Visual Culture and Literacy, Week 11
Visual Culture and Literacy, Week 11 FACS 150
Popular in Visual Culture and Literacy I
Popular in Art History
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carole Boulware on Wednesday July 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FACS 150 at University of Southern California taught by Erin Silver in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Visual Culture and Literacy I in Art History at University of Southern California.
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Date Created: 07/20/16
September 1 – Sept. 30 th Romanticism - artistic and literary, 18th century John Constable Response of industrial revolution Age of enlightenment, resistance to science Emotion (horror, awe, terror) in relation to nature o Untameablitily Emphasis Representation - William Blake More than imitation Responsibility to portray essential truths Shift away from patronage o Artists weren't sure what to paint - crisis o Leads two early 19th century modern art Crisis of the public sphere - 19th century Social life - public opinion can be form Portion of the PS comes into daily life o Englands royalty develops the public sphere Class gener o Literal overlap of art and public life Continuing photography Portrait of drowned man (self portrait) Earliest instance of trickery – pretending suicide because he lost title of inventor Hippolyta Bayard 1801-1887 Direct positive process (still couldn’t be recreated) Poor light sensitivity – 12 min exposure time Dissuaded from announcing invention by Francois Arago, who then beats him to the punch Daguerre got the most credit Photography = science and spirituality Necromancy – human eye cant see, camera can capture Spirit photography (double exposure), mortuary photography (momento mori) Nonoré de Balzac – believed one of their spectral layers removed while photograph taken Capturing preexisting reality = art? Ruskin = “ a photo is not a work of art…only art expresses the living perception of the human soul” Both a cause and a symptom – threatening to narrow realism – exact replication – only a model for art Technological modernization Photography stands as the symbol of this conflict Individual creativity – painting, photography – scientific representation Commercial portraiture – used by financially independent amateurs Philadelphia America – promote cultural nationalism, adjust to transition of tech society, reflect spiritual concerns 1850s – talbotype replaced by faster means – expanded commercial accessibility beginning of mass photography – stereograph – David Rooster 1849 cartes-de-visite – 1860s – modernizing agenda of napoleon III commercial growth and population growth – distinct split of classes first department stores Disderi – commercial potential for the visiting cards Early celebrity photography Engraving, lithography What is the place of photography? Oscar Rejlander – 1813-1875 – father of art photography Started as portrait painter Used double printing (two negatives) 30 different negatives, combined them into multiple works 6 weeks to make Robinson – fade away Lady dying of tuberculosis surrounded by family and scenery ‘ Staged? Courbet - political and social life of France in 1850s Scale and ambition undermined classes Napoleon III looked to criminalize advante garde No more political paintings, landscapes became popular Rise of individualism Salon - 1863 - refused a large amount of paintings New salon of all the refusals - May 17th 1863 Marked the birth of advante garde (JAM whistler, Courbet, Manet) History of Paris 19th century - capital of artwork Modernity Renovated under Napoleon III after 1850 Medieval 1.5 million in 1856 1852 - public works project to redesign Paris Haussmann implemented it New streets, sewers, street lighting, transport, parks, new structures Helped Napoleon gain supporters Class segregation - rich in the right bank apartments, poor outside city in houses Flaneur - response to changes in the city; modern male (gentleman) individualist who "becomes more and more himself", sees Paris and its streets as their entertainment Walter benjamin - make the streets of Paris his home Manet: Music in the Tuileries; A Balcony; Olympia (pulls from many different works) Impressionism came from Impression Sunrise: Monet Self determinacy, free expression Lack of irony in their work 1874 - the Anonymous society of Painters, sculptors, and printmakers Monet, Degas Unified by rejection from Salon Praised for true depiction of modern life; criticized for unfinished quality Mosaic of colors, forms that were an impression of exterior world on their senses Suggestion of forms instead of detail - short brushstrokes, pure unblended colors, inclusion of light source, shadows/highlights shown as color instead of grey, black, white, didn’t use darkening varnish Paints were more vivid, development of synthetic pigments Depictions of everyday life, artistic life (theater, dances) Monet, Caillebotte, Pissarro, Morisot Fluid membership Technical innovations- personal pleasure, freedom Rejection of Chiaroscuro - modeling of form and space through contrast Superficial, brighter colors Enplein Air - outdoor paintng Monet: Women in the Garden - Depiction of colored shadows Combine colors in optical illusions - complementary Equalizing of brush strokes Arrogance in rejecting a name Evasive Manet: Bar at the Folies Bergere - distinction of class and gender, sense of detachment (multiple perspectives) Sexual assumption Morisot: The Psyché - face isnt visible fully in the mirror Discussion: Fin De Siecle - turn of the century Enhance the viewers understanding of the artwork H.D. Buchloch - points to issue that one particular model should be accepted as valid Attempt to develop a science of evaluating art - methods Move from urban to industrialized - put these people in public spaces Marxism - worked as a mode to analyze relations and social/political change TJ Clark - defining the theoretical parameters of art Autonomy - upper class appreciated atheistic without concern of political/social Automy with medium specificity - materials in the piece have to have meaning Liberate artistic practices from religion, patronage, economy Becomes institutionalized Artists opperate in their own social