Mass Communications in Society
Mass Communications in Society MC 110
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Mass Communication in Society Umberger 100 Steve Smethers MWF 11:30am – 12:20pm Professor: Steve Smethers firstname.lastname@example.org (785) 532-5286 Kedzie Hall 401: 2pm – 5pm Facebook: Dr. Steven Smethers --> “virtual office hours” TA: Josh Tests: every 4 weeks Quizzes: there will be an online quiz posted on K-State Online a week before the exam 4 online quizzes, 4 exams look over notes every night fourth exposure to material is key Quiz Information: Online quizzes go live Wednesday 12:30pm to midnight Thursday 10 questions, 20 points, 30 minutes open book and open note (questions are reused for the test) Supplemental Instruction: Tuesdays and Thursday 7pm – 8:30pm 117 Hale Library small group setting to reinforce lessons and learn effective study techniques email@example.com Test: 40% book information and 60% lecture TEST #1: Chapter 2, 3, 4 and syllabus 50 multiple choice September 20th who you are not what you are ✔ equal treatment of: Who, What, When, Where, Why and How ★Newsworthy: impact an audience, conflict, loss of life or destruction, proximity to audience, timeliness (if it happened yesterday, it’s no longer news), novelty ★Community Journalism: the study of local news and its impact on a community ex: small town papers with very local stuff/ issues local news (small stuff) = insignificant Facebook posts media defines their market and community media reflects and defines local news = proximity, conflict, impact, etc. media tells the story media promotes a positive community atmosphere media provides a communication thread that holds a community together ★Community: a sense of cohesiveness among a group of people Media & Community – current issues ✔ we are in the middle of audience, technology and content shifts ✔ there is not a decrease in the demand for information ✔ journalism isn’t dead…only the models are changing ✔ the question is: what types of media will survive to carry important community and building info, entertainment and interpersonal communication? John Milton: 1606 – 1674 wrote the Aeropagitica in 1644 -> there should be a free, uninhibited exchange of idea because only then will we know the absolute truth Freedom of Expression is a divine human right “if only everyone had a printing press” Marshall McLuhan “technology changes us” “the medium is the message” – it’s the technology itself not the content of the media – that shapes society” “…electronic technology is reshaping and reconstructing patterns of social interdependence and every aspect of our personal life.” ✔ combining resources to create hybrid media forms and consolidated content to better match the psychographics and media use habits of today’s consumer technical convergence content convergence ★ Convergence: combining technical resources to create hybrid media forms and consolidated content Collaborative Media – sharing information WEB 2.0 - blogging: opened cyberspace to professional and personal uses, creating entire communities of users, “my real printing press” Online newspapers and magazines new types of publishers social media ★ Hybrid Publications: frequently updated Web sites that contain opinion and commentary, news, artwork, video or other content developed by the person or entity producing the site. Usually solicits reader comment - Convergence and Social Networking: founded by Mark Zuckenburg in 2004 developed the prototype to help people in his father’s office communicate he began to market it to college campuses 750 million users, 139 monthly unique users - The Internet: Broadband vs. Internet Use January 2013 = 94% of U.S. citizens access the internet 30% of U.S. = left out of high speed 6% are left out of the web can’t access Journalism 2.0: the wed is dead? - 30% of internet traffic = related to traditional users - 70% of users is social networking + applications - traditional media companies must consider modern trends in computer- mediated communicated when designing products: mobile +social media ★ Digital Divide: most of the American population has access to the internet but we worry about those who do not - the first age of the internet was one-way passive audience (web 1.0) – second age, blogging (web 2.0) Collaborative Media, Sharing Info ★ Social News: consumers rate news stories; higher rated articles get prominent placement ★ Social Sharing: sites let consumers share videos, audio, photos or other content with others ★ Social Networking: users can link to people with similar interests or social contacts ★ Social Bookmarking: like minded users can share marked pages of the internet Marty Cooper = mobile media, invented first cell phone, “the Brick”, Motorola engineer - 4.6 billion cell phone users worldwide - 88% of Americans own a cell phone - 50% of cell phone users use it for quick retrieval info - 27% are “inconvenienced” without a phone - 31% use their phones more than the internet - 40% use their phone for emergencies - 42% use their phone for entertainment (texts, photos + web) - 29% of people shut off their phone “to get a break” - 13% of people have fake conversations (to avoid conflict) - frustrations: slow downloads, a small screen Microblogging: a whole new medium ✔ more adaptable to smaller platforms – is at greater reach ✔ immediate reporting, promotion + strategic communication o Twitter is the leader of micro messaging/blogging faster growing began on March 26,2006 140 character messages Problems: - the immediacy of it mean shortened news cycle - careless postings = rumors, need for instant damage control - bad publicity spreads fast = impossible damage control Applications: - apps: computer software designed for a specific purpose ★ Web 3.0: providing “smart” search options for users consumer provides search terms customized search content delivered UGC (User Generated