Week 1 Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Jacobson on Friday July 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SYG 1000 at Florida State University taught by Andrew latinsky in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro Sociology in Sociology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 07/15/16
Sociological Perspectives and Sociological Imagination 6/28 Breeching Experiments - a method of studying social rules by breaking/violating them Sociology - the scientific study of social behavior and human growth 18th & 19th century: Industrial Revolution Sociologists focused on the factories, production, and blue collar workers Mid 20th century: Post-Industrial Age Sociologists focused in offices, bureaucracies, and white collar workers Present day: The Information Age Sociologists focus on knowledge, information, and technologies C Wright Mills - Sociological imagination: the vivid awareness of the relationship between experience and the wider study Micro-small scale: individual thoughts and actions and small group interactions 1-4 people Macro-large scale: groups, organizations, cultures, society, and the world, as well as the interactions between these large structures Meso-medium scale: the most commonly studied area, falls between macro- and micro- Social structures: are enduring and regular social arrangements such as the family or the state Individual-> family-> community/culture-> society Social Construction of Reality: This approach argues that agents create social reality which takes on a life of its own and becomes a structure within which those who create the structure exist It is a process of human creation that becomes invisible and relatively unquestioned the deeper it is embedded in peoples' social practices Ex: taking sociology is due to the rules of FSU that you had to take a class in this category Contemporary and Historical Theory Wednesday, June 29, 2016 12:26 PM Theory: A set of interrelated ideas that have a wide range of application, deal with centrally important issues, and have (typically) stood the test of time A theory's explanation of how social interactions work create testable ideas called hypothesis. Copy down the rest of the chart from powerpoint Structural Functionalism - society is an organic whole of stable parts. Does not believe that sociology should react social change. Macro focus Manifest functions: positive consequences that are purposely brought about Latent functions: unintended positive consequences of a social function Dysfunctions: things that negatively affect/cause a breakdown of the ability of a given system to survive *not individual problems, think bigger What are manifest and latent functions of the following? Newspapers, 4th of July, k- 12 education Newspaper - Manifest: getting news; Latent: feeling part of a community, advertisements Education- manifest: skill training, increase chance of future income; latent: new friend/social groups, keep kids safe and off the streets, patience, general manners Criticisms Assumptions are circular: social structures and behavior are assumed to have a function because they exist. While also existing because they have a functions Assumes a static social environment: how does social change happen if everything has a function? Conflict Theory Focuses on what is negative about a society Society is held together by coercion Conflict theorists see dissension and tension and struggle everywhere Social conflict is a competition (typically for resources and power) and this competition drives social change; a function of power and coercion creating privileges Power: the ability to influence or outright control the behavior of people Coercion: the practice of persuasion by the use of violence or threats Privilege: a special right, advantage , or immunity granted or available only to a particular person or group of people Karl Marx said this was mainly propagated by war and conflict Feminist Theory Is critical of the social situation facing women Offers ideas on how women's situations can be bettered Postmodern theory Is the emergence of new and different culture forms in music, movies, art, architecture, etc. A theoretical orientation that is a reaction against modern theory How does stability exist if everything is constantly in conflict? Particularly slow and gradual changes Macro-level focus: how is the individual effected? Symbolic Interactionism Concerned with the interaction of 2 or more people through the use of symbols Symbols allow the communication of meaning among a group of people Interested in how various aspects of identity are created and sustained through social interaction Dramaturgical Analysis: use of theatre as an analogy for social interactions The acts of using symbols depends both on actors and a recipients understanding Exchange theory - interested in behavior and the rewards and the costs associated with it Interested In social behavior that involves both tangible and intangible exchanges Through these interactions people are seen as rational profit seekers Rational choice theory The basic principle is that people act intentionally in order to achieve basic goals People choose how to achieve goals on the basis of utility Understands that people do not always act rationally, but these are deviations from the norm Symbol - words or gestures ex: hand wave Structural functionalism - stable Other 2 are malleable Historical Theorists Thursday, June 30, 2016 12:27 PM Influences on the emergence of sociological theory