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AIS notes

by: Judith Monica

AIS notes ENVS 271

Judith Monica
GPA 3.85

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Draft Date: july 7, 2016
Environmental Science
Dr. Joan Curry
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Judith Monica on Tuesday July 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVS 271 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Joan Curry in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science in Science at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 07/19/16
Judith Gramajo Section 001 B Essay Draft 2/18/16 Controversies between Native Americans and America It is a gut wrenching thought to believe that the Europeans were the ones to kick out  sovereign people and to believe that America today is not as peaceful as it is made to be. A  controversial question we ask is what is tribal sovereignty? In America, Native Americans are  protected by law for those federally recognized tribes, but there still are many conflicts that  continue pop up. These conflicts prompt the question id it still America's moral rights to protect  Native Americans? The Marshall Trilogy, which included three court cases, did not solve much,  if any, issues, although it was a start of a new revolution to the perspective of Indian people. It is  important to know why tribal sovereignty is a value to America politically, economically, and  environmentally.  It is often difficult to identify an indigenous person. Some may want to describe natives  as a whole group while others name them by their appropriate tribes. The misconception and  myth of Columbus discovering American land is what sets the bar of empowerment. The  discovery led to American defining what tribal sovereignty means. Tribal sovereignty is a grey  umbrella that caps all Native Americans.  Tribal sovereignty mean tribes have the right to  mangae their own government and regulate property, business, and feral issues on their own  land. Tribal Sovereignty protects all who are self defined as being native­ this refers to who is  considered to be an indigenous person. ­What are the benefits/ disadvantages to being sovereign  (Edna Yokum discussion presentation 01/29/16 CITATION). Although these were the  agreements America made with Native Americans, conflicts still arose when issues were brought under the court of law. An example is the Marshall Trilogy.  The Marshall Trilogy was a series of three Supreme court cases assuring the political  standing of Indian nations. The first case was Johnson v. McIntosh (1823). The supreme made a  decision that private citizens could not purchase land from Native Americans (Byrn). The second case was Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia (1831). This case was brought to supreme court by the Cherokee Nation asking for rights but since the court said Cherokee was an independent  nation, the court dismissed the case and treated the nation as a sovereign ward (Byrn). The third  case was Worchester v. Georgia (1832). This case was the first of the three to be ruled upon in  the Supreme court by Chief Justice, John Marshall. The cases settled the relationships between  tribes, states, and federal governments, declaring that federal governments have complete  authority of sovereign nations (Byrn). ­­Who is effected­What are the outcomes from rulings  (post –ruling issues). Since the Marshall Trilogy, the Native Indians learned to grow thick skin  against America and it was the start of a new era.  Since of the start of a new nation of America, Euroamericans desperately needed the  Indians environmentally, and economically. The tribes settled on land that flourished in greens  and crops. The greed of the Americans enforced the option to push the tribes west of the  Mississippi river (CITATION). This is why America continued the tradition of treaty making  with tribes because trade of land mostly benefitted Americans, rather than compromising both  sides. The treaties didn’t stop until 1871. Since there are still problems today, that also means  conflicts were still occurring after 1871. There was never an “ending point” between Americans  and Native­Americans; Treaties that were written years ago, are being compromised to fit the  needs of the Americans­(GIVE EXAMPLE) Luckily, the Native Americans are under their own  government that cannot be ruled upon on native territory.      Works Cited Byrn, Jonathan. "The Marshall Trilogy and Indian Removal." American Indian Studies Department. University of Arizona, Tucson.1 Feb. 2016. Columbi, Benedict. “Treaty Making; Allotment; IRA.” American Indian Studies Department. University of Arizona, Tucson. 3 Feb. 2016.  Béteille, André. "The Idea Of Indigenous People." Current Anthropology 39.2 (1998): 187­ 191. Anthropology Plus. Web. 19 Feb. 2016. Yokum, Edna. CITATION


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