Language and Mind, Week 11
Language and Mind, Week 11 LING 275
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carole Boulware on Wednesday July 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 275 at University of Southern California taught by Elsi Miia Kaiser, Rachel Walker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Language and Mind in Linguistics at University of Southern California.
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Date Created: 07/20/16
LING 275 Language and Mind, Spring 2016, Kaiser/Walker Language and the brain: Aphasia [Overview of April 12, 2016] The human brain: about 3 lbs, consumes large proportion of body’s energy Brain basics: Four lobes o Occipital lobe -- Visual processing o Temporal lobe -- Perception and recognition of auditory stimuli (near the ear) o Parietal lobe -- Sensitivity to sensory information from skin senses o Frontal lobe -- Control of muscle movements (including movement of the articulators), reasoning, problem solving Left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) -- Corpus callosum connects two hemispheres Ways of studying language in the brain #1 Brain damage - Consequences of damage to a certain part? #2 Brain imaging (new) - What parts are activated during various tasks (more on Thurs) Damage to different parts of brain can have different effects on language ability Aphasia: language disorder produced by brain damage Lesion: damaged/abnormal brain tissue Brain damage - Consequences of damage to a certain part? Step 1: Brain damage (lesion) occurs (e.g. stroke, head trauma, disease) Step 2: Language deficits observed Step 3: Relate location of lesion with type of deficit Assumption: Specific types of knowledge and/or processing are associated with specific brain regions Broca’s aphasia [expressive aphasia] o Paul Broca, 1824-1880, discovered a patient nicknamed ‘Tan’ with very limited speech abilities, but no muscle paralysis o "Me ... build-ing ... chairs, no, no cab-in-ets. One, saw ... then, cutting wood ... working" Wernicke’s aphasia [receptive aphasia] o Karl Wernicke o Damage to left temporal lobe, region called Wernicke’s area o Characterized by fluent but empty speech (paragrammatic speech) o Neologisms See class handout for detailed information about characteristics of these two kinds of aphasia, examples of aphasic speech Experimental investigations of comprehension in aphasics (a) The book that the girl is reading is yellow.ot reversible: girl read book, NOT book read girl] (b) The horse that the bear is kicking is brown.[reversible: horse kicked bear, bear kicked horse] Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia: trouble understanding (a) and (b) Patients with Broca’s aphasia: fine w/ (a), trouble with (b) Patients with Broca’s aphasia have subtle comprehension deficits
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