HIST 1010 Weeks 7 and 8 Lecture/Book Notes (Bohanan)
HIST 1010 Weeks 7 and 8 Lecture/Book Notes (Bohanan) History 1010
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World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 Book Notes (pgs. 439-456, 297-328, 457-488, 519-554) CHAPTER 15: Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation The Protestant Reformation v Criticism of the Church • The Protestant Reformation: a religious reform movement that split the Western Christian Church. • Critics of the church would focus their attacks on clerical immortality, ignorance, and absenteeism. - Many clerics held several offices and practiced pluralism. • Priests, monks, and nuns were exempt from civic responsibilities. v Martin Luther • Martin Luther was ordained a priest and earned a doctorate in theology—he served as a professor of scriptures. • Luther was a very conscientious friar and enjoyed professional lecturing. • Indulgence: a papal statement that granted the remission of a priest-imposed penalty for sin. - Luther was troubled that many people thought they had no further repentance once they purchased indulgences. • Charles V wanted Luther to appear in front of the Diet of Worms - Diet of Worms: an assembly of representatives from the territories of the Holy Roman Empire convened by Charles V in the city of worms. v Protestant Thoughts and Its Appeal • Initially protestant meant a follower of Luther, but was eventually changed. - Protestant: a term that can be applied to all non-Catholic western European Christians. • Catholics and Protestants often disagreed. • Pulpits and printing presses spread the protestant message all over Germany. • Educated people and humanists were attracted to Luther’s ideas. - Scholars in many disciplines have contributed in Luther’s success. • Luther worked closely with political authorities. v The Radical Reformation and the German Pea’s War • The practice of religion was a public matter. • Some people didn’t agree that the church and state should be unified. • People often didn’t like religious radicals. • Peasants would demand limitations on new Texas and labor obligations that their landlords imposed. - Luther initially sided with them but he then decided not to. o At the end he wrote “Against Murdering, Thieving, Lords of the Peasants”. o The peasant war strengthened the authority of lay rulers. v Marriage and Women’s Roles • Luther married a former nun, who had many children with him. - Catholics viewed marriage as a sacramental union that couldn’t be distorted. - Protestants saw it as a contract and allowed divorce. • In marriage, women were subject to men—they were supposed to be cheerful and men were supposed to respect them. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 • Marriage became the only occupation for the upper class. v The Reformation and German Politics • Luther’s ideas appealed to local rulers within the empire. • The emperor of Hasburg, Charles V, was a defender of Catholicism and ended the religious war in Germany by agreeing to the Peace of Augsburg. v England’s Shift Towards Protestantism • States in the Holy Roman Empire and kingdom of Denmark, Norway were the earliest to accept the protestant reformation. • The roman king, Henry VII, used the parliament to legalize reformation in England. • Members that “purified” the church were called puritans. v Calvinism and Its Moral Standards • John Calvin believed that god specifically chose him to reform the church. - He embodied his ideas in the Institutes of Christian Religion. - He believed that god decided in the beginning who will be saved and who would be dammed. This was known as predestination. o Predestination: a teaching of Calvin that meant that god has already predetermined who will be saved and who will be dammed. The Catholic Reformation v Papal Reforms and the Council of Trent • Pope Paul III established The Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. • The Council of Trent laid a solid spiritual renewal of the Catholic Church. - It said in order for a marriage to be valid, vows must be given before witnesses. v New Religious Orders • New religious orders aimed to raise moral and intellectual levels of the clergy and people. • The Ursuline Order of the Nuns played a big role in the education for women. • Jesuits was a society that played a role in strengthening Catholicism in Europe. - Jesuits: members of the Society of Jesus, whose goal was to spread the Roman Catholic faith through humanistic schools and missionary activity. Religious Violence v French Religious Wars • Many French people were attrthted to reform religion. - By the middle of the 16 century many French had become Huguenots. o Huguenots: French Calvinists. • Calvinist teachings called the power of sacred imaged into questions. • During Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, the Catholics attacked the Calvinists. - The politiques ended by saving France. o Politiques: Catholic and Protestant moderates who sought to end the religious violence in France by restoring a strong monarchy and granting official recognition to the Huguenots. v Civil Wars in the Netherlands • By the 1560s, Protestants in the Netherlands were mainly Calvinists. • Spanish troops tried to suppress Calvinism by raising taxes, which led to riots. v The Great European Witch Hunt World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 • Witch-hunts: a campaign against witchcraft in which many were tried for being witches and executed if found “guilty”. • People thought that witches were those who got the