Content): Web 3.0 thrives on content that is furnished by other users Pinterest: a pin-board photo-sharing website where users create and share themed content – hobbies, crafts, fashion, recipes 3 most popular site after Facebook and Twitter 21% of users have an account 20 million users = female (80%) Short Quiz: 1. Recording technology is created to which inventor ✗ Thomas Edison Alex Graham Bell – Thomas Edison 2. Thomas Edison’s recording were first made of what? ✗ tinfoil tinfoil, metal 3. following WWI the recording industry adopted which German invention? ✗ audio tape 33 rpm records – turntables – audio tape 4. which 1970 invention revolutionized the music industry? ✗ digital recording 45 rpm single – stereo – analog recording 5. which technology once was considered a threat to the music industry? ✗ all of the above radio, TV, streaming A Land Before Time: the pre-recording era ★ “Tin Pan Alley”: a nickname for America’s giant music publishing business - sheet music sales were aimed at instrument – playing consumers - popular songs were spread through live performances - primitive recordings available in 1920s Radio was Live: where are the records? Radio aired live music until after WWII o Poor audio quality (live sound sounded better) o Original government concerns: powerful musician unions Post WWII: a time of prosperity o American manufacturing booms after WWII American manufacturers gave 20% of the world’s GNP (Gross National Product) - Bulge in work force - Plenty of jobs - Leisure tie exists - Economic boom last 20 year o Technical change: evolution of recording - consumers had money and time after the war due to prosperity - home entertainment systems - vinyl albums (331/3 rpms) (rpms – rotates that many times in a minute) - vinyl singles (45 rpms) - radio loses objections to playing records - electromagnetic recording produces superior sound - FCC relaxes restrictions on recorded music - Musicians realize radio airplay = advantage - 45 rpm single dominated - stations increase profits with DJ’s 1950s America Society vs. Rock and Roll open racism and segregation = alive in 1950s the “Cold War” was in full swing spending money = American way the woman’s place = the home at that time there was open gender discrimination in the job market conservatism was an American value Culture of Music: 1950s Social Explosion 1. Youth Culture Cars, teens, denim, leather dawn of the social unrest in America 2. Popular Music Black rhythm, blues, white popular music, country, western, jazz, folk music 3. DJ Alan Freed Called it ROCK and Roll Recording and Music - Acoustic recording discovered by Thomas Edison in the 1800s electromagnetic methods = 1940s - Radio stations preferred live music for technical and legal reasons - Rock and roll was a mixture of several types of music - Post WWII = major fueling factor of consumer spending habits home entertainment thrived - Young Americans began to identify with the culture of rock music as they became more socially wanted Culture of Music Les Paul – jazz guitarist and inventor - Uses electronic amplification and compact design: “solid body” guitar Rock and Roll - Based on the text of the song more than format - A blend of standard and electronic instruments, conventional, harmonies, electronic amplification - Reactions: society flips – the perception changed Lyrics: social commentary in music - Wartime: songs express sentiment, patriotism, faith in go - Blues Music describes the hard times of African Americans in the rural south after slavery - Folk Music represents the rural life and became a form of protest music in the 1930s-1960s - Rock Music represents teenage problems: love frustration, angst Brill Buildings: 50s and 60s Teen Ballads -“Wall of Sound” – over dubbing voice and instrumental tracks to make a fuller sound ★ The Beatles - innovative vocal harmony the harmonica as a new rock instrument others followed Pass the Cigarette: 1960s rock transitions - sub genres become the roots of today’s rock genre - drugs came into play Socially Aware: Folk Music and Protest - Woody Guthrie this land is your land (a song of protest) Modern Country Roots: Nashville Sound - the “twang” didn’t survive the Beatles - Chet Atkins and Owen Bradley: strings percussion, background singers, less twangy - Patsy Cline – 1932-1963, Nashville sound - Loretta Lynn – started singing about female discrimination before rock music - she published Feminine Mystique (1963) RECAP: Recording and Music: what we’ve learned - rock music evolved from music that was indigenous to various regional cultures: country, blues, jazz, western swing - rock and roll took advantage of the home entertainment craze, fueled by a healthy consumer economy, radio airplay and youth rebellion - rock music because the monster of the entertainment industry. Hit songs were written, recorded, released and played in just a matter of days, the 45 rom record became the most popular - Rock became more sophisticated as improvements to instrument and production technology changed. Societal change in the 1960s ad 1970s produced genre variations that started a music fragmentation trend - rock music lost its innocence as did the artists that wrote it - rock music threatened the livelihood of county artists. Nashville abandoned the “twang” and developed performers and production techniques that sounded like rock Women’s Liberation hits country music Loretta Lynns’ war on male domination - Betty Friendan publishes the Feminine Mystique in 1963 - Music takes on new feminist themes and issues - Wimmin’ fightin’ back 1960s Motown: Black America’s turn - Motown label by Berry Gordi Jr. - allowed black artists to record - Jerry Wexler: 1917-2008 - Graduated form K-State with a journalism degree in 1946 - Became a write for Billboard magazine…interested din black jazz music: “rhythm and blues” - Became vice president and producer for Atlantic Records in the 1950s. began