to consider: - At what point did consciousness emerge? - What advantages are there for those who are “conscious”? Consciousness: a state of awareness - Can refer to a state of awareness or content of awareness Self-awareness: special understanding of the self as distinct from other stimuli 1. Consciousness as Variations in Alertness a. Energy conservation b. Maximizing safety 2. Consciousness as an Awareness of Ongoing Sensations a. Instinct vs. Choice 3. Consciousness as Self-Awareness a. Drive to survive b. Rouge test Consciousness and the Brain - Complex interactions between areas of cerebral cortex and thalamus - May be necessary but not sufficient - Reticular formation plays role in raising or lowering thresholds of conscious awareness - Activity changes in brain networks - Default mode network - People spend roughly 50% of their waking hours in unfocused mind wandering state - Correlated with feelings of relative unhappiness and thoughts about the self (interaction unclear) Consciousness, Waking and Sleep Modern Life and Circadian Rhythms - Consequences of working the night shift - Ability to cross time zones-jet lag - Daylight savings time- graph about heart attacks - Major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern: mood disorder in which depression occurs regularly at the same time each year, usually during the winter months; formerly known as seasonal affect disorder o Reduction of daylight hours may interfere with setting of circadian rhythms o Treated with exposure to bright lights or antidepressants - Individual differences! Waking - Stages of awareness can be described using electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, provided general measure of overall brain activity - Beta waves: 15-30 cycles per second, irregular, low amplitude waves, usually indicates waking - Alpha waves: 9-12 cycles per second, slower, larger, more regular, indicates relaxed waking - Gamma waves: more than 30 cycles per second, indicated processing sensory input - Daydreaming or mind wandering is a subjective experience in a no- task, no-stimulus, no-response situation Stages of Sleep Defined by presence or absence of rapid eye movement (REM) - Non-REM Sleep: stages 1-4 during which REM does not occur - REM Sleep: stage 5, during which REM occurs o Brain is most active compared with other stages o Vivid dreaming often occurs Stage 1 Sleep - Pre-sleep consciousness o May experience hypnic jerk - Light sleep- not even sure you’re asleep - Lasts 5-10 minutes Stage 2 Sleep - Brain waves slow even more o Sleep spindles: sudden intense bursts of brain waves o K-complexes: sudden sharply rising and falling waves - Heart rate slows - Body Temperature decreases - Muscles relax - Eye movement stops Stage 3 & 4 Sleep - Known as “slow wave sleep” - Delta waves appear (20-50%) - Extremely deep sleep - Need these stages to feel fully rested - Alcohol suppresses these stages of sleep Stage 5: REM Sleep - Increased rate of brain waves - Heart rate and blood pressure increase - Breathing rapid and irregular - Major postural muscles are inactive - Rapid Eye Movements (REM) o Eyes move under the lid o Associated with vivid dream states Sleep Deprivation - Slows healing of injuries - Reduces activity of immune system - Production of fewer neurons in adult brain - Reparative processes vital to health Dreams - Activation synthesis theory of dreaming = content of dreams simply reflects ongoing neural activity - Other view of dreams suggest dreaming behavior correlates with activity in circuits that overlap substantially with the DMN (default mode network) - Lucid dreaming – dreamers become aware they are dreaming and may use this awareness to control or direct the content of the dream o Associated with increased activity in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (role in voluntary behavior) Sleep Disorders Nightmares & Sleep Terrors - Nightmares are unpleasant dreams that occur during REM sleep - Sleep terrors occur during Non REM sleep o Sleeper becomes acutely distressed despite remaining deeply asleep o If awakened, person is disoriented and confused o Usually have no memory of them Insomnia - Difficulty falling or staying asleep o 30% of adults report insomnia (half severe) - Often related to anxiety or emotional stress - Sleeping pills are NOT effective long term Narcolepsy - A disorder in which sudden “sleep attacks” occur in the middle of waking activities o REM intrusions into waking hours o Can last 30 seconds to 30 minutes - Unrelenting sleepiness and uncontrollable sleep attacks - Cells in hypothalamus that secrete orexins are missing or damaged - Results from combination of genetic vulnerability and autoimmune processes that attack the cells in the brain that produce orexins Sleep Apnea - A disorder where a person stops breathing for brief periods while sleep - Airway obstruction often results in snoring - People may wake up hundreds of times a night, causing fatigue and physical stress - Most common in overweight, middle-aged men - Other cases occur when brainstem neurons responsible for maintaining breathing during sleep