class, but made alliances Propaganda Seurat Stretched between realism and abstract Generation after impressionist Working to return impressionism to its democratic roots and maintaining expressive autonomy o Life of leisure and utopia - inspired by urban Intellectually rigorous and pleasing to the eye At the forefront of the challenges of following impressionism - founder of neoimpressionism o Free license of representation Light dark continuum Spaces of the city o The impact from rural to urban, renovation of paris o Chromo-luminarism - material mix vs. optical mix o "Art is Harmony" Van Gogh - mental state result of epilepsy Utopian idea of artistic community - collective Exploring social historical methodology o Peasants and proletarians o Expressionistic of the individual/utopia Launched by uncle's commission - Dutch paintings style Perception of laborers as lowest order and class of criminals o Suggests Christian paternalism - trying to elevate them "The Potato Eaters" 1885 Van Gogh Did not like academic classism - discredited Moved to Arles 1888 to start the artistic commune Not replicating exactly what we see - mimesis Distance between classical past, but establish link Attempt to keep spirit of classism alive - revolutionary tendencies as well Focus on sensation, emotion, intellect Gesamtkunstwrk - urban spaces engage all the senses VOGNERinfluenced others by compositions of balance in abstraction VAN GOGH wants music into the work GAUGUIN- "art is an abstraction" More imagined forms in work, dreams Mark the end of representation founded on classical constructs Symbolism came through as a source of social critism Political and social upheaval - artists retreat JEAN MOREAS KAHN - quotidian (realistic) Objective of the outside world through artist eye "symbolism in painting" - Ideist Symbolist Synthetist Subjective Decorative Rejection of ornate Neoimpressionists - symbolism is art of creative freedom and sensual liberation Alternate reality Savage, primitive - rural France James Ensor - bridging huge period of time, combined imagination with emulating dutch and flemish artists Conventionally trained - critical of the academy, liked satire Focus on aethestisim - isolated himself (status)- rejecting rules and institution 20 Century 1939 - 1936 ~ artist who projected this idea of contemporaneous Contradictory to society, regressing Not the common celebration of western progress, but instead traditional Important for formal style - perceptual style and representaion Break from outside world - canvas is its own world Nothing but the form of the work Modenrist work once revolutionary RETURNS to subject matter of clevance Explore the dynamics of hue Did not like the shallowness of the impressionists - didn’t want to ignore society Moved toward conveying objects and figures more clearly Focus mass and solidiity Ephemberal nature but not unstable Holding illusionism at bay Paris at the turn of the century - who emphasised the painterly qualitites, strong color, representational values Fauvism Large uproar over "woman with a hat" Work system laid down for Matisse Influential artist of the 20th century Originally trained as a lawyer Experiment with a variety of styles - light, brushstrokes, composition Visits Signack - access to natural light in southern france - more vibrant palette Experiments with pointillism for a bit In defiance to his own system with dark contours Undivied flat planes of color - signature style Devlamink - sparked by matisse's visit to his studio - absence of line or contour Not filling the canvas outward - all areas of canvas at once Matisse follows emotion, others follow cubism for lack of emotion Cubism Art Nouveau Form and function - ornament isn't an add on, not superfluous Henry Van de Velde - Chair, 1896 - craft Victor Horta - Hotel Tassel (1893-1894), Hotel Solvay (1898) Rich interiors + function Use of glass - open up space Aubrey Beardsley - "the peacock skirt" (1894) Symbolism, art nouveau, orientalism Mass produced, use in books Elimination of shading Antonio Gaudi - Casa Mila (1907) Removal of hard edges, organic forms Iron railings give sense of contour Entrances have cavernous feel "End of the Century" Turn from 19th to 20th century Sensibility of cultures that have political upheaval Cultures of decadence and indulgence, recklessness Gustav Klimt - The Kisss (1907-1908) Bodies cloaked in mosaic capes Reflective of decadence, and violence Vienna Historical Conditions Advant Garde Secessionists - withdrawl from official academies of art 19 artists and architects - advocated for youthful style Rejection from official academies resulted in controversy 1901 - rejected a work by Klimt that they actually commissioned "Philosophy" Meant to depict philosophers, turned into a piece of anguish, grotesque Darkness over light "Medicine" (1901) bodies and skeletons, macabre "Jurisprudence" (1907) amourphos bodies, withdrawl 1908 - Oscar Kerkashka removed from school because of a play he wrote Collapse of Austria-Hungairan Empire Arts were seen to represent individuals in face of authority "crisis of culture" Search for new self - narcissism "Total Work of art" Within secessionists, divide between artists and craftsman Begin to experiment with abstract forms Suggested rather than realistically drawn Joseph Maria Olbrich - Secession Building (1897) "temple of art.. Place of refuge" "To each age its art, to art, its freedom" inscribed on tower Global scale - Eiffel Tower Klimt went to school at the School of Arts and Crafts Started as architectural decorator Painting of cultural reps for the Lobby Schiele - seated male nude (1910) Vienna Academy of Fine Arts Broke from academic traditions, influenced by Klimt Depict slender youths in contorted positions Compositional experiments, body to express inner emotions Emaciated body, but vibrant colors - Dead Mother I (1910) move towards more painterly concerns Restrained expressiveness Almost abstraction Child in her womb, dying mother - emotional connection Largely informed by decorative influences and linear clarity of Klimt's works Artists were to strive for authenticity - group founded by Schiele "Nude self portrait in Gray with Open Mouth" (1910) Broken body but also freedom (not constrained) Expressive depictions