signing black artists: Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles - Brought black music into the mainstream - 1987: inducted into Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Alternatives: Fighting the mainstream In the 1970s and 1980s, consumers began to rebel at rock music 1. rock as “too serious” 2. rock was too commercialized 3. rock was “too white” and too established orientated Commercialization: Music artists and “the man” - artists to audience – entrepreneur (money) – bug companies convince artists to sign them and they have to change their style - most music types have evolved as a protest of existing genres and under-representation of minority groups - Disco – rock is too serious; gay, black, Hispanic immunities - Punk Rock/ New Wave – protesting commercialization of rock music - Grunge Rock – still protesting commercialization and the mainstream. Hip Hop: fighting the mainstream - grew from American urban cultures, represented by rhythmic lyrics and vocal style - Rap: vocal rhythmic improvisation and lyrics, grew from African American and Latin American cultures History: Before The Radio, There was the Telegraph History: Tesla is sending sparks - Nikola Tesla - Guglieloma Marconi transmits radio waves (he took Tesla’s invention of transmitting signals) he gets credit for radio He wanted to see how far he could send signals - radio talks: Reginald Fessenden – Christmas Eve 1906 ★ Alexander Graham Bell created the phone he meant to create a hearing device for the deaf K-State History: o Station 9YV: sends weather in Morse code from the K-State physics department in 1915 o WTG: physics department experiments with voice in 1922 o 1923: operations move to KFKB o 1924: state KSAC goes on the air, Division of Extension takes over radio mission o 2002: station KKSU signs off for the last time Radio Becomes a Mass Medium 1. Development of improved receives -17 million radios sold between 1925 - 1930 2. Radio goes commercial 3. The emergence of networks 4. The government steps in to regulate - the Radio Act of 1927 creates the Federal Radio Commission 5. Innovation and change, 1945 – 1954 - Television begins to kill radio: radio looks for new formula Radio Begins Targeting Audiences R. Todd Storz - experiments with limited playlists - targets teenagers Gordon McLendon – KLIF, Dallas - launches Top 40 format on KLIF in Dallas - adds exciting DJs, jingles, contests and promotion - develops formats for other targeted audiences (all news, beautiful music, ethnic) The “Static Free” box: Armstrong and FM o initial lack of listeners; AM radio dominates o FM Stereo approved by the FCC in 1961 o FM is manufactured for portability; installed in automobiles o New audience: young people like listening to FM’s cleaner sound Measuring Radio Audiences: Arbitron Arbitron: Radio’s audience measurement firm - Cume rating: percentage of all listeners - AQH (Average Quarter Hour): percentage of listeners who stay tuned for 15 minutes or more Radio’s New Technology o Satellite Radio – listeners tend to be commuters who drive long distances, heavy radio listeners and TV watchers o Pandora – could be disastrous for broadcast radio o Spotify – give you total control, grew by 458% in a year, globally streaming grew 40% Radio and the “Promised Gland”: The Story of John Brinkley and KFKB Radio KNOW ALL OF THE RIGHTS COVERED BY THE FIRST AMENDMENT Government takes control of radio o An industry of chaos - excessive interference - broadcasters ask government for control - Hoover: radio is pervasive (intruding ), airwaves belong to the public, frequencies are a scarce commodity - persons who operate stations: broadcast in the “public interest Congress’ Response: Radio Act of 1927 o Establishes Federal Radio Commission o FRC: “grant, renew, revoke broadcast licenses” o FRC: authority to establish channels on which stations operate and to control interference o Establishes basic regulator philosophies - frequency spectrum belongs to public - broadcaster do not own the frequency upon which they operate - licenses: How will you serve the public interest? - Government will not censor programming - But broadcasters shall uphold a provision of the U.S. Criminal Code: “whosever utters any obscene, indecent or profane language shall be fined or imprisoned or both” Dr. Brinkley: 1927 Act gets its first test o Dr. John R. Brinkley - KFKB, Milford, Kansas - Establishes medical practice in Milford in 1917 - Becomes famous for his “goat gland” operation - Applies for a broadcast license in 1923 - KFKB (Kansas First, Kansas Best) goes on the air - Brinkley promotes operation on radio - Launches his “Medical Question Box” - KFKB broadcasts community oriented programming including college classes - Applies for power increase in 1927; KFKB favored over WDAF in Kansas City - Kansas City Star launches an investigation of Binkley’s medical practices - AMA and Kansas Board of Medical Examiners begin investigation - Brinkley loses medical license in 1931 - Advertising goat gland operation was “obscene” - Brinkley used broadcast facility as a personal mouthpiece - Character of licensee brought into question - Brinkley says: FRD action prior to restraint (censorship); challenges FRC in U.S. Court of Appeals Federal Court Appeals: The FRC is right - First judicial affirmation of government right to use past programming performance as criteria in license renewal - Established programming and character of licensee - Denial of license renewal is not prior restraint Dr. Brinkley: an interesting legacy - Brinkley established a model for good community service programming (aside from his quackery) - Launched the idea of using radio as an educational tool by offering college classes on the air - Kansas State Agricultural College realizes the value of radio ad launched radio station KSAC (later know as KKSU 580 AM) in 1924 (station’s frequency sold to WIBW-AM in Topeka