Chapter 16 notes
Chapter 16 notes Psych 302-50
U of L
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisha orr on Tuesday July 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 302-50 at University of Louisville taught by Lora Haynes in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Experimental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 07/12/16
Chapter 16 Notes There are seven main sections in an APA-style research paper 1) The title page 2) Abstract 3) Introduction 4) Method 5) Results 6) Discussion 7) And references Getting ready to write 1) Check your margins to make sure they fit with the guidelines 2) Choose Times New Roman at 12 point font 3) Use double spacing throughout your manuscript 4) Be sure to turn off hyphenation. APA style requires that words appear in their entirety 5) Margins must be 1 inch all around Formatting a page Each page of an APA manuscript includes a running head and a page number. Running head is a shortened version of your title - On the title page only type running head: followed by the running head in all caps - page number goes in upper right hand corner On the rest of the pages you do not need to type the words running head, but you do need to put your running head title at the top of the page. Parts and Orders of Manuscript Sections Title page: - includes your running head and page number - Title of your paper, author name, the author’s institutional affiliation, and any author notes. Author name and affiliation: - If you are the sole author of the paper, your name goes one double spaced line beneath the title - Affiliation is where you did your research, usually a University Author Note: - A small footnote at the bottom of the first page to identify each author’s departmental affiliation, providing acknowledgments, state disclaimers or conflicts of interest, and indicate how readers can contact the author. Stated in four paragraphs: 1) Identifies the author’s affiliation when study was conducted 2) List any changes in author affiliation 3) Acknowledgements such as grants that supported the research 4) Presents point of contact (mailing address, etc.) Abstract: The abstract is a concise summery of your paper The abstract for an empirical study should include: 1) Information on the problem under study 2) The nature of the subject sample 3) A description of the methods used, including equipment, procedures for gathering data, names of test and so on 4) A statement of the findings 5) A statement of the conclusions drawn and any implications or applications of your results. The APA manual defines four qualities that make for a good abstract. It must be accurate, nonevaluative, coherent and readable. The Introduction: The primary function of the introduction is to describe the problem studied and your basic research strategy. Your introduction should include three essential elements: 1) An exploration of the importance of the problem examined 2) A description of relevant previous research and theory 3) A clear statement of your hypotheses and how they relate to your research design To help the reader understand why you conducted your study your introduction should include the following: 1) Introduction to the topic under study 2) A brief review of the research findings 3) Statement of the problem to be addressed by the research 4) The purpose of the research 5) Brief description of the research strategy 6) Description of any predictions about the outcome To provide this information in a comprehensive way, the structure of the introduction proceeds from the general to the specific Formatting the Introduction To follow APA style, begin the introduction on a new page with your running head and page number. Next center the title of the paper at the top of the page and start introduction immediately below the title. (Example pg 503, figure 16-4) The Method Section This is where you tell your reader exactly how you conducted your study. - Describes in detail the characteristics of your subjects, materials and apparatuses used, research design, as well as the procedures followed The method section is divided into subsections to improve organization and readability The most common format contains the following subsections. Participants, apparatus, and procedure Participants or subjects: In this section, you specify the nature and size of the sample used in your study. Number of participants, demographic variables, procedures for selection, agreements with participants (such as payments), information on personal characteristics relevant to your study, mental impairment, etc. If subjects were animals describe them in a subjects subsection. Describe genus, species, strain, and any relevant information Apparatus or Materials: If you used equipment describe it in the apparatus section. If you use primarily written materials describe them in the materials subsection Procedure subsection – tells your reader the procedure you followed throughout the course of the study - Describe the conditions in which subjects were exposed or under which they were observed. What behaviors were recorded, how they were measured or scored, when measures were taken and debriefing procedures - Formatting the method section Starts directly after the end of the introduction - Center the word “method” as the heading - On the next double spaced line type “participants” (Example PG 506, figure 16-5) The Results Section The purpose of the results section is to report your findings. You should report all relevant data summaries and analysis. Your results section should be primarily a narrative where you describe what you found. Descriptive and inferential statistics will also appear in this section. - Do not interpret or discuss your findings in the results section; you do this in the next section of your paper Formatting the results section: The results section is where you discuss any tables or figures that present data from your study. In your results section you must report descriptive statistics associated with any significant effects you found. You should report the means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals associated with each statistically significant effect. The Discussion Section In the discussion section, you interpret your results, draw conclusions, and relate your findings to previous research or theory. Moves from specific research findings to general research findings. Begin your discussion with a brief restatement of your hypotheses. Next briefly indicate whether your data were consistent with your pre- experimental hypotheses. The Reference Section: Provides a list of bibliographical references cited in the report Start your reference page on a separate page Footnotes: A content footnote – clarifies a point made in the text of the paper, or to provide additional details that would detract from the flow of your discussion at that point. Copyright permission footnotes – acknowledges the source of copyrighted quoted material, figures, or tables Tables: You will use tables when you have data that cannot easily be summarized in your report. Use only when you cannot fully describe information in the text of your paper. Figures: Use figures to provide graphic illustrations of complex material or relationships that cannot be adequately described in text. Graphs, drawings and photographs are the most common types of figures used. Elements of APA Style Citing references in your report: In APA style citations are made by providing the name of the author, publication date of the source, and (when needed) specific pages within the source Citing Quoted Material: Whenever you directly quote a source you must indicate that the material was obtained from another source. You must include the author’s name, year of publication, and page or pages where you found the quoted material. Using numbers in the text: As a rule you spell out numbers lower than 10, and express 10 and above numerically Avoiding plagiarism and lazy writing: 1) Always properly cite the source of words and ideas that are not your own 2) Always paraphrase information from another source and provide a proper citation 3) Enclose directly quoted material in quotation marks 4) Use quoted material sparingly and only to support something you have written in your own words 5) Make sure any written assignment you turn in is written in your own words.
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