devil to do what they wanted. - The witch trials began in Switzerland. CHAPTER 11: The Americas Societies of the Americas in a Global Context v Trade and Technology • As cities emerged, they became networks of trade. • There were 3 different kinds of technology—wheel, writing, and communications. • Mesoamericans used pictographic glyphs for their writing system along with many calendars. - Mesoamericans: the term used to designate the area of present day Mexico and Central America. • The quipu served as a binary system. - Quipu: an intricate system of knotted and colored strings used to keep track of census and tax records. v Settlement and Environment • The first settlers migrated from Asia. - The original settlers in the Americas arrived as fisherman. • Populations of the Americas were—the nomadic peoples, the semi sedentary farming community, and the dense agriculture community. - They began the process of domesticating and modifying plants. • The Mesoamericans processed kernels through nixtamalization—corn was known as “masa”. - Nixtamalization: boiling maize in a solution of water and mineral lime to break down compounds in kernels, increasing their nutritional value. Ancient Societies v Olmec Agriculture, Technology, and Religion • The Olmecs shaped religion, trade practices, and technology of later civilizations. - Olmecs: the oldest of the early advanced Mesoamerican civilizations. • Olmecs used a long count solar calendar. v Hohokam, Hopewell, and Mississippian Societies • The Hohokams used irrigation canals, dams, and terraces to enhance farming. - They planted dessert crops. • Cahokia was the largest city north of Mesoamerica. v Kinship and Ancestors in the Andes • The Andes social organization and religion shaped ideas of spiritual kinship and patterns of production and trade. • Ancestor worship is what provided the foundation of Andean religion and spirituality. • The Moche civilization flourished along Peru. - Moche: a Native American culture that thrived along Peru’s coast, which existed as a series of city-states and was distinguished by an extraordinarily rich and diverse pottery industry. The Incas v The Inca Model of Empire World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 • The Incas: the name of the dynasty of rulers who built a large empire across the Andes. • Viracocha Inca was the first Inca leader to accept permanent conquest. • When an Incan ruler would die, their corpse was presented as a mummy. v Inca Imperial Expansion • Ancestor worship and split heritage provided the logic and impulse for expanding Inca power. • The Incas got people to adopt the language of Quecha. - Quecha: the first official language of the Incas. v Imperial Needs and Obligations • The Incan empire met demands of sustaining their empire by adapting aspects of local cultures. - A community practice became a tool of imperial expansion. - Mitmaq settlers were sent to create diverse ethnic enclaves. • There was a labor tax imposed called the mit’a. The Maya and Teotihuacan • Maya: a highly developed Mesoamerican culture centered in Mexico. They created an intricate writing system. • Teotihuacan: the monumental city-state that dominated trade in classical era Mesoamerica. v Maya Agriculture and Trade • High quality limestone allowed them to build monumental architectures. • A staple crop of the Maya was maize. • Methods of exchange were jade, obsidian, and beads. v Maya Science and Religion • The Mayans developed the most complex writing system. • The Mayans used a mathematics system called vigesimal, which allowed for more complex calculations. - This made them masters of abstract knowledge. • They persisted in farming communities that helped preserve their culture. v Teotihuacan and Toltecs • The most powerful city in Mesoamerica was Teotihuacan. - The buildings there were massive and thought to be built by giants. • Caves symbolized from which the sun and moon had been born. • Religion followed trade, and one factor of success was ethnic diversity. • The Toltecs filled the void that was created by the Teotihuacan’s decline. - They entered and settled in Tula. • The Toltecs built a military empire and gradually absorbed culture, practices, and religions of their neighbors. The Aztecs v The Mexica: From Vassals to Masters • Nahuatl: the language of both the Toltecs and the Aztecs. • Mexica: the dominant ethnic group of what is now Mexico, who created an empire based on war and religion –these people were eventually known as the Aztecs. - When the Mexica arrived, the tepance alliance controlled a lot of the valley, so the Mexicas negotiated. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 • Mexica had clan-based communities known as Calpoli. • The Spanish called Tenochtitlan, Mexico City. - Tenochtitlan: a large and prosperous Aztec city that the Spanish admired. • Under a new imperial government there was a combination of military, religion, and political functions. v Life in the Aztec Empire • The Aztecs wrote many pictographic books. • Any free man was allowed to be a warrior. - Parents would sell their child’s umbilical cord in exchange for a sword and shield. • The macehualtin were the backbone of Aztec society and the biggest chunk of the population—they were ordinary citizens. - They payed taxes, unlike any other class. • The Tlalmatil were the serfs. • Women of all classes did domestic duties. • The class order: military leadersàwarriorsàmacehualtinàtlalmatil v Limits of the Aztec Empire • The death of a ruler was a time of uncertainty for the Aztecs. - The council would choose a new