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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Tuesday July 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Ball State University taught by Metzger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Journalism in Journalism and Media Studies at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 07/12/16
Journalism 101 J. Metzger 1 Chapter 6: Radio. 1) History of how Radio Began. a) 1896. i) Guglielmo Marconi. (1) “Wireless telegraph” used radio waves to carry messages in Morse Code. (2) Vertical integration- when a company with the same owner handles different aspects of a business (within the same industry). (a) Played pivotal role in Titanic disaster. b) Radio Act of 1912. i) First licensed radio transmitter. ii) Regulation- government restriction of supervision of privately owned activity. (1) The airways. 2) Regulation of Radio. a) Patent- gives the inventor the exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention for 20 years. i) General Electric (GE). ii) Radio Corporation of America (RCA). iii) American Telegraph & Telephone (AT&T). 3) Broadcasting Begins. a) Frank Conrad. i) Began the first regularly scheduled radio broadcast in 1920. (1) Retail stores promoted goods. (2) Newspapers saw potential stories. (3) Schools and churches saw educational possibilities. ii) Frequency- number of cycles that radio waves complete is a second. iii) License- legal permission to operate a transmitter. b) “Household Utility”. i) Bringing music into the house by wireless. c) Entertainment supported by advertising. i) AT&T station WEAF started in 1922 in New Jersey. ii) Charged users of their radio by how much airtime they used. d) Had an enormous impact on U.S. culture as people became more aware of how those in other parts of the country lived. i) Increased awareness of national issue. ii) Changed how Americans thought. iii) Offered advertisers direct access to the home. 4) BBC, License Fees, and the Road Not Taken. a) British Broadcasting Corporation was highly regarded for news, cultural, and educational broadcasting. i) Represents an alternative to the model chosen by the United States in the 1920s. 5) Radio Networks. a) AT&T. i) First broadcasting network. ii) Sold out to RCA in 1926; agreed to act as a transmission medium for all radio networks on an equal basis. Journalism 101 J. Metzger 2 6) Paying for Programming: The Rise of Radio Networks. a) National Broadcasting Corporation 1926 (NBC). b) Columbian Broadcasting Corporation (CBS). c) Early radio network programing: i) News. ii) Comedy. iii) Variety shows. iv) Soap operas. v) Detective dramas. vi) Sports. vii)Suspense. viii) Action adventure. d) Stimulated a demand for a variety of musical genres (classical country western). 7) Radio Network Power. a) 1941 chain broadcasting- synonymous with a broadcasting network. b) American Broadcasting Company (ABC). c) Paramount information medium of the war. 8) Competition from Television. a) Radio networks saw RCA & CBS refocus their energy on new television networks. i) More profitable medium than radio. 9) Networks Fall, Disc Jockeys Rule. a) Radio advertising shifted from a national to a local focus and began to rely on cheaper formats. i) Music. ii) News. iii) Talk. (1) Disc jockeys (DJs). 10) The FM Revolution. a) Growth of FM radio revived radio in 1960s. i) Easy license to get. ii) 1970s “rock: radio split into Top 40. (1) Subculture. 11) Local DJs decline: a New Generation of Network Radio. a) Syndication- rental/ licensing of media products. i) Regionalization is the dominant trend, with clear channel dismissing dozens of local DJs in its stations in small market in 2011, replacing them with regional voice talent who voice “local” stations to reduce costs. b) 1996 Telecommunication Act- is federal legislation that deregulated radio ownership rules and the communications media, opened industry to competition. 12) New Genres: Alternative, Pop, and Hi-Hop radio. a) Radio stations continued to change/ modify formats to follow the evolution of music genres and audience interests. 13) Radio in the Digital Age. a) Broadcasters worried that satellite radio would lead to a decline in both number and variety of local radio stations, plus a concentration of programming decisions in the hands of fewer companies. Journalism 101 J. Metzger 3 b) Internet radio is growing. i) Podcast- recorded messages/ audio programs distributed through download to computers, iPods, or other portable digital music players. ii) Poses a continuing threat to the conventional broadcast model. 14) Technology Trends: Inside Your Radio. a) Radio was the first wireless communications medium but the others that followed, followed the same bthic principles of electromagnetism that Marconi harnessed in the 19 century. 15) High Definition Radio. a) Transmits audio that has been converted to computer data, over the air from earthbound radio transmitters to special digital receivers. b) Allows stations to broadcast several different channels. 16) Satellite Radio Technology. a) Sirius transmits via satellite. i) Allows satellite radio to insert local traffic and weather reports into transmission. 17) Internet Radio Technology. a) Variety of radio stations now broadcast on the internet, some through websites, apps on cell phones, and tablets. 18) Weighing Your Digital Radio Options. a) HD Radio stations were slowly becoming more available. b) Pandora & Spotify are also now working with social networking programs. 19) Industry: Radio Stations & Groups. a) Radio lives in a contradictory time of countervailing trends. b) New digital technologies seem to allow many more new entrants in radio, broadly defined. c) Economic and regulatory changes also encouraged unprecedented concentrations of the ownership of a few major players across the radio industry. d) 1996 Telecommunications Act. i) Increased cross-ownership- occurs when one firm owns different media outlets in the same area. 20) Inside Radio Stations. a) Take care of certain basic functions. i) Administrative (payroll, accounting, purchasing). ii) Technical (engineering, transmitter operations…). iii) Programing (local, news, playlists, promotions…). iv) Sales (relations with nations, regional sales firms). b) Syndication- produce programming for resale to other media outlets. 21) Noncommercial Radio. a) Tend to focus on education, classical music, jazz, independent rock, ethnic immigrant music, news, and public affairs. i) Most noncommercial broadcasts are FM stations. 22) Genres around the Dial. a) Format clock- hourly radio programing schedule. 23) Role of Radio Ratings. a) Rating study- measures the proportion of television households that watch a specific show, or how many people are listening to a radio station. b) Arbitron is the leading provider for radio ratings. Journalism 101 J. Metzger 4 24) Music Genres and Radio Formats. a) Increased competition for audience segments has also increased the importance of research. b) Genres evolve with their audience. c) Because of AMs broader signal reach, many situations in sparsely populated smaller towns adopt a format that is broad-based. 25) Talk Radio. a) A number of audiences are strongly attracted to news, sports, and talk on stations. b) Owners and advertisers who wish to pursue that audience tend to consider using this format. 26) National Public Radio. a) Public Radio International (PRI). b) American Public Radio. c) Government funding is the majority of support, but some foundations/ corporations offer funding for the certain kinds of programing and news that interests them. 27) Radio Programing Services. a) Economics of radio programing have changed to favor centralized, syndicated programing. 28) Impact of the Airways: Who Controls the Airways? a) Concentration of ownership- occurs when several kinds of media/ many outlets of the same kind of media are owned by a single owner. 29) Concentrating ownership, Reducing Diversity? a) Fewer stations are programed locally because group owners offer supply programing from a certain source. b) News and information content lack genuine local input/ diversity. 30) You can’t say that on the Radio. a) Continues to be a focus on radio broadcasting. b) More closely scrutinized under the rationale that the airwaves are a scarce resource to be used in the public interest. 31) Breaking or Saving Internet Radio. a) American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP). b) Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI). c) Radio stations get licenses for the music listed by the music- licensing group in return for a fee, usually a 1-2% of the station’s gross income.
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