Evolutionary Biology BIO 3350 Clemson
Evolutionary Biology BIO 3350 Clemson 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Emmons on Tuesday July 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Michael Sears in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 07/12/16
EVOL BIO-3/8/2016 03/08/2016 ▯ Quantitative Traits a. Traits for which the distribution of phenotypes in continuous rather than discrete. o Consistent with Mendelian genetics Influenced by the combined effects of genotype at many loci Influenced by the environment ▯ QTL Mapping a. Collective name for a suite of related techniques that employ marker loci to scan chromosomes and identify regions containing genes that contribute to a quantitative trait o We can detect the presence and location of loci influencing a quantitative trait by crossing parents from populations with fixed differences. Among the grand-offspring, we look for associations between phenotype and genotype at marker loci. Results from QTL Mapping studies are often summarized with plots of LOD score ▯ Measuring Heritable Variation phenotypic variance = genetic variance + environmental variance Narrow Sense heritability don’t take the square root narrow sense heritability broad sense heritability: degree of genetic determination ▯ Quantitative genetics allows us to analyze evolution by natural selection in traits controlled by many loci. Additive genetic variation versus dominance genetic variation in a trait controlled by two alleles at a single locus. Heritability=0 then selection cant act on because there is no genetic variation Heritability=1, then selection can act on it because there is genetic variation Monozygotic twins develop from a single zygote and thus share all their genes. Dizygotic twins develop from separate zygotes and share half their genes. o If the heritability of a trait is high, monozygotic twins will resemble each other more strongly than dizygotic twins. Second step in a quantitative genetic analysis to measure strength of selection on trait in question o One measure is selection differential (S) = difference between mean of selected individuals + mean of entire population o Breeder’s Equation Slope R o Once we know h2 and S, we can use them to predict the response to selection as R=h2S ▯ ▯ When characters are genetically correlated, selection on one can drag the other along for the ride. ▯ ▯
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