in November 2002) Mass Communication in Society Umberger 100 Steve Smethers MWF 11:30am – 12:20pm ▯ UNIT 2 ▯ ▯ Quiz 2 ▯ October 9 11:30am – October 10 11:59pm ▯ Chapters 5 and 7 ▯ ▯ Exam 2 th ▯ October 18 ▯ Ch. 5 & 7 ▯ Community ▯ Guest Speakers: ▯ Brian Smolder ▯ ▯ ▯ Extra help at Hale Library ▯ Tuesdays and Thursdays THE BASICS OF TELEVISION PROGRAMMING History: Early TV Experiments o Big industry leaders such as RCA experimented with electronic scanning and picture transmission in the 1920s o Would take electrostatic energy to create a picture o Original consumer TV sets had a very small screen that you had to look into to see the picture o First TV set looked like a radio set o 1940s = TV’s began to look like personal TV’s Bringing TV to the High Plains o the arrival of TV in Nebraska o Became a competition of two stations: WOW-TV and KMA-TV (were both previously radio stations) o WOW Radio – turn on Omaha Jonny Gilman wanted to create a TV show – predicted it five years ahead of its time Was the first to get transmission on the air o KMA (Keep Millions Advised) Radio – the Earl May seed company KM-TV (channel 4) was second to start – September 1, 1949 o Lincoln Stations: KOLN-TV they bought out the Nebraska stations and created a monopoly – created a 1,000 foot high “pole” to create a signal for more viewers o Kinescope – 16 mm camera, shining it on screen, bouncing off camera o WOW-TV (channel 6) – the lunch break (starting at noon) was the busiest time of day for people to be watching – August 29, 1949 Johnny Carson was the new face because he was a young comedian who was comfortable on screen – was comfortable in people’s living rooms he had his own ideas and people liked him Martha Bohlsen – first woman on the air o women were a target audience because they were home all day and would be cooking home made meals – could sell to them o She hosted cooking shows on all three of the stations in Omaha RECAP o TV attracts radio stars o There is no formula for TV shows; program types are experimental o Affluent, sophisticated audiences buy first TV receivers o Initial TV station owners were mostly newspaper, radio stations o Networks finally took over once interconnection was possible Television: the New Digital Landscape o 1,382 commercial stations o 392 non-commercial stations o Two types of digital transmission: HDTV (high definition) and SDTV (standard definition) (multiple channels) o Picture resolution: up to 19 megabits per second o Digital Terrestrial (DTT) or cable/satellite distribution o A Better Picture Analog: 535 lines per frame, 30 frames per second Digital: 1080 lines per frame, 60 frames per second o The only color you can’t reproduce on television is purple because purple is exactly 50% red and 50% blue it can’t discern ▯ TV Industry: Programming basics o Three programming sources: Local Production Syndicated programming o Defined as: shows that have been on the network and are proven hits (Friends, Everybody Loves Raymond) or shows like Wheel of Fortune that have been done and redone Network programs ▯ Economics of the TV business ▯ REVENUE o Commercial time scales to national, national spot, and local advertisers o Revenue for 2012: $62,700,000 EXPENSES o Programming is the biggest expense Organization of the Television Industry Commercial vs. Noncommercial (public) Markets (Designated Market Area) th o Manhattan is in the Topeka DMA, the nations 136 largest market ▯ Network Affiliates, Independents ▯ ▯ Economics: The product for sale ▯ Prime Time: most TV viewing occurs between 7-10pm Next best times: 5-7pm and 10-10:30pm ▯ ▯ ▯ RECAP: o All 3,00 countries in the U.S. are divided into Designated Market Areas (DMA) o DMAs help advertisers make marketing decision, and markets with larger numbers of TV homes can changes higher national rates o Counting audience members is getting increasingly difficult Audience Measurement: who’s number one? o Sports: ESPN o Syndicated: Judge Judy o Nielsen company takes ratings o ratings: percentage among all TV homes - the estimated percent of all TV households tuned to a specific station. The rating measures popularity among potential audience - in order to find: number of households tuned into the station divided by the total number of households o share: the percentage among sets in use (don’t count the houses where people aren’t home) - the estimated percent of households using television tuned into a specific station. The share measures popularity among homes with sets in use. - in order to find: number of households tuned into the station divided by the total number of households with people home Feedback: how we measure audiences o Personal Diaries: measuring viewing in smaller markets o Audimeters or people meters: attaching a meter in the set (to track channels being watched) Diversions: the Web is golden o Internet ad revenue up to $17 billion o Mobile media ad revenue up by 95% to $1.2 billion o Digital video ad revenue up to $1 billion o Search revenue up to $8.1 billion o Display ad revenue up to $5.6 billion o Hulu revenue in 2012: $695 million o Netflix revenue in 2012: $436 million “Three screen” plan: Nielsen’s “A2/M2” A2/M2 (“Anytime Anywhere Media Measurement”): the A.C. Nielsen Company develops strategy to accommodate modern viewing online, on TV or on a mobile media Looking at the Future: Will TV Survive? ▯ Our story begins: TV signals limitations Cable Television o Emerged as a way to overcome “dark spots” in TV station coverage (Robert Tarlton, 1948, Landfor, PA) o Satellite transmission enables cable-only program services (WTBS “super station.” CNN, weather channel 1972: pay television debuts as HBO begins operation Today 85% of U.S. homes have access to cable TV ▯ CABLE TV CREATES COMPETITION LOCAL o Organization o Broadcast TV stations (must carry) o Superstations o Special cable networks o Pay services o Pay per view NATIONAL o Original production