malfunction Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) - Occurs when healthy infant dies while asleep - 1992-2003 rates of SIDS decreased by half when AAP began recommending sleeping on backs instead of stomachs - Cause of most cases remains elusive - Some may include biological vulnerabilities in serotonin function or exposure to tobacco smoke Restless Leg Syndrome - Characterized by tingling feeling and/or involuntary movement of extremity, usually one leg - 15% of large sample of US adults reported symptoms - Results from gene variant active during prenatal development in basal ganglia - High frequency of RLS among children and adults with ADHD Altered States of Consciousness - Psychoactive drugs: any drug with the capability of altering a person’s state of consciousness - Addiction: compulsive physical or psychological dependence on a substance or activity that continues in spite of negative consequences o Can include tolerance and withdrawal o Inability to abstain from the behavior o Distorts typical systems of reward o Disrupts normal, logical decision making o Individual differences predict which people are more likely than others Tolerance & Withdrawal - Tolerance: the need to administer greater quantities of a drug to achieve same subjective effect - Withdrawal: physical responses to the removal of some habitually administered drugs o Ex: alcohol inhibits the nervous system produces rebound effect characterized by excess brain activity, life threatening seizures can occur o Ex: withdrawal from stimulants (caffeine) can make users sluggish and lethargic Drugs: - Marijuana o Most commonly used federally illegal substance in the US o Behavior effects usually subtle  Excitation, vivid imagery, mild euphoria  Depression social withdrawal o High doses can produce hallucinations (hallucinogen) o Cannabis contains over 50 psychoactive compounds known as cannabinoids (most important is THC) o Interacts with endogenous cannabinoids  Endogenous: naturally occurring o Located in areas of the brain involved in pain, appetite, learning, reasoning, and movement - LSD o Chemically similar to serotonin o Ability to produce hallucinations remains poorly understood o Can produce flashbacks even after drug has been discontinued - Caffeine o Stimulant: increases activity of the nervous system o Interferes with inhibition normally produced by adenosine o Result is alertness and excitation o Produces withdrawal characterized by headaches and fatigue o Can cross placenta and enter breast milk leading to reduced rates of growth and complications in the fetus o Correlated with lower risk of Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease - Nicotine o Most commonly used stimulant after caffeine o Mimics action of neurotransmitter acetylcholine o Increases heart rate and blood pressure o Reduces fatigue, improves cognitive performance, produces muscular relaxation o Use correlated with psychological disorders such as schizophrenia and depression o Smoking causes 80% of lung cancers o 50% of smokers die prematurely from smoking related disease - Cocaine & Amphetamines o Similar effects to other amphetamines o Moderate doses produce alertness, elevated mood, confidence, and sense of well-being o High doses can produce symptoms similar to schizophrenia  Hallucinations, feelings of bugs running on skin, delusions  Repetitive motor behaviors- teeth grinding o Cocaine acts as dopamine reuptake inhibitor while Meth and other amphetamines stimulate DA and NE release AND inhibit reuptake o Methamphetamine is most commonly abused form of amphetamines  Most likely to lead to symptoms of psychosis o Because they act on reward systems  MOST ADDICTIVE - Methylphenidate (Ritalin) o Stimulant commonly used to treat ADHD o Boost DA and NE activity o Increase users’ ability to stay alert and concentrate o Affect sleep and appetite - MDMA (Ecstasy) o 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine  MDMA o Relative of amphetamines and mescaline (hallucinogen) o Increases heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature o Increases sociability by stimulating serotonin and oxytocin o Side effects include dehydration, exhaustion & hypothermia, convulsions, and death o Being explored as possible treatment for individuals with PTSD o “Molly” myth - Alcohol o Low doses of alcohol dilates blood vessels causing warm, flushed feeling and reduces anxiety o High doses inhibits high order brain functions which leads to  Aggression  Risky behavior  Poor motor coordination o Very high doses can produce coma and death o Acts on GABA (main inhibitor in the brain) o Reduces activity in cerebral cortex o Stimulates reward pathways in brain (addictive potential) - Opioids o Natural or synthetic substance that interact with endorphin receptors o Derived from the opium poppy = opiates o Source of psychoactive opiates including morphine and codeine o Heroin is synthesized through processing of morphine o Imitate action of endorphins o Capable of relieving pain, suppressing cough o Muscle relaxation, sleep


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