Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes HTH 245
Popular in Foundations of Infectious Disease
Popular in Health Sciences
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Palka on Wednesday July 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HTH 245 at James Madison University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Infectious Disease in Health Sciences at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 07/20/16
Chapter 1: Identifying the Challenge ● Infectious diseases are the 2nd leading cause of death worldwide ○ Leading infectious killers are bacterial, viral, protozoan, and worm diseases ● Efforts were shifted from infectious disease to chronic disease ● Six kinds of microbes: (most are beneficial and very few pose a threat for infection) ○ Bacteria ○ Viruses ○ Protozoans ○ Fungi ○ Unicellular algae ○ Prions ● Pathogens: the microbes that are disease producers (also called virulent microbes) ● New, emerging and reemerging infections ○ Bacterial diseases: ■ Lyme disease ■ Ehrlichiosis ■ Gastroenteritis ■ Listeriosis ■ Legionnaires’ disease ■ Salmonellosis ■ Tuberculosis ○ Viral Disease ■ Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome ■ Ebola hemorrhagic fever ■ Dengue fever ■ Rabies ■ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) ■ West Nile encephalitis ■ HIV/AIDS ■ Influenza ■ Nipah encephalitis ■ Measles ○ Protozoan diseases ■ Cryptosporidiosis ■ Malaria ■ Babesiosis ○ Fungal diseases ■ Coccidioidomycosis ■ Cryptococcosis pneumonia ■ Pneumocystis pneumonia “Bat white nose” syndrome ■ Chytridiomycosis (amphibians) ● Microbecaused diseases can be transmitted by person to person contact, by biological vectors (ticks, lice, flies, mosquitoes) and by animal to human contact (zoonotic) ● Factors that are responsible for emerging diseases ○ World population ■ Population increase around the world is the main factor that goes with the crisis of new and emerging infectious diseases ■ When the population density is higher it makes spreading the disease easier because there are more people in one space to catch it ○ Urbanization ■ Urbanization frequently leads to poverty ■ Urbanization and poverty lead to 3 things which increase the risk for infectious disease ● There is a drain on natural resources and pollution ● A decrease in public infrastructure ○ Sanitation ○ Rodent increase ○ Immunization ● Malnutrition and decreased health services ○ Ecological disturbances ■ Deforestation ● Leads to microbes and other organisms to be displaced increasing the risk for infectious disease ■ Climatic changes ● Global warming favors outbreaks of a variety of infectious diseases ● An increase in temperature and rainfall favors mosquitoes which increases the likelihood of malaria and other infectious diseases ■ Natural disasters (drought, floods, wildfire, etc.) ○ Technological advances ■ Air travel ■ Transfusion of unsafe blood ○ Microbial evolution and adaptation ■ Antimicrobial resistance ■ Evasive strategies ○ Human behavior and attitudes ■ Complacency ■ Migration ■ Societal factors
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