o Movies o Syndicated programs ▯ Income: getting richer in the cable business LOCAL systems o Subscription fees o Local advertising CABLE channels o Advertising o Carriage fees o Subscription DIVERSIONS: Direct Broadcast Satellites (DBS) Advantages: o More channels o Low equipment o Less expensive on a cost-per-channel basis People under the age of 45 are less likely to subscribe to cable TV DIVERSIONS: Remote Control o Advertiser concerns: Zapping commercials Zipping by commercials Grazing with remote control DIVERSIONS: Time Shifting Through DVR o AC Nielson 2012: 43.3% of American homes have (DVR) o Households watch an average of 11 hours of Time shifted programs per month: highest adults 29-49 DVRs are killing conventional TV advertising! o DVR owners spend 60% of their time watching recorded delayed programs o 90% of people skip commercials o 3 out of 10 watch no commercials AT ALL DIVERSIONS: Streaming TV o Computer mediated video and programming have made available via personal media platforms have greatly eroded televisions one-loyal mass audience o There is not enough money profitable support video consumes on the other media sources The future is now: what this all leads to o The merger of the computer and the TV set ▯ How we watch “television” today Mobile: o 298 million smart phones were sold last year, each wth video capability, representing 70 % growth in mobile video o Hulu, Netflix and YouTube streamed video to PCs A.C. Neilson (August 2012) Hulu 658.6 billion streams, 2 million unique viewers Netflix 383.5 billion streams YouTube 17 billion streams, 138million unique visitors Social Networking Video: o Facebook social media clips: Viewership increases 467 billion page views in 2011 Streamers o External devices attach to TV sceen to allo w us to stream any source we want (“Beamers” such as Apple TV, Google, Chromecast; streaming devices from Roku) Streaming TV Platforms o Internet connected TV sets from Sony, Samsung and others o Google TV is a new streaming platform ▯ How TV Fares: splitting the audience 33% have satellite subscriptions: 52% have cable over-air reception is only 9% 47% have DVR 75% have a HD-capable TV 56% play video console games 25% of broadband connected households own a Smart TV ▯ Economics: Impact of “New Media” U.S. advertising spending total: $238.6 Billion in 20122 Online growth: $59.1 Billion ▯ ▯ Guest Speaker: K-State HDTV it is a digital network broadcast live for K-State athletic events, classic games, games replays, press conferences, original programing and on-campus performances and/or lecture gives us World Wide exposure for our athletics and the university it works with three full time staff members with hands on experience ranked number 1 among CBS College Sports for school specific network subscriptions produced over 700 video elements, 650 hours of content in 9 months now partnered with Fox k-state.edu/tv ▯ ▯ Chapter 7: Newspaper and Their Social Impact (pgs. 219 – 253) ▯ History: Printing before Mechanization You used to have to go letter by letter with a large “machine” with metal keys had to do it by hand Inking type setting up paper applying paper ▯ History: Penny Press (mass circulation) People who read newspapers were the elite It would cost a lot of money back then for people to purchase Steam power was allowing us to set up a faster way of printing the news Could now produce in mass quantities turned into having a daily newspaper New York Sun launches by printer Benjamin Day 1833 o First mass produced newspaper o Lowered price to one penny per copy (instead of subscription sales) o Everyone could afford it now o ▯ (pgs. 219 – 253) ▯ History: Printing before Mechanization You used to have to go letter by letter with a large “machine” with metal keys had to do it by hand Inking type setting up paper applying paper ▯ History: Penny Press (mass circulation) People who read newspapers were the elite It would cost a lot of money back then for people to purchase Steam power was allowing us to set up a faster way of printing the news Could now produce in mass quantities turned into having a daily newspaper ▯ New York Sun launches by printer Benjamin Day 1833 First mass produced newspaper Lowered price to one penny per copy (instead of subscription sales) Everyone could afford it now Increased literacy, rising middle class, improved printing New definition of news: focus on middle class, not elite People were more interested in what was going on in the newspaper ▯ History: Mass appeal thru sensationalism Overstatement of fact Emphasis on undue aspects Introduction of bias Association of subject with irrelevant issues Frivolous treatment of story Over-produced (screaming headlines, graphics) ▯ History: How to appeal to the masses? Approach #2: balanced, factual reporting o Emphasis on facts o Objectivity: attempt to report all sides of the story o Thorough coverage ▯ History: Journalism arrives in the plains Newspapers were an important part of community identification and engagement o Sometimes handwritten o Contained the minutia of news o Provided a sense of community and issues ▯ New Boston: A sand bar changes history a section of Riley County was called New Boston for a short period of time new settlers came after being stuck in a sand bar they decided to settle there but changed the name to Manhattan Bluemont o Established 1858 by abolitionists such as a Methodist college o 1861: Kansas becomes a state; Bluemont offered to be the new state’s university o Bluemont college – a secondary education center o It was an established school o 1861: vetoed by Governor Charles Robinson of Lawrence KSU: A tradition of journalism education o Bluemont College: printing curriculum o Kansas State Agricultural College: printing as a major o When Abraham Lincoln came into office: he required universities to have an agricultural program K-State became the agricultural college o 1910: President