J101: Chapter 4
J101: Chapter 4 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Wednesday July 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Ball State University taught by Metzger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Journalism in Journalism and Media Studies at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 07/13/16
Journalism 101 J. Metzger 1 Chapter 4: Print and Digital Newspapers. 1) Newspapers Emerge. a) Starting in 59 BCE. i) Julius Caesar. (1) Acta Diurna. (a) Daily for 200 years. (b) News concerning Roman senate, merchant businesses, weather, disasters, individuals, and gossip. b) 1500s. i) Europe: The Italians. (1) Charged gazetta ($0.01) to hear news read aloud. c) 1618. i) German/ Belgian: The Dutch. (1) Curantas. ii) England. (1) 1641 Diurnal Occurrences in Parliament. d) 1702. i) Mrs. Elizabeth Mallet. (1) Daily Courant. (a) First daily newspaper for 33 years. (b) Datelines appear at beginning/ end of a story and note the location where the story happens. 2) Colonial and Revolutionary Freedom Struggles. a) Early American newspapers struggle with question of control by authorities = freedom of the press. i) Benjamin Harris. (1) Public Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick 1690. (a) Stories that scandalized British crown and Puritan authorities. ii) John Campbell. (1) Boston News- Letter 1740; 72 years. iii) James Franklin. (1) New England Currant. (2) Pennsylvania Gazette. iv) John Peter Zenger. (1) Open newspaper critical of British governor of New York. (a) Libel- harmful/ untruthful written criticism from the media that intends to damage someone. v) Benjamin franklin. (1) 1754. (2) First American editorial cartoon. (a) “John or Die”. 3) First Amendment. a) Desire to protect freedom of speech and press. i) Enabled journalists to take unpopular stands. ii) Protect from outside pressure to avoid certain stories. b) Limit seditious speech aimed at overthrowing the government. Journalism 101 J. Metzger 2 4) Diversity in the Press. a) Essential to the functioning of the press in a free society. b) Advertising and commercial interest important. i) By 1800, most large cities had at least 1 daily but circulations were limited due to slow printing press. (1) One copy = $0.05 ii) Drove people into thinking themselves as Americans. c) Native American Press. i) Cherokee Phoenix 1828. d) African American Press. i) Freedman’s Journal 1827. (1) Strong ties to abolitionist press. (2) Goal to encourage racial unity. ii) North Star 1847. (1) Fredrick Douglas. (2) Helped push “the war to free the slaves”. 5) The Penny Press. a) Democracy to function = ideas must be circulated and diverse. b) Mid 1800s in U.S. & Britain. i) Covering local news and selling cheaper newspapers. ii) New York Sun 1833. (1) Benjamin Day. (2) First low-cost daily mass newspaper. (3) Sold for $0.01. (4) Use newsboys to sell the paper. iii) New York Herald. (1) Total coverage: businesses, sports, women’s news, and classified. c) Big enough to attract advertisers and justify their investment. d) Samuel Morse’s telegraph 1844. i) Established newspapers to get news of the war as soon as their reporters returned by ship from front in Mexico City. e) 1892. i) Wire services supple news to multiple publications. (1) Associates Press (AP). (2) Helped newspapers lower their cost; add general-interest material, appeal to wider audiences. 6) Following the Frontier. a) Newspapers traveled westward with American population before the Civil War. i) Proliferated and diversified. ii) Blunt and antagonistic with opinionated editors. 7) War Coverage. a) Newspapers played a catalytic role in the conflict that tore it apart. i) Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852). b) Civil war. i) Expanded newspaper readership. ii) Northern/ Southern papers saw things very differently. 8) The New Journalism. a) Saw a chance to grow in past- Civil War industrial expansions with more aggressively pursued advertising and newspaper sales. Journalism 101 J. Metzger 3 th b) New Journalism was the investigative reporting of the late 19 century. i) Concentrated more on news and less on editorial/ essay columns. c) Added new visual elements, news photographs. i) 1880: a process for integrating photos and text on the same page. 9) Yellow Journalism. a) Product of new journalism; sensationalistic reporting of the 19 century. i) Joseph Pulitzer vs. William Randolph Hearst. ii) “Yellow Kid” cartoon strip who wore a yellow nightshirt. b) Historian credit the Journal’s frenzied coverage with helping push the U.S into war with Spain over Cuba and the Philippines. c) Papers were no longer read by the elite, but also read by the general population (1880-‘90s). i) Shift of source of income from circulation to advertising. (1) Product of how journalists were paid. (2) Longer, more exclusive story = bigger pay. d) Commercialism grew as a threat to the idea of the press in a free society. 