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by: Anu

3_Film_Form_and_Style.pdf FILM 2332

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Citizen Kane Film
Understanding Film
John Petty
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anu on Thursday July 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FILM 2332 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by John Petty in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 07/14/16
Film Form and Style CITIZEN KANE Director: Orson Welles Cast: Orson Welles (charles foster kane) Joseph Cotten (Leland) Dorothy Comingore (Susan) George Couloris (thatcher) NOTES:  based on life of American newspaper magnate "William Randolph Hearst" o yellow journalism o delayed pictures release  film was flop o 9 oscar nominations: won 1  film structures through flashbacks o nonlinear o gives subjective view  advantages for structure: o viewers are actively involved  how does Welles comment on structure o reporters o investigation  Kane's motivation o looking for sincerity o control for childhood events  Rosebud- the sled o innocence is lost o separation forced on him  High key lighting o convey sense of normalcy and hopefulness  low key lighting o convey sense of danger and forboding  DEEP FOCUS= o everything in scene is in focus from the foreground to background o places more emphasis on framing, mise-en-scene, and movement that shallow focus, in which only foreground subject is in focus o use of wide-angle lenses, exaggerate distances  SHALLOW FOCUS= o emphasizes particular element in scene by rendering background and foreground elements out of focus  CAMERA ANGLES= o shown from behind or below him (Kane) as superior figure o High angle= control of empire  DUTCH ANGLES= o psychological unease or tension o tilted angle o CRANE SHOT= camera moves  narrative  invasion of privacy  visible ceilings o cloth for tech operations o creates an illusion  Editing o show passage of time and changing of relationships  example: kane and wife eating breakfast o DISSOLVE= technique in which one scene is briefly superimposed over the next o MONTAGE= series of scenes designed to show passage of time  the breakfast scene o HANDCUT= one scene goes into another with no transitional effect  sound techniques o from developed in radio o overlapping dialogue o sound ahead of visual in scene transitions o uses of voice quality to define character LECTURE  own language and form o shots o scenes o transitions  FILM FORM= how film parts are put together with certain choices o narrative/ stylistic elemts  4 areas of film style  1. cinematography 2. editing 3. sound 4. mise-en-scene I. CINEMATOGRAPHY  writing with movement  related to photography  concerns creating patterns of light on celluloid film  involved with filmstock, color, exposure, shot length, perspective, etc  aspects  1. perspective: see things in 3D  spatial relations between objects in a scene  based on choice of camera lens  FOCAL LENGTHS= distance from center of lens to where light converges to a point of focus of film  short focal length  wide field  distorts straight lines  exaggerates depth  medium focal length lens  provides "real look"  does not distort  foreground and background seem norma;  longer focal length (telephoto-lens)  depth and volume distorted  distance between objects compressed  magnifies action taking place a long distance away 2. depth of field and focus  depth of field refers to distance between nearer and distance  SHALLOW FOCUS= focus on object, obscurring everything else  DEEP FOCUS= everything in frame in focus, staging movement and mise-en-scene 3. framing  way an object is presented on screen to draw attention to it  "Rule of Thirds" in composition  framing can provide emotional sense of scene in conjunction of perspective  DISTANCE= position of camera  1. EXTREME LONGSHOT (establishing shot)  usually from exterior locale, focusing on interior  example: when show building then a room 2. LONG SHOT  broad view of environment/ setting  characters minimized  includes human body: head to toe  placing people in scene 3. MEDIUM SHOT  puts character in setting  character important  show dialogues 4. CLOSE-UP SHOT  forced intimacy  all about character  spotlight and magnifies single object/ face 5. EXTREME CLOSE-UP SHOT  variation, enhanced emphasis  only part of face/ object 6. POINT OF VIEW SHOT  puts viewer in space of character, see action from eyes  over shoulder's of character 4. camera position  HIGH ANGLE SHOT (bird's eye view shot)  viewer as dominant position  implies power/ detachment  reduces imp. of object  minimizes setting  LOW ANGLE SHOT (women's eye view shot)  increased perceived height  implies power, threat, danger  heroic or worthy of respect  minimizes setting  EYE LEVEL SHOT  strong sense of viewer identification  normally see world  realist tradition  narratively neutral, expository  CANTED, OR DUTCH ANGLE SHOT  tilted angle  sense of tension/ being off balance  horizon skewed 5. shot length  duration of each shot  LONG SHOT LENGTH  relaxed, slower paced  focus on what is going on  much harder to film  SHORT SHOT LENGTH  more frenetic, faster paced  viewers caught up in action II. EDITING  which shots and scenes are put together  allowed creation of movies  # of ways to transition between scenes 1. CUT o one shot instantly replaces another o audio and video cuts occur asynchronously o cross-cutting or parallel cutting shows two actions occuring simultaneously 2. FADE o picture replaced by solid color, black o fade in or out 3. DISSOLVE o overlapping o one shoot replaces another, both visible o denote passage of time 4. WIPE o one shot pushes another off screen o silent film years 5. IRIS o form of wipe, circular mask either opens or closes a scene o focus on object for a long time o rarely used in contemporary film III. CONTINUITY EDITING  build a sense of logical coherence b/w shots in order to provide a smooth transition of time and space o viewer to accept reality of what they are seeing o can be violated when a sense of unease or unreality is needed IV. 180 DEGREE RULE  maintain on-screen spatial relationship b/w characters and objects in scene  crossing/ jumping the line can disorient V. MONTAGE  compressed time, space, info  soviet school to create symbolic meaning  "montage" is an idea that arise from the collision of independent shots - sergei einstein VI. THE KULSHOV EFFECT  intentional junxtaposition of images to produce a meaning or emotional reaction  1910s and 1920s  Lev Kuleshov - russian filmmaker  3 photos of man with 3 different images VII. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISCONTINUITY  director controls  flow continuously  linear vs. non-linear editing in films VIII. SOUND  commenting on actions and characters in a subtly way o piano --> orchestra  complete experience  DIAGETIC= comes from within scene  NONDIAGETIC= outside of films world o sound track, characters cannot hear while filming  LEITMOTIF= short musical phrase associated with a particular character IX. MISE-EN-SCENE  "placing on stage"  framing, color, set decorating, lighting, costume, camera angle, make-up, props, scenery, camera distance, special effects, acting  SETTING o an actual setting makes it more real o increases verisimiltude o color is important o costume and makeup o lighting o about staging scene to make it effective and memorable END OF NOTES


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