Popular in Core Biology
Popular in Biology
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katherine Hodge on Monday July 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Core Biology at University of Chicago taught by Dr. McNulty in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Core Biology in Biology at University of Chicago.
Reviews for Core Bio
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 07/18/16
Kate Hodge Evolutionary Biology Lecture 1 1/6/16 Evolution occurs through DNA Ability to transit information causes building form one generation to the next Not perfect, but very good Reproduction and natural selection How DNA works Replication of DNA (with transcription)-> RNA (translation)-> proteins Can only happen in one direction HIV violates the flow of DNA replication (goes backwards) DNA is helically chain with phosphate and sugar on the outside, both attached to the base, which connects to the other base Phosphate and sugar provide a home and spine for DNA Bases are letters of a genetic code - Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), Thymine (T) (A-T and G-C) Stores information, reason we have complex organisms Very long molecule Every cell has 23 chromosomes (coiled up DNA) 3 billion base pairs—a complete genetic complement of organisms Replicates when helicase unzips DNA strand, more enzymes fill in base gaps with complimentary strands makes 2 identical pairs of strands error rate= 1 in 10 billion Errors change everything, proteins created, place on chromosomes, called mutations Silent mutation—base is changed, but same amino acid is created Gene has 2 parts—coding region and control region (receptor), is an on and off switch mRNA can isolate specific part of DNA chain can make new/more proteins to express a gene Somatic cells—body cells Sex cells—sperm and egg Mutations to somatic cells can cause cancer Cancer—over 100 different kinds of errors A gene is expressed way too much, too much growth tempered to other cells, causes problems for body It’s a breakdown of the system if you lived long enough, everybody would get it Cells with more replication are more likely to get cancer (no heart cancer or muscle cancer) Some mutations affect structural genes, others regulatory genes (turns other genes off) Alleles—different versions of existing gene Most mutations are bad, they disrupt gene function Duplication—multiple copies of the same gene Bad could diverge function Important in evolution Entire genome can be duplicated Polyploidy—multiple sets of chromosomes Lots of new kinds of plants artificially created this way Mutages—environmental chemicals that induce certain harmful genetic mutations that create hereditary disease Genetic differences—mating between 2 unrelated people created lot of new info Eukaryotic Discoveries 1. Retroviruses—protein coat with single RNA strand and enzymes that allow RNA to turn into DNA upon host infection, then puts virus DNA in host DNA 2. Split Genes—pieces of genes on difference chromosomes - Long RNA strand put into pieces , some pieces are discarded, some welded together, that new strand makes protein - Discarded pieces are introns - Introns are pieces of genes that are unexpressed and edited out - Exons are expressed parts of genome C-value paradox—so much DNA, so few genes - No correspondence between size of genome and complexity of organism What is all the extra for? 1. Structural—not coding, but there to form DNA, anchors for exons 2. Regulatory—microRNA (19-25 bases long) regulate other genes by making compliment to RNA that expresses that gene, help to localize gene expression, 1/3 of introns might produce microRNA 3. Junk DNA—leftovers, disabled genes, mutations 4. Transposable elements—multiply within genome, “selfish” genes
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'