Language and Mind, Week 3
Language and Mind, Week 3 LING 275
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carole Boulware on Wednesday July 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 275 at University of Southern California taught by Elsi Miia Kaiser, Rachel Walker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Language and Mind in Linguistics at University of Southern California.
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Date Created: 07/20/16
Language and Mind, Ling 275g Spring 2016, Kaiser/Walker Overview of lecture on March 3: Acoustic Phonetics: Vowels and Consonants Spectrum • Provides information about the amplitude and frequency of a complex sound wave at a moment in time. Demonstration of “vocal vowels” How hollow plastic models of the human vocal tract turn the call of a duck into vowel sounds: http://www.exploratorium.edu/exhibits/vocal_vowels/ Spectrogram • A visual representation of the component frequencies of a complex wave that displays how they change over time. • Horizontal – time. • Vertical – frequency. • Darkness of shading – amplitude/intensity. Vowels in spectrograms See Vowel Spectrograms handout and Vowel Formant Frequencies handout • Formant 1 (F1) o Correlated to vowel height o Higher F1 frequency indicates a lower vowel. • Difference in frequencies of F1 and Formant 2 (F2) o Correlated to vowel backness o A greater difference indicates a vowel that is more forward. • Lip rounding o Lowers frequencies of the higher formants. • Diphthongs o Have a changing formant structure. • First three formants o Those needed in perceiving vowel quality. Note: F1, F3, F3, etc. are used to refer to formants (first, second, third, and so on). This labeling convention should not be confused with F0, which refers to the fundamental frequency and is not a formant. You will not be held responsible for memorizing the precise frequencies for formants of specific vowels. However, you should be familiar with the basic patterns of formants for particular vowels (e.g. [i] has a low first formant and high second formant). Also, you should be able to compare the formant structure for two or more vowels and interpret their differences in quality. For instance, if the spectrogram for one vowel shows a higher 1 F1 than another, you should know that means that the vowel with the higher F1 is lower in vowel height. Consonants in Spectrograms See Consonant Spectrograms handout and Acoustic Correlates of Consonants handout. Voicing • Each vocal fold vibration appears as a vertical striation in a spectrogram. (This is also present in vowels in spectrograms.) • Voicing may also be visible by a voicing bar at the bottom of the spectrogram. Co-production in speech • Coarticulation o Coarticulation is the overlapping of adjacent articulations. o In coarticulation, the articulations of adjacent speech sounds overlap, but listeners do not usually perceive a change in sound. o Compare phonological assimilation rules in which we usually hear a different speech sound. • Öhman’s discovery: o Vowel articulations overlap consonant articulations. • Compare tongue and lip position for [k] in <key> vs. <coo>. Consonants in spectrograms (see handouts for more details) • Oral stops o A gap in the pattern o Burst spike on release of stop closure o Aspiration: A period of “noise” after the burst o Voicing: A voicing bar o Place of articulation: ▯ Look at locus of formant transitions in neighboring sounds (such as a vowel). ▯ The locus is the apparent point of origin of a formant. o Constriction: Look at formant transitions for F1 – it rises out of a constriction and falls into one. • Fricatives o Random noise pattern, especially in higher frequencies. [s, z] have a higher center of energy than [ʃ, ʒ]. You should know the acoustic correlates for consonants that are outlined on the handout and be familiar with what they look like on a spectrogram (assuming they are reasonably visible). However, we will not emphasize the acoustic correlates for “additional consonant sounds,” listed at the bottom of the handout. 2 Summary Over the last two classes, we have discussed three kinds of visual displays for speech sound waves, and the different properties of sounds that they reveal: • Waveforms • Spectra • Spectrograms 3