tlaloani and get questions answered through a military campaign. • There were human sacrifices that went on for different purposes. American Empires and the Encounter v The Fall of the Aztecs • Aztec leaders looked for places that were easy to overpower and were strategic for trade. • The cost of expansion and sustaining the empire had become orderous. - Due to this, the ruler Moctezuma reformed his empire by reducing privileges and narrowing the pathways of social mobility. o Moctezuma was taken hostage by Hernan Cortez and killed which led to the fall of the empire. v The Fall of the Incas • A civil war happened between sons of the deceased emperor of who would secede the power. - In the process of this the fall of the empire also occurred. CHAPTER 16: The Acceleration of Global Contact The Afroeurasian World v The Trade World of the Global Contact • The Indian Ocean was the center of the Afroeurasian trade world. - It served as a crossroad for commercial and cultural exchanges among china. • Mongol emperors opened the doors of China to the west so that Europeans could do business there. • After the fall of the Mongols to the Ming Dynasty, China entered a period of agricultural/commercial expansion, population growth, and urbanization. • China took a lead in exploration and sent Admiral Zheng to do it. - He brought back animals like giraffes and zebras. - Large-scale exploration was the turning point in world history and allowed an opening for suriperan states to expand their role in trade. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 • India was also a big trader; it was the crucial link between the Persian Gulf and the Southeast Asian and East Asian trade networks. v People and Culture of the Indian Ocean • To symbolize interaction, people from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and islands in between spoke the same language of the Afroeurasian family. • At the time of marriage, the groom paid the bride a bride wealth. - Bride Wealth: a sum of money the groom paid the bride or her family at the time of marriage. - The respect for women went up during this time and place. v Trade with Africa and the Middle East • Swahili speaking states engaged in Indian Ocean trade. - They exchanged ivory, rhino horn, copra, etc. • Gold trade was big in Africa. • Slavery was practiced in Africa and also an important trade item. v Genoese and Venetian Middle Men • Venice’s trading rival was Genoa, due to its domination in the northern trade route from Asia to the black sea. The European Voyages of Discovery v Causes of Estopean Expansion • The 1 cause of European expansion was economic reasons. - The crusaders introduced spice to Western Europe. • The 2 cause was religious fever and the crusading spirit. rd • The 3 cause was the dynamic spirit of the renaissance. - Explorers sought to win glory and explore more unknown waters. • Conquistadors would conquer unknown places. - Conquistadors: a Spanish explorer who sought to conquer the New World for the Spanish crown. v Technology and The Rise of Exploration • Technology developments in navigation and shipbuilding enabled European expansion. - The Portuguese developed a caravel, which was easily maneuverable. o Caravel: a small maneuverable three-mast sailing ship developed by the Portuguese. • Arab scholars introduced Europeans to Ptolemy’s Geography. - Ptolemy’s Geography: synthesized classical knowledge of geography and introduced the concepts of latitude and longitude. • The magnetic compass made it possible for sailors to determine direction/position at sea. v Portuguese in Africa and Asia • Portugal was a small and poor nation whose main activities were fishing and farming. • Portugal’s conquest of Leula marked the beginning of overseas expansion. • Lisbon became the entrance for Asian goods into Europe. v Spain’s Voyage to the Americas • Christopher Columbus was a Genoa native. - He worked as a mapmaker in Lisbon. - He was a deeply religious man. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 • Columbus, with his fleet, set out to explore and he landed on the Bahamas, where he christened San Salvador and claimed on behalf of the Spanish crown. • On Columbus’ next voyage, he took control of the island of Hispaniola. v Spain Discovers the Pacific • Amerigo Vespucci wrote about his discoveries on the coast of modern day Venezuela—it was titled “Mundus Novus”. • Spain and Portugal relied on Pope Alexander VI to settle competing claims to the Atlantic discoveries. - What resulted was the Treaty of Tordesillas. o Treaty of Tordesillas: an agreement that gave Spain everything west of an imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic and giving Portugal everything to the east. • Charles V of Spain asked Magellan to find a direct sea route to the spices of the Moluccas. - Magellan was killed in a skirmish. v Early Exploration by Northern European Powers • A Genoese merchant named John Cabot landed in Newfoundland. Conquest and Settlement v Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Incan Empires • The Spanish had colonized Hispaniola, Cuba, Puerto Rico, etc. • Cuba sponsored Hernan Cortes’ expedition. • The Aztec Empire grew rapidly in size and power. - Aztec Empire: also known as the Mexica Empire, that possessed advanced mathematical, astronomical, and engineering technology. - Moctezuma II ruled the empire. o He was very impressed by the Spanish people. o He was taken hostage by Cortes and killed. • The Incan Empire fell in Peru. - Incan Empire: the vast and sophisticated Peruvian empire centered at the capital city of Cuzco. - They would use a system of quipus for keeping track of book keeping. - They also benefitted by the use of llamas. - They were weakened by the civil war. - The leader at the time was Atahualpa, who was captured by the Spanish and then killed. v Portuguese Brazil • Brazil contained many small tribes with nomadic people. • Portuguese settlers brought sugar cane production to Brazil. v Colonial Administration • The House of Trade was established to over see economic matters. • Spanish territories were divided into 2 viceroyalties (administrative divisions). - Viceroyalties: the name for the 4 administrative units of Spanish possessions in the Americas: New Spain, Peru, New Granada, and La Plata. - There would be a viceroy inside each division. