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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Wednesday July 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Ball State University taught by Metzger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Journalism in Journalism and Media Studies at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 07/13/16
Journalism 101 J. Metzger 1 Chapter 5: Recorded Music. 1) History: From Roots to Records. i) Songwriters had a more central role and were more widely recognized. b) The Victrola. i) Nickelodeon- phonograph/ player piano operated by inserting a coin. (1) Reproduced music for the public. ii) Victrola- trade name for an early phonograph. c) Early Recorded Music. i) The notion of popular music caught on, as writers and composers began to discover what kinds of music most appealed to a mass audience. d) Big Band & the Radio Days. i) Radio had immediate impact on recorded music. (1) Recording industry began to rely on radio to make people aware of recording artists and the performers they heard on the radio began to be more important than the composers of the music. (2) Stimulated a demand for a variety of music genres. e) Big Band Music & the WWII Generation. i) Developed from jazz; it was the pop music of the day. ii) Frank Sinatra. (1) Ideas of stars and fans echoed the movies and built a powerful industry force that still exists today. f) New Musical Genres. i) Gospel- music derives from white/ black southern church hymns. ii) Blues- comes from music by black slaves in the south, which was characterized by specific chord progressions and moods. iii) Bluegrass- come from white music in the south and Appalachia; building on Irish and Scottish instruments and traditions. iv) Reflect the popularity of western music. (1) Bluegrass + Gospel + Western + Western Swing = country western. (2) Blues + Gospel+ Pop Elements = R&B Music. g) Rock and Pop History. i) Hybridizing- genres/ music blends different traditions into a new form. ii) Recording industry began to rely on radio more than ever as a promotional device to make the public aware of new music and to help the recording industry sell records. (1) Payola- occurs when record companies give brines to DJs to get their records played. h) Record Boom and Pop Music. i) Technological innovations revitalized the recording industry and had a radio impact as well. (1) Magnetic tape improved sound fidelity, reduced costs, and made editing easier. (a) Produce music for more artists less expensively and with better quality. i) Rock Revolution will be Segmented. i) After 1970. (1) Recording companies and FM stations began to diversify into distinct rock formats. Journalism 101 J. Metzger 2 (a) Album-rock. (b) Top 40. (c) Rock oldies. (d) Heavy metal. (e) Adult contemporary. (f) R&B/ Urban. (g) Disco. (h) Country & Western. ii) 1982. (1) Compact disc recording. j) Digital Recording. i) Digital audio and recording similarly drips in prices/ grows in power. ii) Music industry roll as gatekeepers or who gets to record has diminished greatly. (1) Bands make money by touring ad selling merchandise at concerts. k) Music on the Internet. i) Shawn Fanning (1990). (1) Recording Industry Association of America. ii) Recording industry moved to create a system for letting online music with charge. (1) iTunes music (2003). (a) $0.99/ song. iii) 2011. (1) Stream music onto mobile vices and computers. iv) CD sales continue to decline more slowly. v) Social media continues to impact the music industry in new ways. 2) Technology Trends: Let’s Make Music. i) Thomas Edison’s phonograph (1877). (1) Sound waves were recorded as indentations on a spinning cylinder covered with malleable tinfoil. b) New Digital Formats. i) Music recording technology and computer media converged rapidly. (1) CDs. (2) DVDs. (3) MP3- sound digitalization and compression standard; short for MPEG-2 Layer 3. (4) AAC. ii) Music listening experience has changed. (1) Recording studios emphasized volume over fidelity. c) Sinking the Pirates. i) “Sharing” or “Piracy”. (1) Music industry’s secure digital music initiative. (a) Attempt to promote new laws that will make it possible to automatically bock the transmission of pirated recordings over the internet. d) Streaming and Cloud Music Services. i) “Cloud”. (1) Soring music on the internet so that it can be downloaded to any device: cloud locker. (a) iCLoud. Journalism 101 J. Metzger 3 (b) Google Music. (c) Amazon Cloud Drive. e) Social Music Media. i) Bands and distributers and independent musicians push music. (1) YouTube. (2) Facebook. (3) Bandcamp. (4) Soundcloud. (5) Twitter. 3) Industry: The Suits. i) Economic and regulatory changes have encouraged unprecedented concentration of the ownership pf most of the major payers all across the music industry. b) Recording Industry. i) Key elements. (1) Talent- singers and musicians. (2) Producers. (3) Recording studios and recording companies- gatekeepers, Artists and Repertoire (A&R), executives: decide promotions. (a) Controversial and expensive part of music promotion to radio stations and independent promoters. (4) Distributors. (a) iTunes. (b) Best Buy. (c) Walmart. (d) Amazon. (e) Target. (5) Independent promoters. (a) American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP). (b) Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI). (c) Creative Commons. (6) Retailers. (7) Songwriters. (8) Managers. (9) Arrangers. 4) Who Controls the Music? i) Who to record, distribute, promote. b) Recorded Music in the Age of the New Media Giants. i) Music business is now seen as less profitable than some other media businesses. ii) Concert promotions and concert ticket sales. c) Sharing or Stealing? i) Any sampling requires getting permission and paying royalties. ii) Distribution of music over the internet. (1) Rises copyright and intellectual property problem. d) Pity the Poor, Starving Artists. i) Less established artists see downloading as a way to break through the creative stranglehold that the industry has on new acts and reach the public on their own terms. ii) Copyright Term Extension Act. Journalism 101 J. Metzger 4 (1) Empowers the media giants at the expense of the artist. e) Getting Distributed Means Getting Creative. i) Internet had toppled established techniques for promoting talent and marketing music sales. (1) One new means to promote music to very specialized interests is Internet Radio. (a) Digital media Association (DMA). (b) Net label. (c) EMusic. (d) ArtistShare. (2) Hope to provide a meaningful counterforce to the music industry giants. f) Music Censorship? i) FCC rules against obscenity ad indecency restrained many stations from playing songs. (1) Some artists now change lyrics in order to ensure that major chains will carry them. g) Global impact of Pop Music Genres. i) Music genre to be appropriated and localized.
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