Henry Waters hires Charles Dillon of the Kansas City Star to create a major in “industrial journalism” o journalism studies along with home economics, agriculture and engineering founding of K-State was built on community Another note about K-State’s legacy o First student newspaper: The Student’s’ Herald (1896) o Later known as The Kansas Aggie and its current name The Collegian o First yearbook: 1891; the Royal Purple is founded in 1909 ▯ Kansas journalists William Allen White Publisher, EMPORIA GAZETTE 1868-1944 o Author: What’s the Matter with Kansas, Masks in the Pageant o Politician-Political Consultant o Pulitzer prize winner Alexander Quintella Miller Publisher, The Belleville Telescope 1874 – 1959 o Political activism: Chairman, Kansas Board of Corrections Executive Clerk, U.S. Senate Public Works Administration o Regional civic leader: advocate for U.S. 81 and U.S. 36 highways McDill “HUCK” Boyd Publisher, PHILLIPS COUNTY REVIEW 1907 – 1987 o Political Leader: Republican National Committeeman, Two- time candidate for governor, Member Kansas Board of Regents ▯ Newspapers: What We’ve Learned. The New York Sun was a penny press paper that set the business model for today’s mass circulation publications Newspapers were considered a unifying force in America’s westward expansion…the glue that held communities together As the profession grew, we needed journalism schools to teach evolving industry standards K-State’s forerunner, Blue Mont College, established printing classes in 1860, which led to a printing major at K-State Printing and newspapers were instrumental in building the state of Kansas Newspapers have been the lifeblood of rural Kansa. Great newspaper publishers – William Allen White. A.Q. Miller, Huck Boyd and others – held important leadership roles in their computer Newspapers help establish the political and civic agenda for a community by advocating causes. Without newspapers, what will hold out community together? if the newspaper goes out of business, ▯ COMMUNITY JOURNALISM newspaper helps establish the political and civic agenda for a community by advocating causes newspaper may have extremely media define their market and community media reflect and define local issues: proximity, conflict, impact, destruction, timeliness and novelty media tell the story: who, what, where, when, how and why media promote a positive community atmosphere Types of Newspapers DAILIES o National o Metropolitan o Suburban o Small-Town WEEKLIES o Suburban o Small-Town ▯ Newspaper Sales and Distribution Price per copy or subscriptions Free circulation ▯ Economics of he Newspaper Business Advertising Revenue o National – 5% o Local – 50% o Classified – 40% (craigslist has taken over this) no need to buy an ad to sell something if you can go online and do it for free o Preprinted – 5% - inserts Circulation Revenue Expenses o Editorial o Sales o Mechanical o Printing o Distribution Problem with Newspapers is that it is getting more and more expensive over the years price of ink + paper + cost of maintaining a printing press + staff salaries ▯ Problems: Declining Circulation Changing demographics, psychographics it’s not that we don’t read the newspaper, it’s that we have a lot of other options in how we get our news (see third bullet) Retail consolidation and growth of major retailers Growth of other information sources, including social media and online journalism On-line competition for readership and want-ads (craigslist) Steady circulation is declining ▯ New Digs: Platforms for News Distribution Online newspapers Open source journalism Mobile media Electronic tablets Streaming opportunities ▯ ▯ COSMIC COCKTAIL PARTY ▯ Lawrence Journal World ▯ ▯ NEWSPAPERS IS WHAT HOLDS COMMUNITIES TOGETHER!! ▯ ▯ RECAP: What’s wrong with the newspaper business o Needs to find new ways to distribute o Needs to find new ways market the audience Digital technology has ushered in the age of news convergence, where news organizations can trade stories, video, photo, audio and graphic content Convergence was pioneered in a handful of markets nationwide, one of them being in Lawrence at the Journal World ▯ ▯ Experimenting: What convergence means ▯ Dolph Simons III ▯ World Publishing Company ▯ Better coverage? A convergence example ▯ Citizen’s journalism: Cheap content Citizen’s (participatory) journalism o A form of “grassroots” community journalism where readers provide content to digital publications o A way to converge mobile media with digital publishing software to cheaply increase local information content o Made possible through “open source” or “blogging” software Anyone can be a contributor or “reporter” Community members can submit stories, photos, essays or other content ▯ History: Newspaper and online delivery first people to see internet = Newspaper last people to go onto online publishing = Newspaper interactive features for readers and advertisers an attempt to lure younger audiences a way to fight back at eBay and other want-ad services ▯ History: Newspapers miss the online boat Taking online seriously Giving it all away Scooping ourselves Shovel Ware = shoveling all of the stuff from one platform to another you need to give people another reason to read the online newspaper the “Dragon in the Basement” making money with online editions 40% of Kansas newspapers don’t publish online counterparts online newspapers helps people stay engaged ▯ Experimenting: saving the newspaper Generation Gap: will it play in Hesston o Older readers (people 55+) are used to the paper product o Technophobia: older demographics tend to shy away from anything more complicated than online browsing If you don’t know how to use it, your less likely to even try o Elder hostile: web sites have smaller print and advances linking that older people find confusing Smaller font – old people = old eyes ▯ Crowd Sourcing: Publishing on Facebook? ▯ Mobile Media: Alternative