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 • In order to secure the vast expanse of Brazil, the Portuguese put forth a system called captaincies. - Captaincies: a system that the Portuguese in Brazil established in which hereditary grants of land were given to nobles and loyal officials who bore the costs of settling and administrating their territories. • The Catholic Church played a role in Iberian rule—cathedrals were consecrated and bishoprics were established. v Indigenous Population Loss and Economic Expansion • The Encomienda system was used to profit from people and their encountered territories. - Encomienda System: a system in which the Spanish crown granted the conquerors the right to forcibly employ groups of Indians—it was a disguised form of slavery. - There was a law established which called for indigenous peoples to be treated fairly—it didn’t work. o Many died due to mistreatment. v Patterns of Settlement • The Spanish settled in towns that the former Aztecs and Incas were in. - They established new cities like Santo Domingo and Vera Cruz. The Era of Global Contact v The Columbian Exchange • The exchange of animals, plants, and diseases between the old and new worlds was known as the Columbian exchange. - The Columbian Exchange: the exchange of animals, plants, and diseases between the Old and the New Worlds. - The white potato was the most valuable thing that was traded. - The introduction to disease was disastrous on the population. v Sugar and Early Transatlantic Slavery • 2 crucial items of the Columbian exchange were sugar and slaves. - Sugar used to be an expensive luxury, but increased in demand. v The Birth of the Global Economy st • The Portuguese were the 1 worldwide traders. - Afterwards the Spanish were determined to claim the “best trader” title. - Soon after, the Dutch challenged both the Spanish and Portuguese for the leading title. Changing Attitudes and Beliefs v Religious Conversion • Converting people to Christianity was one of the most crucial things that happened in the European expansion. - Catholic friars made Christianity comprehensible. v European Debates About Indigenous People • There was an issue with catholic missionaries mistreating people that weren’t Christian or affiliated with a religion. - Charles V set up a debate for the issue, one side of which was the Valladolid Debate. o Valladolid Debate: a debate organized by Charles V, which pitted defenders of Spanish conquest and forcible conversion against critics of these practices. o This side argued that a forcible conversion to Christianity was necessary and justified. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 • The Black Legend: the notion that the Spanish were uniquely brutal and cruel in their conquest and settlement of the Americas. v New Ideas About Rise • Africans were grouped into categories of pagan heathens or Muslim infidels. CHAPTER 18: European Power and Expansion The Protestant and Catholic Reformations v The Protestant Reformation • Critics of the church concentrated their attacks on clerical immortality, ignorance, and absenteeism. • There was a local resentment of clerical privileges and immunities. - Priests, monks, nuns, were all exempt from civic responsibilities. • Martin Luther was a priest and professor of theology. - He lived in the Holy Roman Empire. - His ideas were appealed to the local rulers. • The issue of the royal succession triggered the country’s break with Rome. • Protestant ideas spread indo France, The Netherlands, Scotland, and Eastern Europe. - The most important 2 generation reformer was John Calvin. o He believed that god was absolutely sovereign and omnipotent and that human had no free will. v The Catholic Reformation • Under Pope Paul III, the papal court became the center of the reform movement. • The new religious orders claimed to raise the moral and intellectual levels of the clergy and people. - The Ursuline Order of Nuns was an education center for women. • The Jesuits played a role in strengthening Catholicism in Europe. v Religious Violence • Calvinists and Catholics believed that each other’s books, services, and ministries polluted the economy. - The Catholics attacked the Calvinists in Paris. • The era of religious wars was also the time of the most persecutions in European history. - Protestants and Catholics tried/executed people for being witches. th The 17 Century Crisis and Rebuilding v The Social Order and Rebuilding • The peasants were the lowest class and the largest class. • European societies were patriarchal. • Bread was the primary food source of the European diet. v Famine and Economic Crises • A period of cold and wet climate that was known as “the little ice age” occurred. - This led to shorter farming seasons—which meant less food for the population. - Moral Economy: the early modern European view that community needs predominated over competition and profit and that necessary goods should thus be sold at a fair price. v The 30 Years War • The 30 Years War: a large-scale conflict that pitted Protestants against Catholics in central Europe, but also involved dynastic interests. