2_An_Overview_of_Film_History.pdf FILM 2332
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anu on Thursday July 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FILM 2332 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by John Petty in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 07/14/16
An Overview of Film History CASABLANCA Director: Michael Curtiz Cast: Humphrey Bogart (Rick Blaine) Ingrid Bergman (Ilsa Lund) Claude Rains (Captain Louis Renault) Dooley Wilson (Sam) Conrad Veidt (Major Strauss) Song: As time goes by NOTES ON FILM: o Rick's acknowledgment of his friendship with Louis suggest that politics - expediency and political alliance - trumps romantic love, a subversion of message that love conquers all o "As Time Goes By" unchanging quality of love over time irony: lyrics is a lie o film noir technique: low key lighting increases mystery and suspense german expressionism (1920s and 1930s) included monstors, horror, film: lighting to emphasize mood o shallow focus de-emphasize mise-en-scene in favor of character interaction and focus o Dec 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor o foreign policy: anti-interventionist anti-Nazi slant LECTURE: AMERICAN FILM FROM 1895 TO THE PRESENT I. PRECURSOR TO FILM 1. THE THAUMATROPE o a paper disk with images printed on both sides and strings attached at opposite points o when the disk is spun, the images appear to animate 2. MAGIC LANTERNSTHE ZOETROPE o projection device to show multiple imags o When you place a strip of drawings inside the zoetrope's drum, spin it and look through the slots, you will see the images come to life. o =This illusion of motion depends on two things; persistence of vision and the phi phenomenon. II. SERIES PHOTOGRAPHY photographs of horse galloping using a series of twelve electrically operated cameras 1877 by Edward Muybridge 1852 by Etienne Jules Morey o "gun camera" took 12 photos/second 1887 by Hannibal Goodwin o develops celluloid film 1888 by Louis Le Prince films o round hay Garden Scene - 1st motion picture III. THE KINETOGRAPH 1889 by Thomas A. Edison o assigns lab assistant William Dickson to develop motion picture camera "coin perated entertainment machine" 1891: Kinetograph with celluloid film in a battery driven camera 1894: 1st kinetochore parlor in NYC IV. YEARS OF DEVELOPMENT 1895 by Auguste and Louis Lumiere in Paris o workers leaving Lumiere FActory o 7000 francs per week V. THE EVOLUTION OF NARRATIVE realized they could tell stories one rellers (8-12 min) depending playback VI. GEORGE MELIES creating new language for film developing new techniques in special effects VII. EDWIN S. PORTER 1901 as director experimented with time lapse in 1901 innovative technique such as cross-cutting to indicate parallel actions occurring simultaneous "the Great Train Robbery" o western and crime film (1st) o prioritizing shot over scene VIII. THE BIRTH OF HOLLYWOOD 1907: migration to Hollywood from east coast 1908: motion picture patent company (the trust) o Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph o limit access to film stock and equipment o increased efficiency in distribution o produced one-reelers exclusively 1910: star system begins with Carl Laemmle's promotion of Florence Lawrence as first "movie star" 1913: concept catches across industry 1911: Feature films (4 or more reelers) o longer films and european imports 1914: one reelers o WWI temporarily halts film production IX. THE SILENT FEATURE ERA (1915-1929) 1915: birth of a nation released o major controversy o new film vocabulary o racists, heroic role to Ku Klux Klan NAACP formed in 1909, campaigned to ban film Grifith apologized and made "Tolerance" film in 1916 X. THE BUSINESS OF HOLLYWOOD 1916: "studio system" with block-booking and acquisition of theaters 1919: 90% of all films screened in europe are american o Vertical integration XI. THE 1920S hollywood becomes great factory mass commercial cinemas Rudolph Valentino, Charlie Chaplan Clara Bow and Lon Chaney Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks Buster Keaton, Floyd XII. SCANDAL HITS HOLLYWOOD 1921: Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle accused of murdering actress Virginia Rappe 1922: Director William Desmond Taylor murdered (affairs) 1923: Actor Wllace Reid died of drug overdose o revealed to be long-term drug dealor Results: o public turns against Hollywood o threats of censorship laws not protected by 1st amendment o 1922: MPPDA formed (Hayes office) rehabilitate Holluwood's image and stave off censorship XIII. HOLLYWOOD MOVES ON 1922: intro to 2-strip technicolor o one in red and green to make colors o first documentary, Nanook of North 1923: the Ten commandments, first screen "epi" o sex and violence drenched film o compensating values formula of Hayes office XIV. THE