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SPEA-V 161 Week 2 Class Notes

by: Jessica

SPEA-V 161 Week 2 Class Notes SPEA-V160

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The Policymaking Process Thomas R. Dye: Understanding Public Policy, Ch. 3: The Policy Making Process.
National and International Policy
Professor Christine Glaser
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica on Saturday July 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPEA-V160 at Indiana University taught by Professor Christine Glaser in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.


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Date Created: 07/16/16
Chapter 3 The Policy Making Process 01/21/2016 ▯ Steps in Policy Process: often overlap  Prob identification  Agenda Setting  Policy Formulation  Policy Legitimation  Policy Implementation  Policy Evaluation ▯ Prob Identification and Agenda Setting  Issues don’t just come up  Someone, some group… o Needs to identify issue o Organize themselves o Media attention o Public attention o Alert political candidates, elected official s ▯ Agenda Setting  From Bottom Up? o From the people to the gov.  From Top Down? o Popular attitudes toward Government Policy making (Table 3- 3) o From the elite to the people  How well do you think Washington represents the view of people like yourself? o 5% very well o 25% somewhat well o 30% not very well o 38% not well at all  Who is involved? Top down or bottom up? o Elites  Channeling their corporate and personal wealth into foundations, universities, think tanks, grants, contracts  Elites sit on governing boards of above institutions  Receive communications mostly from each other, not from the public o Candidates for office  Often avoid focusing on particular issues, they talk in generalities to be able to appeal to broader audiences and not offend anyone “fight for the taxpayer”, “Make America Great Again”  But they may also drive particular issues and influence public opinion o Media  May influence public opinion (and policy through the opinions of newspersons (rather than reflecting public opinion) o Constituents- someone who contacts a member of Congress  Very few people communicate with their elected reps  Who is involved in agenda setting? o President and White House- Setting agenda for Congress- this role is outlined in the Constitution/ helps if you have a supporting Congress o Federal Agencies:  Widely considered as arbiter of policy proposals not so much as initiators  They can take the initiative though o Interest Groups  Often call for legislation  Play important roles in formulating policy proposals (in conjunction with supportive Congress members)  Agenda Setting through Media o Media Power:  Concentrated in the hands of relatively small number of people  6 corporations control 90% of what we read, watch, or listen to (media)  GE, NEWS-CORP, DISNEY, VIACOM, TIME WARNER, CBS  What Creates Media Bias? o Selection of issues to report on o Principle cause need for drama, action, confrontation to hold attention of viewers o More complex issues are not presented well oversimplifies (foreign policy, econ. policy) o Media can create new opinions more easily than change existing opinions  Formulating Policies: getting them ready to be presented as a bill o Development of policy alternatives for problems on public agenda  Gov. bureaucracies  Interest groups  Legislative committees  Special commission  Think tanks  Think Tanks: o Keep track of  University research  Foundation-supported research o Consult with  Intellectuals  gov. officials  reps of corporate and financial institutions and foundations o Goal:  Develop policy proposals that address specific issues o Important  Brookings Institution (liberal)  American Enterprise Institute  Heritage Foundation  Center for America Progress  Council on Foreign Relations  Interest Groups and Policy Making o Direct lobbying testifying at committee hearing, contacting gov. offices, present research results, assisting with writing legislation o Campaign Contribution: through political action committees (PACS)- collects money from unions, etc. and give money during election campaigns limit = $5,000 o Super PACS: don’t give money directly to campaign/ promote or attack people running for office no limit on $  Ensure access to Congress person  Most PAC contributions go to incumbents (because they win) o Personal contact: Travel, entertainment, revolving door (Congress industry back to Congress/ people end up working for the people they used to regulate) o Litigation: to force policy changes o Grass Roots mobilization: encouraging letter writing  Policy Legitimation: o Making policy “official”  Rules an procedures for policy legitimation through HR and Senate  Influence of the President  Constituents  Implementation of Policy o Through Dept. of Federal Gov. o Legitimation of policies through Congress is followed by legitimation of regulations o Policy Objectives (CWA or Clean Water Act- “Fishable, Swimmable, Drinking Water) o Fed Agencies make policy objectives practical through promulgating regulations o Federal Agencies publish regulations in fed register, hold public hearings, do research an impact studies, receive public comment before issuing final rule (Code of Federal Regulations) o Through State and local governments and government agencies (grants, mandates)  Enforcing of Rules and Adjudication o Agency procedures through which it is decided whether a person or corporation has complied with laws and regulations ▯ ▯ ▯


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