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 - The shift balance of the population between the Protestants and Catholics led to the deterioration of the Peace of Augsburg. o Conflict began with bohemia between the Catholic league and the protestant union. § The 1648 Peace of Westphalia ended it. § The 20 years war was also very destructive. v Expansion Within Europe • France had acquired a huge army and almost doubled in size. • During the wars, Louis’ goals were to expand France to its natural borders. - At the end of the expansion, the Peace of Utrecht was established. v The Economic Policy of Mercantilism • Mercantilism: a system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state derived from the belief that a nation’s international power was based on its wealth • A man named Jean-Baptiste Colbert was known to be a financial genius. - He supported old industries and created new ones. - His death undid many of his economic achievements. v The Austrian Hapsburgs • Absolutism was the dominant form of monarchial rule among many Holy Roman Empire states. - Absolutism: a political system common to early modern Europe in which monarchs claimed exclusive power to make and enforce laws without checks by other institutions. - Sovereignty: authority of states that possess a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within clearly defined boundaries and in which private armies present no threat to central control. • The Austrian Hapsburgs ruled Bohemia and eliminated Protestantism there. • Ferdinand III continued to build state power by centralizing the government. - State building achievements were also made. v The Absolutist Palace • The French court started out with no fixed home, but eventually the palace became one. - French became the language of international diplomacy. Constitutionalism and Empire England and the Dutch Republic v Religious Divides and Civil War • Constitutionalism: a form of government in which power is limited by law and balanced between the authority and power of the government, on the one hand, and the rights and liberties of the subject of citizen on the other. • James I seceded Queen Elizabeth. - He believed the monarch had a divine right to its authority ad was responsible only to god. • Between the king and the House of Commons, religious issues occurred. - The Puritans wanted to purify the Anglican Church. o Puritans: members of the reform movement within the Church of England that advocated purifying it of Roman Catholic elements. • English civil war pitted the power of the king against the parliaments. v The Puritan Protectorate World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 • Due to Charles’ execution, the monarchy was abolished, how the economy would be governed was the rising question. - Thomas Hobbes, a philosopher, provided the solution in which he outlined in the Leviathan. • Oliver Cromwell controlled the army in which Puritan ideas of morality were reflected. v Constitutional Monarchy • Charles II was the son of Charles I, who was seceded by his brother James II due o a fear of Catholicism. • The Glorious Revolution was a time period in which one king was replaced by another king without bloodshed. • The Bill of Rights 1689: a bill that Parliament passed and accepted by William and Mary that limited powers of British monarchs and affirmed those of Parliament. • Protestants could posses arms, but not the Catholics. Catholics also couldn’t inherit the throne. • John Cocke helped in protecting the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. v The Dutch Republic • The Dutch adopted the republicanism system. - Republicanism: a form of government in which there is no monarch and power rests in the hands of the people as exercised through elected representatives. - Each province had an estate, and each estate had an executive officer (stakeholder). • Because of global trade, the Dutch had the highest standards of living in the world. Colonial Expansion and Empire v The Dutch Trading Empire • A Dutch fleet returning from Southeast Asia was carrying pepper, cloves, and nutmeg— this voyage led to the Dutch East India Company. v Colonial Empires of England and France • Like the Dutch, England and France challenged Iberian dominance overseas. • Tobacco was produced in Virginia. • The Northeast European powers expanded in Africa and Asia. v Mercantilism and Colonial Wars • Trade to and from European overseas was governed by mercantilists’ economy policy. - Oliver Cromwell established a series of Navigation Acts. o Navigation Acts: laws that greatly restricted other countries’ right to trade with England and its colonies. - They were a form of economic warfare against the Dutch. o France became England’s new rival. v People Beyond Borders • As new territories were seized, European nations produced new maps to show it. • Jews were participants in colonial trade. - Both Jews and Armenians were in minority. • The growth of world trade attracted smugglers. The Russian Empire v Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow • Ivan the Great expanded the principality of Moscow. - He was strong enough to deny paying tribute to the Mongols. