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Language and Mind, Week 8

by: Carole Boulware

Language and Mind, Week 8 LING 275

Carole Boulware
GPA 3.3

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Language and Mind, Week 8
Language and Mind
Elsi Miia Kaiser, Rachel Walker
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carole Boulware on Wednesday July 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 275 at University of Southern California taught by Elsi Miia Kaiser, Rachel Walker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Language and Mind in Linguistics at University of Southern California.


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Date Created: 07/20/16
LING 275 Language and Mind, Spring 2016, Kaiser/Walker Learning how to read [Overview of March 31, 2016] Speaking – part of our biology  All children learn to speak, no explicit instruction needed Reading – relatively recent cultural invention  Until recently, very few people learned to read.  Learning to read requires extensive, explicit instruction.  Healthy, intelligent people can have difficulty reading, intelligence has little connection to reading ability Early reading ability correlates with later reading proficiency st th  Reading ability in 1 grade is a good indication of 11 -grade reading proficiency  Individual differences in reading skill get bigger over time  Good readers improve faster (and get even better because read more) than weak readers Literacy: Why is learning how to be a good reader so important? Methods of instruction: 1. Phonics  Focus on sound-letter correspondences, sub-parts of words  Alphabetic principle: There are reliable correspondences between letters and the sounds that they stand for o English has exceptions, but there are regularities to many (but not all) exceptions (see class handout)  Modern phonics instruction: 2. Whole-word  ‘Look-say’method; focus on recognizing words by memorization, sight reading (e.g. ‘shape’worksheets)  Mainly focus on words as whole units  Assumption: repeated exposure will teach children to recognize a word as a whole  (Later: focus on sound-letter correspondences) 3. Whole language  Focus on whole words and sentences, child’s experience with language  Little or no error correction  Aim: teach reading by making it enjoyable, empower learner, teacher flexibility  Assumptions/claims of whole-language approach: o Learning to read is natural, just like learning to talk o Some assume/claim that phonics instruction is harmful 1 But: Learning how to read  learning how to speak  Most children do not learn how to read without instruction  Children with high IQ aren’t necessarily good readers Research supports importance of sound-letter correspondences during reading Classroom studies: #1Adults  Teaching adult English speakersArabic letters  Phonics approach or whole-language approach  Phonics group able to read more new words than whole-language group Classroom studies: #2 First-graders  10 classrooms taught w/ phonics, 10 classrooms taught w/ whole language  Phonics group scored higher on reading and comprehension by the end of the year  Why is an understanding of sound-to-letter correspondences so important for learning how to read? (See also class handout) Arbitrary Arbitrary WORD & Unsystematic MEANING & Unsystematic Mapping Mapping(but children already know it) SPELLING PHONOLOGY Fairly systematic More in lab next week on this: Phonics? Focus on: Spelling  Phonology  Meaning Whole-word/Whole language? Focus on: Spelling  Meaning Quote from the reading: “The process of mentally sounding out words is an integral part of silent reading, even for the highly skilled… …learning the correspondences between letters and sounds – that is to say, phonics – is keenly important for beginners” (Rayner et al.) Ghoti = fish? Rough, women, nation 2


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