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Evolutionary Biology BIO 3350 Clemson

by: Emily Emmons

Evolutionary Biology BIO 3350 Clemson 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biological Sciences > 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001 > Evolutionary Biology BIO 3350 Clemson
Emily Emmons
GPA 3.4

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Evolutionary Biology BIO 3350 Clemson
Evolutionary Biology
Dr. Michael Sears
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Emmons on Tuesday July 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Michael Sears in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 07/12/16
3/31 Darwinian Medicine--CHAPTER 17:23 Tinbergen’s Four Questions Six Potential reasons for the better question 1. Mismatch with a novel environment 2. Competition with pathogens 3. Every trait is a trade off 4. Constrains on natural selection 5. Organisms are optimized for reproduction and survival not health 6. Defenses and suffer are useful Two themes from chapter The consequences of the fact that population evolve: pathogens and tissues (immune cells, cancerous cells) How humans have been subject to natural selection Same tools use in evolutionary medicine as in evolutionary biology Phylogenically and the comparative method Population and quantitative genetic Epidemiology Controlled experiments Natural experiments Etc. The great opportunity: new evolutionary applications in medicine : Randy Hess Darwinian Medicine is Flowering: How can we Help Save the Seed? Darwinian (Evolutionary) Medicine The enterprise of using the basic science of evolutionary biology in services of medicine and public health Evolution is a basic medical science with many untapped applications Natural Selection When heritable variations in a trait influence reproductive success, the trait will inevitable change over the generations. Four Lines of Work Infection and Fast Evolution Still being developed Constructing Phylogenties Established, new applications Evolutionary Genetics Some old, much that is new Why selection left our bodies vulnerable New questions just being asked Studies of Fast Evolution a. Pathogen Evolution b. Immune System c. Cancer Clones Constructing Phylogenies Levels of selection Pleiotropy Quirks that interact with environments Variation Evolutionary Genetics Levels of selection Pleiotropy Quirks that interact with environments Not disease genes, just variations that interact with environments to cause disease Ex. Myopia, Apo E 4 Variation There are six reasons why natural selection leaves the body vulnerable to disease Six Reasons Why Diseases Exist Selection is Slow Mismatch: body in a novel environment Competition with fast evolving organisms Selection is constrained Every trait is a trade-off Constraints on natural selection We misunderstand Organisms shaped for reproduction and survival, not health Defenses and suffering Mismatch Breast Cancer MUCH more common now Hormone Exposure 400+ cycles now, about 110 then Night Light Exposure Cholesterol Levels Competition with Other Organisms Mostly covered already—Fast Selection Every Trait is a Trade-Off Most genes are trade-offs Why is there Aging? Some genes that cause ageing have no selective cost in the wild Others offer advantages early in life when selection is strong Implication: Disrupting aging associated genes is likely to cause problems Constraints Path Dependence Blind Spot Dangerous Childbirth Pathway Mutations Huntington’s Disease Muscular Dystrophy Health is not Selection’s Goal The Vulnerable Sex Sex Mortality Ratio % males who die in a year --------divided by--------- % females who die in a year M.R. > 1.0 means that proportionately more males than female are dying Defenses and Suffering Defects Defenses Seizures Fever Cancer Cough Paralysis Pain Jaundice Fatigue Injury Anxiety The Smoke Detector Principle False Alarms are Normal This is why we can block pain, couch, and nausea safely (Except for 1 time out of 1000) Implication: it should be safe to block much suffering, but we must THINK 17:23 17:23


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