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 v Building the Russian Empire • Ivan the terrible was when Russia took a bad turn. • Cossacks: free groups and outlaw armies living on the borders of Russian territory. • Ivan’s reign was successful in defeating remnants of Mongol power. - After his death, Russia entered the time of troubles. v Peter the Great and Russia’s Turn to the West • Peter the Great built on the service of obligations of Ivan the Terrible. - His first territorial goal was conquering the Ottoman Fort of Azor. - He ended up entering The Great Northern War. • Peter developed a new war machine that was able to crush the Swedish army. Lecture Notes LECTURE #15: 7/08/16 (Varieties of Protestantism, Other Reformations) Anabaptists Anabaptist is an umbrella term that means a diversity of congregations. You had to be spiritually regenerated in order to be apart of their congregation. Lutheranism became a local church and benefitted from the protection of the state. These were the first people to live in the concept of “the state is separated from the church”. This group did not support infant baptism, due to a child that young not really having full understanding of what baptism was and why one goes through it. Biblical literalism was a big deal. Luther wanted to both read and interpret the bible. The Anabaptists interpreted the bible extremely literally—followed it by the n degree, which inspired certain lifestyle practices. Some would live in communal type arrangements and would practice pacifism. They were run out of Germany and took refuge in the Netherlands due to the Dutch being more religiously tolerant. This gave rise to the Quakers and the Baptist churches. Zwingli Zwingli was a man that started out as a catholic priest living in Zurich. He under went a reformation and became a protestant along with a congregation. He separated from Luther through the meaning of communion. This take on communion was known as consubstantiation. He claimed Christ was spiritually present but not physically. In Marburg, Luther and Zwingli got together to see if they could compromise over the Sacrament of Communion, but failed, which led to the thought of there being more than one type of Protestantism. Calvinism Calvinism became the most dynamic form of Protestantism. John Calvin was French and was a 2 generation reformer. He recharged the reformation. He studied to become a priest but was turned off by it, so he then became an attorney. His law school experience helped define his theology—which was logical. His theology—one idea was the majesty of god (which meant that god is majestic—he is all knowing and all powerful). The second idea (most known) was predestination—which means that god had predetermined who will be saved and who would be burned eternally (because god is omnipotent). The elect were those who would be saved. He said that it was a Christian’s duty to live a sin free/god respecting life. He claimed that if you are leading a morally good life then you can take that as a sign that you are one of the “elect”/ this way, he offered people hope. Protestants, especially Calvinists put a lot of work on ethic—due to Calvin saying that you should work hard in order to be a good Christian/being a part of the elect. The most capitalist economy was Italy. The English Reformations World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 The English reformation happened during the Tudor Dynasty. Henry VIII was the 2 nd king of the Tudor Dynasty. He was married to Catherine of Aragon (daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella). She had multiple pregnancies but only one survived, a girl named Mary. Henry was worried that he didn’t wouldn’t a male heir and believed that due to this reason, god was punishing him. Henry VIII decided to end the marrige and tried to marry Anne Boleyn. The pope said no, so Henry decided to make another church in which he was the head—this was strictly a political move in order to get rid of the papal authority in England. He relied on the parliament to deliver the news of “no more popes”. Henry’s right hand man was Thomas Cromwell. Anne Bolelyn had a girl, named Elizabeth—this got Anne rdheaded. Jane Seymour was Henry’s 3 wife who had a boy, named Edward IV. Edward seceded his father at the time of his death, but was too young to rule; therefore, his uncle did so. His idea was to bring back Protestantism. Thomas Crammar developed the 2 Book of Common Prayer that became a liturgy. Edward died and the throne got passed to his half sister Mary Tudor. She went back to the way things were before the separation of her father and mother, but failed. Many clergy men were executed due to them not becoming Catholics/disobeying Mary—these executions went against Mary because it made the clergy men martyrs. Mary died and the throne was passed to her half sister Elizabeth. She wanted the church as it was during her father’s reign—this meant no pope, and only her ruling the church. The Elizabethan settlement was what fixed everything—it was a compromise. The church still looked Catholic and the bishops were still there (episcopal) in contrast to Presbyterian (no bishops and run more democratically). However, there were problems, the puritans who were within the church wanted to get rid of everything Elizabeth loved. LECTURE #17: 7/11/16 (Other Reformations, The Wars of Religion) Catholic Reformation The Catholic Reformation was an internally genuine movement. The people were reformers that believed that the church could be saved. The theology wasn’t initial, but the clergy was. This was the first form of Catholic Reform. The new monastic order was