Industrial revolution Political revolutions (French and American) Rise of socialism Civil/women's rights movements Growth of science, the replacement of faith by science Karl Marx (1818-1883 German) Macro-theorist who focused on the structure of capitalist society Associated with Conflict theory Defined capitalism as an economic system based on the capitalism/bourgeois (the owners of the means of production) exploiting the proletariat (the workers) Summary of his beliefs: Why is society the way it is? capitalism is a system based on exploitation of workers Those who control wealth in capitalism use power and influence to create and maintain favorable social institutions Why does society change? Wage labor is inherently unnatural Oppressed groups eventually rise up typically through violent means (those in power do not want to give up their position) Marx believes labor or work is the base of human nature in at least a couple of ways o There is a connection between our thoughts and our physical labor, so that labor reflects our purpose ( our needs, wants, or creative expressions) art or music o Labor also satisfies our material needs; we transform nature and make things to satisfy out needs (farming is a form of human control on nature) Capitalism gave rise to the concept of wage labor and private property Alienation: the separation an individual from his/her society, work, or sense of self o Unlike work for oneself, people who produce goods for wages do no control what they create or how they create it o Workers in capitalism are competitors instead of cooperating with each other False consciousness - an erroneous set of beliefs imparted onto the repressed by the dominant group Class consciousness - an awareness of one's rank in society Marx proposed that workers need a transition from a class in itself to a class for itself- recognizing their position and advocating for group-based improvements in society Max Weber (1864-1920 German) One of the founders of the symbolic interactionism theory Was also interested on the process of rationalization in many sectors of society Rationalization: society's built around logic and efficiency rather than morality or tradition 3 properties: efficiency, calculability, predictability Capitalism is the common example weber used of a rational system Efficiency: refers to getting things done in the best possible way most productive method Calculability: about planning and anticipating outcomes - especially having measurable outcomes Predictability: relates to anticipating what's involved in doing anything Emile Durkheim (1858-1917 French) Macro-theorist whose major concern was social facts, such as social structures and cultural norms and values, that impose themselves on people Associated with the functionalist perspective Called the shared beliefs of a society the collective conscience Social facts: social forces external to the individual and that shape individual behavior Anomie - a state of normlessness which is harmful to the individual Societies are based around two types of solidarity - social cohesion, or how connected individuals are to each other -- don’t need to remember def. of solidarity o Mechanical solidarity - people are bonded together by all being generalists, and thus sharing similar lives (more common in primitive societies) o Organic solidarity - people are bonded by difference and resulting interdependence this causes (facet of modern society which increases the risk of anomie) o Remember which is primitive and which has to do with anomie Harriet Martineau (1802-1872 British) Both macro and micro oriented theorist who some describe as the 'correct' founder of sociology Associated with feminist/conflict theory but is also one of the earliest modern political theorists Argued that the most important 'law' of society was the promotion of "human happiness" Dysfunction in society is caused by a conflict of morals (ideals of a society) and manners (actions of a society) known as anomalies. Manners of inequality in areas such as gender and race conflicted with ideals of freedom and equality… finish typing sentence from powerpoint Methods Friday, July 1, 2016 12:22 PM Paradigm is a general model that is accepted by most practitioners in a field Scientific revolutions occur when one paradigm replaces another after a scientific breakthrough Sociology is a "multiple science paradigm" discipline Symbolic interaction, structural functionalism, and conflict theories are all paradigms Empirical Research: Research based on information that can be verified by using out direct experience Questions -> observations. Not the other way around A theory is an explanation of the relationship between 2 or more observable attributes of individuals or groups Social scientists use theory to attempt to establish a link between what we observe (the data) and our understanding of why certain phenomena in life are related to each other in a particular way Hypothesis: tentative answers to research questions based on theories (which are subject to verification); prediction, comes after a theory a statement of a relationship between characteristics that vary (variables) Variable: a property of people or objects that takes on 2 or more values; must include categories that are both exhaustive and mutually exclusive; Ex: social class, age, gender, income Dependent variable - the effect; variable to be explained Independent variable - the cause in the change of the dependent variable
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