COMING OF SOUND 1926: warner brothers o Vitaphone Corp. to produce "sound on disc" productions o provides synchronized musical accompaniment for silent films 1927: Warner brothers announces that all films will feature Vitaphone o the Jazz Singer (music and dialogue) 1928: Lights of New York from WB o first all dialogue film 1932: silent films are largely a thing of the past, replaced entirely by sound XV. CLASSICAL YEARS 1930: sound on film replaces Vitaphone o technicolor in wide use 1932: technicolor introduces 3-color vision XVI. VERTICAL INTEGRATION "big five" studios o produced and distributed films, owned their own theaters MGM Warner Bros 20th century fox paramount pictures RKO "Little Three" o studios produced and distributed films, did not own their own theaters universal columbia united artists (UA) poverty row: everyone else o no vertical integration republic mascot (merged in republic in 1935) monogram (became UA in 1953) grand national o sold exclusive regional distribution rights to state's rights firms would market blocks of movie to exhibitors typically for more pictures featuring same star BLOCK BOOKING AND BLIND BIDDING= a way of forcing theater owners to take a studios entire annual output, sight unseen FULL LINE FORCING= compelling theaters to buy a package XVII. STUDIO IDENTITY studios during period had own identities, known based on films XVIII. MAJOR STUDIOS 1. Warner Brothers o studio of working class o "social problem" films, gangster o respectable biopics o important figures 2. MGM o opulent "prestige" pictures wizard of Oz. (1939) o biggest most prosperous and most prolific studio of 1930s o important figures: Greta Garbo, James Stewart 3. Paramount o most "European" of american studios from Germany to flee Nazi o made sophisticated and ornate films Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde 4. 20th Century Fox o slick pictures, very tightly controlled and budgeted o most successful o big budget o special effects department the best 5. RKO o smallest and most risk-taking o stylish and sophisticated o literary adaptations o "Screwball" comedy genre King Kong XIX. THE MINOR STUDIOS 1. universal studios o family run under Carl Laemmie leading studios in 1920s, slipped in 30s loses studio in 1936 Frankenstein (1931) 2. Columbia o low budget Western and series film o hired big stars between contracts to make some first-rate pictures Blondie series 3. United Artists o founded in 1919, D.W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Douglas Faibanks, many as distributors form films of independent producers o had not studio and no stars o each deal negotiated independently example: Citylights XX. POVERTY ROW below minors specialized in programmers and B features on a dollar bill o double bill created to encourage patronage during depression o accompanied by news reel, cartoon and serial chapters o rented out at a flat rate, little reward one of the first "content mills" when studio system was broken, double bill era faded, poverty row folded some of the best serials: monogram and Republic XXI. SERIALS stories told in 12-15 chapters, each lasting for 15 min (1 reel) ended in cliff hanger "contd. next week"- encouraged repeat patronage from comic books XXII. THE PRODUCTION CODE ADMINISTRATION (PCA) 1934: PCA established, requiring films to have certificated of approval before release o MPPDA does not release film without seal o catholic church to boycott films w/o PCA o films before this referred to as "Pre-Code" 1939: Cinema's Greatest year o gone with the wind o the wizard of oz o wuthering heights XXIII. THE WAR YEARS (1941-1945) Dec 8, 1941: America in WWII war-related films escapist entertainment is order of day o monstors are out, comedy in film noir XXIV. THE POST WAR YEARS (1946-1959) rise of "social consciousness" and semidocumentary dillusionment of the american dream reaction to cynicism and dillusionment o film noir genre Nazi replaced by communist menace o fear of atomic espionage is rampant HUAC established House Unamerican Activites Committee o investigate communism in films o sept 1947: first hearing by HUAC hollywood 10 convicted of contempt of congress for refusing to testify against their friends, jailed (1 yr) fined $1000 left industry, became persona non grata in industry SAG led by Ronald Raegan, required members sear loyalty oath and condoned blacklists o march 1951: second hearing 300+ jobs ruined blacklisting from 1950s - 60s Kirk Douglas hired Dalton Trubmo (hollywood 10) to script Spartacus (1960) eventually breaks blacklist o movies face new challenge: TV o 1949: 1 million tvs 1951: 10 million tvs 1959: 50 million tvs o due to blacklists, focus on a political spectacular films, Biblical epics, westerns and musicals END OF NOTES
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