10) Responsible Journalism. a) Pulitzer. i) Journalism that defined social responsibility for newspaper coverage. b) Hearst. i) Encouraged higher salaries, bylines, and other recognition for journalists. c) Valued and respected profession. i) Publishers shifted formats to keep pace with changing social conditions. d) New York Times 1896. i) Responsible journalism advanced. ii) Stressed impartiality and independence. e) Chicago Tribune. i) Invested in color technologies. ii) First that printed four-color illustrations. 11) Muckraking. a) Many journalists who exposed corruption and helped achieve reform, also worked for newspapers. 12) Effect of Chain Ownership and Conglomerates. a) 1910. i) Newspaper industry had grown larger than its resources of advertising and circulation could support. (1) Mergers and consolidation began. b) Diversity in newspapers. i) Antitrust regulators became concerned with monopolies and oligopies emerged. (1) Associated Press. (2) United Press. (3) International News Service. ii) Conglomerates- big businesses that owned seemingly unrelated holdings- have the same effect of narrowing diversity in content. c) Consolidating with other outlets of media. i) Local market monopoly- where one company controls/ owns the media. (1) Conglomerates- companies that own many seemingly unrelated businesses. Journalism 101 J. Metzger 4 (2) Worried that news might become biased to further an owner’s own interest. 13) Professional journalism. a) Social responsibility model- calls on journalists to monitor the ethics of their own writing. i) Key points was evolution to college-educated professionals of the 20 th century. ii) Depended on professional’s education and the rise of accredited journalism schools. (1) Rise of professional associations with well-structured codes of ethics. b) Daily newspapers. i) Crusaded for agents and government policies. 14) News Medical Compete for Audience and Advertisers. a) Encountered competition from every new mass medium that had come along. i) Content changed. b) Radio burst into media in the 1920s. i) Newspapers pursued deeper news analysis and interpretation. c) Television burst into media during the 1950s. 15) The Watchdogs. a) Some crusading papers adopted a critical stance toward the status quo. i) Journalists began to distrust the government’s official announcements and to see themselves as “watchdogs”. (1) Outside critics with primary responsibility to keep an eye on government mistakes/ public deception. ii) Pentagon Papers. (1) Providing that the U.S. had been illegally bombing neutral Cambodia during Vietnam War. 16) News in the Information Age. a) Newspapers. i) Profitable. ii) Growing audience (print and digital). iii) Business model of being supported by advertising. iv) Use of technology. (1) Offering news to be read on diverse platforms and developing apps. v) Demanding compensation for their articles. vi) Cover local news better with local reporters. 17) Newsgathering Trends. a) Telephone also improved the speed of news gathering. b) Past times. i) Journalists did reporting away from the office. c) Now. i) Electronic communication in the newsroom. (1) Traditional methods. (2) High-tech reporters. (3) Monitor police communication frequencies. ii) Computer-assisted reporting (CAR) - using computers to access search engines and shift through mountains of raw data. 18) Convergence. Journalism 101 J. Metzger 5 a) Integration of mass media, computers, and telecommunications; occur when organizations share different formats of information for multimedia news. i) Sharing resources may encourage story accuracy over speed. b) Backpack journalism- reporters who carry a digital video cameras, tape recorder, and notebook in a backpack. i) Able to interact with readers through social media. ii) Stories become more reporter-driven. 19) Production Trends. a) Teletype setting I 1950s. i) Produce near-perfect copies. b) Today reporters compose/ edit their own stories. c) Satellite delivery of copy to remote printing plants, speed the news to your door/ device. 