a new order of monks and nuns. Their soul purpose was to work with the normal people and to go out and serve them as well. The Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) was a very important group—the founder was Loyola. Loyola grew up to be a warrior but ended up getting injured, so he read everything he could out of boredom; afterwards he realized he needed to serve the church—he ended up becoming the “nucleus”. There was a reputation of Jesuit education being hard. The Catholics wanted to build schools to make people more religiously educated. Jesuits were also missionaries—They would learn the language of those they were targeting to convert/educate. The Pa Pal Reform consisted of Paul III who wanted to end the abuse in the church. Paul ended up calling the council of Trent—they wanted to find a middle ground between them and the Protestants, but thought Protestants were wrong. There were two things important to the Christians—the bible and history but only the bible was important for the Protestants. The Protestants claimed there should be both internal and external faith. Trent decided to increase the internal faith and focus on it more. The church adopted private confession and confession with the box—the purpose was to get the individual to confess freely and to be able to internally feel what they say. This all could be thought of as the general Catholic Reformation. Cathocism was a formal program for the religious education of children. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 The Counter Reformation The church adopted many forbidden books that people weren’t allowed to read. The inquisition was a tribunal court that heard cases involving heresies. This wasn’t a fair system— due to one being hauled in to confess to something they didn’t know anything about or even do. Torture was used if no one wanted to confess. This was used the most in witchcraft. Witchcraze Everybody believed in witchcraft. Magic was a big part of life for the masses. They thought magic could be used to keep body and soul together. Each village had cunning folk to help with magic. This was all an attempt to survive. People claimed that witchcraft was satanic. Since witchcraft dealt with the devil, it was categorized as a heresy. Most peasants were thought of as those to practice it. Midwives were often accused due to baby/mom dying during childbirth. Beggars were also some of the accused. Explanation for Religious Violence People wondered why others would kill in the name of god—collective salvation was what was this was described as. An exoteric belief was collective salvation—salvation was a community effort. Someone who did anything wrong in the salvation, would be called pollutant. Martyrs were “proof” to be a part of the elect. When Protestants would kill a person they would just walk away after the person was declared deceased; however, Catholics would continue messing stabbing/mutilating the corpse even after death—this concept was known as purgatory. Iconoclasm was a form protestant violence—this was the destruction of idols. France was mostly catholic and Protestants were in minority. The Huguenot was a church of Calvinists and The Royal Policy had been the enemy of them. When these churches formed, armies would do so aswell. LECTURE #18: 7/13/16 (Wars of Religion, European Expansion in the Americas) Example: French Wars of Religion The Huguenots were Calvinists. In southern France there were pockets of Calvinists every here and there but they were never a majority religion. The wars happened mainly for religious reasons. Some of the nobility were catholic, some were protestant, and some acted in political ambitions to promote their family. The Guises were arch Catholics (more Catholics than the royal family.) The Bourbons were a Protestant family. The Duke of Guise came across a Protestant village; he was angry and told his people to open fire on the village—this killed many and was titled a massacre. These massacres went on continuously, between the Catholics and Protestants, Mary Stuart (aka Mary Queen of Scotts) was raised an arch Catholic due to her mom being a part of the Guise. When Mary’s husband died, the throne passed to Charles the VIII, since he was young; Catherine de Medici (the mom) was the regent. Catherine was in control during the 1 decade of the religious war “The Policy of Moderation” is what she proposed in order to try and make everyone happy and to promote religious toleration, but it ended up failing. Catherine decided to marry her daughter to Henry of Navarre (big person for the Protestants). The king wanted to kill many of the Protestants—known as St. Bartholomew’s Massacre. Henry and his cousin were then held prisoner and forced to convert into Catholicism. The throne ended up passing to Henry of Navarre (Protestant prince), and he voluntarily converted to Catholicism. He ended the war by granting the Edict of Nantes (this promoted religious tolerance of Protestants, but not religious freedom). America’s Before European Expansion World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 The Europeans had guns but the Native Americans didn’t (this was a big advantage and control point for the Europeans). The Aztec capital was Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City.) The Aztec empire was fairly new. One could rise socially by ability, success, talent, warfare success, etc. (They were a military group of people.) Violence was reflected in their religion. They believed that their duty was to feed the sun god with beating human hearts. The people that