New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Anahit Ghaltaghchyan
Anahit Ghaltaghchyan

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Psych 3-Biopsychology
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Psych 3-Biopsychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Saturday July 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Psych 3-Biopsychology in Psychlogy at University of California Santa Barbara.


Reviews for week4


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 07/16/16
▯ Methods of visualizing the human brain ▯ ▯ Contrast X rays: inject something that observes X rays less or more than surrounding tissues ▯ Brain mostly made of similar tissues, so the x rays are absorbed similarly ▯  Cerebral angiography o Inject radio opaque dye into a cerebral artery to visualize the cerebral circulatory system. ▯ X ray computed tomography  Used to create one slice picture  ▯ Magnetic resonance imaging MRI- constructed from measurement of waves emitted by hydrogen atoms that have been activated within a magnetic field  Protons within hydrogen align with the magnetic field of the MRI machine  The MRI machine then emits a burst of radio waves, which knock the protons out of alignment  Once the radio waves are turned off, the protons realigh and emit a radio signal in the process. Different types of tissues take different amounts of time to realign, allowing for the MRI to distinguish between types of tissues  Good spatial resolution  Diffusion tensor imaging DTI  A variant of MRI, DTI measures the direction of water diffusion in the brain o Nerve tracks are the main routes of water diffusion in the brain DTI measures the direction of water diffusion, revealing the location and direction of nerve tracks in the brain Good spatial resolution ▯ ▯ Methods of measuring Brain activity ▯ Positron emission tomography PET  A radiolabeled substance is administered prior to the scan  Scan is an image of levels of radioactivity in various parts of one horizontal level of the brain.  Get something that the brain uses, attach radiolabeled substance, and see which brain region uses things up as you are completing tasks  Provides local measurements of brain metabolism  Can only be used on the same person a few times because it requires injecting a radioactive substance into the body  Not very good temporal resolution  ▯ Functional MRI fMRI  Provides images of brain structure and activity  Like the MRI, fMRI uses a strong magnetic field  Brain activity is measured similarty to MRI but with impornt differences o Different types of tissue emit stronger/weaker signals in MRI o In fMRI more active brain regions require more oxygenated blood than less active regions  Oxygenated blood produces a larger signal (more protons) ability to distinguish between more/ less active regions ▯ Magnetoencephalography MEG  A measure of neural activity  Measures changes in magnetic fields on the surface of the skull o Created by underlying patterns of neural activity  Fast temporal resolution (responsive) Quick changes in neural activity is shown as very rapid changes, but cannot tell where exactly it is happening  Poor spatial  ▯ Scalp electroencephalography EEG  Measures of electrical activity of the brain  Uses electrodes attached to the scalp ▯ Types of EEG assessment  Wave form assessment (eg, alpha waves) o Indication of state of consciousness, pathology)  Event related potentials ERP o Measure activity accompanying psychological events  ▯ Determining brain functions ▯ Invasive and non invasive ▯ ▯ TMS- a non invasive method for determining brain functions  A transracial magnetic stimulation o Not a measure of neural activity o But provides an experimental probe to alter neural activity o TMPS applies a brief strong magnetic field that alters neural activity  Can activate or deactivate brain structures  Observes changes in behavior o Can only target regions within 2 inches of the skulls surface o ▯ Invasive research methods  Stereotaxic surgery o Requires use of stereotaxic atlas and instrument Bregma  Point on top of the skull where two major sutures (seams) connect  Used as main reference point ▯ 1)Lesion methods- several different procedures to remove or damage a part o parts of the brain selectively  Aspiration o Suction  Radio frequency current o A heated electrode burns of the targeted tissue  Knife cuts o Serving nerves or tracts with tiny blade  Reversible lesions o Cooling or anesthetizing the targeted structure o ▯ 2) Electrical stimulation  while lesioning can be used to remove damage or inactivate a structure o electrical stimulation may be used to activate a structure  stimulation of a structure may have an effect opposite to that seen when the structure is in lesion.  Similar to TMS which is non invasive but more direct and capable of being directed toward more brain structures ▯ 3) Invasive electrophysiological recording methods  intracellular unit recording o membrane potential of a neuron  extracellular unit recording o firing of a neuron  multiple unit recording o firing many neurons  invasive EEG recording ▯ ▯ Measuring brain activity outside the brain ▯ ▯ Measuring muscle tension (somatic)  Electromyography is the technique of measuring the electrical activity of muscles  Electromyography indicates tension of muscles under the skin  Measure of somatic NS activity ▯ Eye movements  Electrooculography is the techniques of recording eye movements  Electrooculogram EOG indicates changes in electrical potential between the front and back of the eyeball  Measures of somatic NS activity  ▯ Skin conductance (autonomic)  Measures of electrodermal activity  Skin conductance level vs skin conductance response ▯ Cardiovascular activity  Often used to link physiological changes with emotional state  Measured include hear rate, blood pressure and blood volume (within a particular region) ▯ ▯ Chapter 6- the visual system ▯ ▯ Somatic- afferent (touch smell vision and hearing) ▯ Efferent- motor Properties of light in relation to visual properties Light can be though as Particles of energy (photons) Waves of electromagnetic radiation  Waves have a characteristic frequency and wavelength ▯ Light is both of these things


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.