news delivery 46% of Americans who can primarily get their news online at least three times per week 71% of Americans who now have access to high speed internet service in their homes 83% of Americans who have cell phones use and report accessing information through “smart phones” ▯ Newspaper apps: publishing on cell phones ▯ idea: electronic tablets the answer? Lightweight, portable, “paper like” 2012: 19% of U.S. adults own a tablet computer, 19% own an eBook 2012: iPad ownership: 55 million ▯ Greenburg’s communication revolution TELEVSION AND NEWSPAPER END IN STREMING ▯ ▯ GUEST SPEAKER ▯ Grant Neuhold ▯ Video Production, Broadcast Journalism Rely on volunteer work to run the Media Center Greensburg 875 population, small community There was a tornado that destroyed the town of Greensburg They are able to produce sports (all but tennis), video production projects (reconstruction projects, a debate) Open Source Journalism: (people want videos and stories to be covered, yet when you suggest that they can check out a camera and they’ll teach them how to edit, they’re less eager) Background of people who help Grant: main man: Chase Hardener (technical director/ construction manager during the day), Spanish teacher, sound man, camera man (varies, students eighth grade- senior) In a transition in video Video production is as close as you can get with being face to face with someone without being in communication, it’s huge Older audiences are learning how to stream and take advantage of new technological advances Bringing small town America into the bigger communications hub The community didn’t have a TV or radio Mass Communication in Society Umberger 100 Steve Smethers MWF 11:30am – 12:20pm ▯ ▯ UNIT 3 ▯ ▯ Quiz #3 ▯ Wednesday 12:30 pm – Thursday 11:59 am ▯ Chapters 6, 10 11 ▯ All Lecture Notes ▯ All Class Speakers ▯ ▯ Test #3 Friday, November 15 11:30 am ▯ History: The Top Five Ad Icons of All Time 1. The Marlerburl Man 2. McDonald 3. The Green Giant 4. Betty Crocker 5. The Energizer Bunny ▯ Branding: The Image of products ▯ A brand is the visual, emotional, rational and cultural mage that you associate with a company or a products. ▯ The Message: Rational or Emotional? ▯ Rational: appealing to common sense Quality Price Use ▯ Emotional: appealing to our desires Everything but the rational view ▯ Definition: Advertising vs. other messages Advertising is any form of non-personal (mediated) presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services usually paid for by an identified sponsor ▯ Guest Speaker: Matt Musil ▯ Weekend sports anchor ▯ KHOU-TV, Houston ▯ 1974 graduate A.Q. Miller School of Journalism and Mass Communications covers the Chiefs game on channel 11 Has to check ratings every morning and frequently Tweets 10-15 times a day and every other play during games People in the news market are always working ▯ ▯ Guest Speaker: Steve Physioc ▯ Voice of the Kansas City Royals ▯ 1976 A.Q. Miller School Alum ▯ Lecture Title: Great Plains Radio History Broadcasted for 100 hours straight Did play by play for JV basketball games his sophomore year at K- State Worked for Hastings doing everything Worked for K-State then doing a lot of different things (voice of Wildcats) Huge break at: WLWT – doing play by play and other o Offered a contract to do the sports ▯ Letting Things Happen Was able to come back to the Midwest and work for the Royals He owes everything he has because of K-State o Found out what he did and didn’t want to do Worried about the future of broadcasting o News used to be unbiased and people could think for themselves o Last 10-15 years has changed dramatically o Ratings and money drive everything o ▯ Public Relations RECAP Public relations involves building relationships between a client and the public, managing public opinion about that client Public Relations practitioners are first good communicators who understand marketing, persuasion, research and communicating across cultures Public Relations practitioners have the power to shape media news agendas and even change social habits The goal is always receive favorable publicity for clients and to create awareness and positive public opinion about clients (not advertising) ▯ Fast Growth: Why do we need Public Relations? ▯ - Big business attracts scrutiny ▯ - Consumerism: popular news beat (want to make the company look good) ▯ - Internet/ social media problems (if you have a social media problem, you call a public relations agencies who understands it and will fix it) ▯ - Complexity of business and government - Any organization in the public eye needs public opinion research and constant positive media exposure - Public relations creates awareness and molds the public image EXAMPLE: o Safety First: Creating car seat awareness Car crashes are the #1 killer of kids Improperly installed car seats Saftey1st launches awareness campaign, holds event at Indy 500: offers free inspections They found 30 improperly installed seats, campaign gets national attention on CNN NO ADVERTISING, ALL PUBLICITY CAMPAIGN o Can-It-Forward: New generations of canners Home canning of fruits and vegetables is a loss art. Ball launches a national awareness campaign “National Can-It-Forward” day in NYC with public canning demonstration Used bloggers; promoted local neighborhood canning parties One billion media impressions ▯ The industry: Where PR is needed Internal or external relations Business Government/ politics Health care industry Nonprofit organizations Professional associations Entertainment and sports International relations Risk communication Crisis management ▯ Public Relations: A Four-Step Process 1. Research We need to make sure that when making campaigns that we are coming from good data ▯ 2. Planning coming up with the basis of the campaign, basic strategies ▯ 3. Implementation actually doing the campaign ▯ 4. Evaluation thru follow-up research make sure you were