were sacrificial victims (those who got their hearts torn out of their chest) were conquered people, prisoners, etc. The sacrifices were a fear/control factor. Cortez encountered the Aztec empire with Montezuma being the Aztec ruler at the time. The Incas The Incan capital was at Cusco. Their style of empire was almost roman and very sophisticated. They divided their property into four parts (The 4 quarters). They had a very “command” economy (completely directed by the government). They kept record by a device known as a quipu. They had an emperor known as “the Inca”. When the emperor died, the Incans lacked the orderly transfer from one emperor to the next—this would cause civil war to break out of who would be the next emperor. This made it easy for Pissarro (a conquistador) to take over. He kidnapped the emperor and ended up executed him. European Expansion Wealth was the most important motive to conquer/have conquests. The spread of religion was the next reason. The biggest consequence of European expansion was disease, which was fatal due to the Native American’s lack of immunity and their isolation issues. Disease was also a way that control took place—a sick person from Europe would intentionally come to where the Native Americans were, so that they (The Native Americans) could get sick and a lack of “good health” population could occur, so that control could easily be taken over. The Columbian exchange was an exchanged system. Coffee was exchanged, taken by the Europeans from Africa (birthplace of coffee). Chocolate and sugar were also greatly exchanged along with potatoes and tomatoes. LECTURE #19: 7/15/16 (Colonial Latin America, French Absolutism) Amerindian Society A demographic and dramatic decline of population happened due to warfare, brutality, and mainly disease. Those who survived had a hard life due to harsh treatments. The Encomienda system granted the Spaniards to requisition as much labor as they wanted to put forth—this gave the right to enslave people. They were worked firstly and mostly in the mines. The slaves were also heavily taxed. Many Indian slaves would run due to all of this. For the Indians, the arrival of the Europeans was a disaster. Spanish America Rapidly, a new world aristocracy was formed in the Americas—those who dominated. They arrived out of large plantation like farms called Haciendas. The viceroys were “the men on the scene” for the king. This gave Spaniards new job opportunities. The clergy was interested in what was going on so they decided to make an elaborate copy of the European churches. The church did make an effort to almost blend in, there would be some cultural accommodations. The Spanish/Portuguese depended on the clergy to serve in their government because they were intelligent and well educated enough to help out/resolve any problems. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Weeks 7 and 8 There were 2 ethnic groups—Europeans and Indians, along with a 3 —mixed Europeans and Indian children, known as Mestizos. Soon the Africans were also imported which led to the th th 4 group. European and African children were known as Mulattoes, and also the 5 group. The society of Castas was a society that was hierarchally arranged with European people being at the top. There was a distinction between Creoles and Peninsulares—Creoles were those who were born in the Americas but were Europeans, Peninsulares were people that were European but came to the Americas. People that were born in the Americas were considered to be more middle class. Enlightenment and Bourbon Reforms The government wanted to reform and make things work much differently, better, rationally, etc. People didn’t want fixing the government to happen due to them liking it the way it was. The colonies of Latin America broke away from Spain and Portugal as a result, this break away is also known as decolonization. Henry IV An absolute monarch is all-powerful—1) can declare war 2) can make laws 3) can tax. They don’t share power with any other institution. Henry IV was one of the first of the bourbon monarchs. His first decade in reign was spent ending the wars of religion. After ending the war, he was in a lot of debt, because war is expensive. His right hand man was, Sully, who constructed a way of trying to make France financially stable again. Taxes started off not being collected the same way everywhere. The north of France was actually being taxed, but the south of France was basically tax-free. Henry and Sully wanted to create uniformity between the 2 parts. The first provinces to be uniformed were the ones that Henry was from. Henry ended up being assassinated by a catholic who was mad about the toleration law of the Protestants that Henry put up. Louis XIII Louis XIII was 9 at the time of his succession to the throne, which meant that his mom, Marie de Medici was the regent. She didn’t know what she was doing and spent a lot of money trying to get people to behave during her rule. Her policies were very pro-catholic. She undid everything Sully and Henry accomplished. Louis chose his right had man to be Richelieu—these 2 were an absolutist team. La Rochelle was “the capital” of Protestantism. Richelieu took on La Rochelle, which made sure that the Protestants wouldn’t be a war threat. Richelieu proposed the creation of new bureaucrats called intendants—they were control agents that would be in each province to make sure people were doing what they were supposed to do, and reporting to Louis and Richelieu if they weren’t.
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