Core Bio Notes
Core Bio Notes Core Biology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katherine Hodge on Monday July 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Core Biology at University of Chicago taught by Dr. McNulty in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Core Biology in Biology at University of Chicago.
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Date Created: 07/18/16
Kate Hodge Biological Evolution Lecture 2 1/8/16 Mutation that produces microRNA, could cause cancer MicroRNA—double-edged sword and control a lot of genes Onion Test—onions have 4 times more DNA than humans Some genomes could be 50% of transposons This system is messier and more complex than you’d think Parasitic DNA is selfish DNA Transposons are not sentient; they are not actual parasites Transposons can suppress further transpositions in Drosophila Bodies that have more or too many transposons are less successful Genomes have evolved ways to protect themselves from transposons (by mutation or developed defense) Bind to microRNA that make more transposons to prevent further creation New mutations create more transposons Ways to get rid of Transposons 1. Antisense RNA—way to turn off targeted, specific genes, 2 RNA strands combine to make a double stranded RNA, which is eventually destroyed, also called RNA interference 2. Transgenics—use a disabled retrovirus to insert new genes from other person or species into the genome, is targeted to boost the immune system, one inserts genes for therapeutic reasons - The hardcore version is taking genes from 1 species and putting it in another 3. Gene editing—removing or inserting genes - CRISPER: a very accurate, fast, cheap system that combines mRNA that’s complementary to a strand of DNA you want to edit with a cas-9 enzyme (enzyme that breaks DNA) - Allows you to snip out a single sequence - Not perfect, but pretty good - Rarely, the target sequence can be mutated - Example: muscular dystrophy, use CRISPR to take out 1 problem extrons, the body then makes a better protein with fewer problems Traits Passed Down to Offspring Every human has 23 pairs of chromosomes Same kinds of genes in same order: homologous chromosome Locus: location where coding part of gene is on a chromosome Homozygous—identical alleles Heterozygous—different alleles Diploid cell—2 sets of chromosomes Haploid—1 set of chromosomes Crossing over—identical chromosomes intertwine and exchange information - Breaking and recombined so information has been exchanged - Happens for further variation of genes for sex cells, so each is unique Fundamental fact of sexual reproduction—not clones, but unique individuals Disadvantages of Sex 1. Each offspring gets 50% of parents genes 2. Recombination and assortment 3. Time/effort/risk of finding a mate 4. Sexually transmitted diseases Why Sexual Reproduction 1. Repair (for damaged genes) 2. Purge mutations 3. Variation pool 4. Selection for change (the Red Queen hypothesis)
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