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week 4

by: Anahit Ghaltaghchyan
Anahit Ghaltaghchyan

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intro to global studies 1
Dr. Philip McCarty
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Saturday July 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to global at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Dr. Philip McCarty in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see intro to global studies 1 in Global Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 07/16/16
▯ Apollo 8 – 1968 ▯ ▯ Lecture 4- Video ▯ China-dragon throne ▯ Ancient Chinese Treasure Fleet- China discovered the world (amazing History documentary) (1:33) watch first 60 minutes ▯ ▯ Lecture 5-Fromation of Early World trade and colonialism Medieval world trade Limited by means of transportation  Overland and coastal  Usually done in relay  Mostly high value- low bulk merchandise  Carried by humans, pack animals, or boats ▯ Trans sahara Caravans ▯ Three wise ben frankincense and myrrth ▯ East coast of Africa to Mideast to India, china and pacific ▯ ▯ Spices and trade  Spices desired as medicine, preservatives ad flavoring  Before 16 c trade in hands of chinese, arabs, gujeratis and venetians  Europeans sought routes to spice areas after fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453  Most values spices; pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg and mace cloves  ▯ The sea ▯ Voyage of discovery  Prince henry the “navigator” (Portugal) o Develops the caravel-lighter, faster, more efficient o Rounds modern Cape Verde in 1444- bypassing Muslim lands and Sahara deserts ▯ Vasco de Gama (Portugal)  1497 shows indian ocean is connected to other known seas ▯ Columbus(Spain)  First to make trans pacific. Vast resources found ▯ Ferdinand Magellan (spain)  Circumnavigates the globe  World becomes global ▯ World cut in half- half to Spain half to Portugal-Treaty of Torsedillas 1494 ▯ Rise of Mainla as trading port  entrepot- where goods are brought for import and export- collection and distribution ▯ Silver and World trade  China becomes the main importer of silver. o 25% of world population  Silver comes mainly from mines in Mexico and Brazil along with Japan o Chinese paper money gets overissued, leading to silver becoming worth double in china o Profits made from sale of Silver, lead to more expeditions (conquistadors)  Spanish profits leads to military successes and increased colonization in S. America  Japans profits from imports are invested in Japan o Leads to unification of Japan ▯ Why trade produces colonies  Increased administrative control over transactions  Security of ports, vessels and cargo  Economic benefits such as land, raw materials such as minerals and labor  To expand markets, industry and trade  To increase reputation among other nations  To obtain military advantages  To spread ones own religion to others  ▯ Kinds of colonies  Colonies of trade o Collected/brought good produced by native people o Small enclaves w/ few merchants that later expand  Colonies of occupation o Small number of Europeans rule for mother country o Mine precious metals and grow crops using native labor  Plantation colonies o Single crop grown on large scale w/imported labor  Colonies of settlement o White settlers displace native people and remove them, as in N America, S Africa, Australia, New Zealand ▯ Colonialism and Imperialism  Colonialism- form of imperialist exploitation that developed new forms with capitalist expansion of Europe over 400 years  Associated with planting and rule of colonies in distant territories  Colonialism rule is reinforced by an ideology o This ideology reflects the practice, theory and attitudes of dominating metropolitan center or state and is tailored to the governance and domination of subject peoples o Paves way for fording ideas of nationalism ▯ Ideology of colonialism  Based on a hierarchy of difference  Hierarch of difference is employed to prevent fair and equitable exchanges- political, economic, social, cultural- between center and colony  Colonial hierarchy of difference is reinforced by the idea of civilization ▯ Colonialism and the idea of Civilization  Idea of civilization was achieved state or condition of organized social life  Associated with systems of social stratification  Civilization assumed to be acquired in several different ways; blood, history, society and achievements  Historical precedents o Greece invented of barbarian as outsider o Rome extends idea od subordinated classes o By 18 century idea of civilization linked to notions of refinement and superiority and whiteness ▯ Advantages of civilization  Multiplication of physical comforts  Advancements and diffusion of knowledge  Decline of superstitions  Softening of manners  Spread of social and cultural exchange  Limitations of tyranny over weak and strong  Decline of war and conflict  Great works accomplished globally by cooperation ▯ Concepts that support idea of civilization  Nature-essential condition from which civilized values emerge  Uncivilized- primary, unrefined state of human conditions  Construction of category of others who are subordinated, deprecated, demonized, feared as barbarians  Hence idea of civilization inevitably entails racism, classism, sexism, double talk ▯ Colonialism of Double Talk  Colonial ideology rooted in subterfuge civilizing for plundering educating for dominating  Violent/unjust processes hidden behind smokescreen of justification aid development improvement and education  Defining colonies as protectorates, trust territories, camouflages their true character as sites of violent struggle for markers, bodies and minds  Hidden agenda of wars and deaths ▯ Colonialism and Race  Where subject people belong to a different race or indigenous community, ideology of race naturalizes intercultural relations as unequal  Naturalizing race operates in several ways places people outside history/civilization  Neutralizing race views them as genetically inferior  Exploitation not just for profit and convenience but constructed as a natural state  Transfers ideas of natural selections like survival of the fittest to human evolution ▯ Modern concept of race  The modern concept of race developed late in the colonial period  Origin of species- Darwin  Social Darwinism theory distorted Darwin science and created pseudo scientific narrative to naturalize category of races  Eugenics used to talk in blood quantum terms  The concept of race has no biological meaning o Race is a social construct ▯ Colonialism and Gender  Sexist exclusivity of colonial discourses ally them ideologically with patriarchal practices  Civilizing task of colonization is morally justified as paternalistic   Tasks associated not just with male power, assumed to be white mans burden  Gendering colonialism means that white born to rule  Women of all colors born to supplement, serve white males in civilization task Sugars as a global commodity  Demands for sugar increases  Not just a sweetener but needed as preservative  Jams, candy, tea etc  By 1750 sugar surpassed grain as the most valuable commodity  By 1899 about 8 million tons produced per year  Today 1.54 billion tons produced per year  Today the average American consumes about 140 pounds of sugar per year ▯ Sugar and slaves  After fall of Constantinople  Portuguese began to use African slaves in Mediterranean  African slaves were already being used to grow sugar when Columbus stopped at Canary islands on his first voyage ▯ Triangular trade- slaves, sugars, and textiles  European sold textiles, liquid, iron, guns to buy slaves in Africa  African slaves sold in Americans to buy sugar, rum and timber  Sugar, rum and timber sold on European


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