20) Online and Mobil News. a) Readers like the news on the web/ mobile devices because they can check pieces of news quickly. i) People are spending more time with news and have more choices as how to get what they want from their news. ii) Cuts expensive ink, paper, and delivery method costs. (1) Videotext- early way to transmit digital news by phone lines for display on TVs/ desktop computers. (2) Viewtron and gateway. (3) Teletext- early way to transmit digital news by cable/ broadcast signals for display on TVs. 21) Industry: The New Landscape. a) 83% of Americans get their news on a daily basis. i) As readership for printed newspapers declines, it increases for digital platforms. ii) Dailies- published 5 days/week. (1) Metropolitan. (2) National. (3) Suburban. iii) National Dailies. (1) Metropolitan. (2) Distributed via satellite to multiple locations. iv) Metropolitan and Suburban Dailies (1) Newspaper is printed every day, but home delivered 3 days/week and updates are posted 24/7 online. v) Local and Specialized Weeklies. (1) Published fewer than 4 times/week. (2) Cover small town/ rural areas that are too small to support a daily. (3) Alternative press. vi) News Wire Services and other newspaper sources. (1) Wire services. (2) Written y own reporters to other newspapers that subscribe to the service. 22) Content: Turning the Pages. a) Certain distinct sections that serve different audiences. i) International news/ national news/ local news. Journalism 101 J. Metzger 6 ii) Editorial and commentary. iii) Sports. iv) Business. v) Lifestyle. vi) Entertainment/ comics. vii)Classified advertising. 23) News Websites, Citizen News and E-Newspapers. a) Number of people going online and using a mobile device for their news increases, number of subscribers for printed newspapers decreased. b) Citizen journalism sites have emerged. i) Report and write on the local area. (1) Cost to begin online news site is relatively cheap. (2) Citizens/ journalists feel their town is not being covered as well as it should be by other sources. c) It is not the new technology that is holding back some of the laggards, but the design and presentation of the news. 24) Political Economy: Local Monopolies on the News. a) Most citizens served by one newspaper. i) Politically. (1) Likely to reflect a single perspective. ii) Economically. (1) Newspaper choices available to both advertisers and readers are reduces; lead to higher subscription and advertising rates. iii) Socially. (1) Dependent on newspapers for accurate information to lead productive lives. b) Federal Communications Commission (FCC). i) 2008. ii) Allow companies to own newspapers and broadcast outlets in the same city, as long as the company was able to show that local news coverage would improve as a result. c) Joint Operation Agreements (JOAs). i) Solution to problem of excessive concentration. ii) Allow competing newspapers to share resources while maintaining editorial independence. 25) Ethics. a) Result of journalist’s good judgement and ethics. i) 90% of readers believe that it is in their paper/ what they read. b) Accuracy and objectivity of information. i) Primary concern of most journalists. ii) Fair/ balanced information. iii) Reporting without favoritism or self-interest. (1) Avoid stereotypes and unsubstantiated allegations. (2) Plagiarism. (3) Fabrication. (4) Anonymous sources. 26) Public’s Right to know VS. Individual Privacy. a) Media treats public figures differently than private citizens. i) Libel. Journalism 101 J. Metzger 7 (1) Publication of libel, defamation, and the invasion of privacy isn’t st protected by the 1 Amendment. (2) Refer to: making false statements about private citizens that might damage their reputation. (3) Public figures aren’t generally protected against libel on the theory that they have chosen to act in the public and not remain private. ii) Tabloid journalism. (1) Pay their sources for information. (2) May be falsified information by source. (3) Celebrity blogs don’t follow code of ethics = not journalists. 27) Being a Good Watchdog. a) Investigative reporting (1960s-‘70s). b) Watchdog role has spread. i) Many are partisan. Blogs ii) Many are run by people driven by political passion. 28) Defining News. a) Unusual, striking, sensational. i) Characteristics: (1) Many people. (2) Very recent. (3) Unusual. (4) Personal. (5) Critical of things that need to change. (6) Linked to places and culture. (7) Tragic in the sense of reporting disasters. ii) Watchdog journalism sells news. 29) News Editors and Gatekeeping. a) Preform important functions for audiences. i) Gatekeeping- deciding what will appear in the media. (1) Functions: tell you about important issues and events happening in the world. (a) Make intelligent suggestions about new things to be interested in.
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