successful with your campaign know the market by constantly researching ▯ How Do PR Practitioners Make Money? ▯ 1. a fixed fee for specific project ▯ 2. hourly rate for time spent on various projects ▯ 3. special fees for service and materials ▯ ▯ ▯ Celluloid: Goodman or Eastman Hannibal Goodwin o Invents the celluloid film that makes the long continuous reel of film possible in 1889 George Eastman o Tried to steal Goodwin’s invention ▯ The amazing Mr. Edison and Mr. Dickson Thomas Edison o First practical motion picture camera and viewing device (U.S.) (the French did it first) William Dickson o Continuous loop of film fed by sprockets in a camera ▯ Kinetoscope parlors: the first theaters processed film would go on the kinetoscope, viewing device on top Holland Brothers open first parlor in 1894 People would come and pay a quarter to watch 5 short movies ▯ Edison’s Projector: The Vitascope Vitascope 1896 Projectoscope 1897 Projecting Kinetoscope 1901 Film projection is now possible First used at Koster & Bailes Music Hall, New York 1896 ▯ The Nickelodeans Combination od projection and coin-operated machines An afternoon of entertainment for a nickel Popular with people in lower economic classes Movies considered to be “low culture” –stigma against film actors Edwin S. Porter: Creates the film narrative Life of an American Fireman (1902) The Great Train Robbery o Horrible acting o No close up shots D.W. Griffith: Full-length features does something completely new took what had been a short story medium and creates a long story narrative The Birth of A Nation He understood the flaws in the business o Decided he needed to train actors o He recruited people and created the first movie stars o Mary Pickford o Lillian Gish Warner Brothers and “The Jazz Singer” o End of some actor’s and musician careers because they couldn’t sing and act o Higher production costs: Audio Specialists (the one who understood how to film well) o The audience experience changed the music added suspense, sound effects, ▯ The Studio System Years: 1920 – 1950 MGM; 20 Century Fox; RKO; Warner Brothers; Paramount; Universal; Columbia. Big Studios control all aspects of production and distribution Trademarks: Musical extravaganzas, situation comedies o Favorites: Gone With The Wind, Wizard of Oz, etc ▯ Television: Film’s potential death blow Fight to retain audiences Refusal to advertise films on TV Refusal of Hollywood to release old films on TV because they thought it would destroy the movie industry Film stars weren’t allowed to appear on TV thought it would give more publicity to TV and less to movies Audience Lures o 3D o spectacle films o musicals o adult-oriented films ▯ Realignments: Film in the 60s and 70s Major studios began losing influence Closer alliance with TV Upward trends in the 70s o Rising profits o Higher budget films o Blockbusters o Highly successful small budget films o Increased use of market research o The rating system (people were afraid Hollywood was going to get too promiscuous) Alternative voices: Independent films Night of the Living Dead (1968) Two-thirds of all movies…. ▯ The movie theater: Community palaces Great Bend Caldwell Brown Grand Opera House Concordia Theater business: How to make money? Nationwide, movie attendance is in a 16 year slump o The movie – going experience o The quality of movies rising prices, bad economy o Technology: big screen, TVs, Netflix ▯ AMC’s big idea: Dinner and a movie Cinepolis Risk Communication: Examples “The terror threat is ORANGE.” “Eat foods that are high in fiber…” “The National Weather Service in Topeka has issued a TORNADO WARNING for Riley County and the City of Manhattan…” “Riley County police will have a DUI checkpoints on Kimball after the game…” ▯ Risk Communication: A definition ▯ Communicating about existing and potential physical hazards through strategic communication messages using interpersonal and mediated methods Public relations Advertising Journalism ▯ Risk Communication and media Risk Communication is usually a function of public relations Messages are usually short, simple and direct…always honest, clear and unambiguous ▯ Crisis Communication: Defined ▯ Definition of a Crisis: Any situation that is threatening or could threaten to harm people or property, seriously interrupt nosiness, damage reputation and/or negatively impact share value ▯ Definition of Crisis Communication Communication following a crisis that seeks to calm the public, whether they are direct stakeholders or member of a general audience affected by an unexpected situation ▯ Communication: Avoiding total chaos ▯ CRISIS (weather, terror, health issues) Heightened public emotions Limited access to facts Rumor, gossip, speculation, assumptions, inference 24-7 news cycle and social media ▯ = an unstable information environment (and chaos) ▯ ▯ Risk/ Crisis Communication and message The public is a partner: work to dispel bad information and rumor Empathize with fears, do not dwell on possible tragedy Be honest and open. Do not lose credibility. Never say “no comment.” You can say “I don’t know” Work with credible sources Meet the needs of the media (deadlines, graphics, video) ▯ Risk/ Crisis Comm: What we’ve learned Risk communication: communicating about potential physical hazards through strategic communication messages using interpersonal and mediated methods Crisis Communication: post-crisis communication to calm the public, whether they are direct stakeholders or members of a general audience affected by an unexpected disaster Any crisis-disaster or business related-is worsened without communication. Rumors, innuendos and speculation can be damaging and even deadly ▯ ▯ Dr. Joye Gordan ▯ Associate Professor of Public Relations ▯ The A.Q. Miller School of Journalism and Mass Communications Researchers effectiveness of risk ▯ ▯ A Social Inequity Disaster ▯ (How social variable contributed to nonevacuation prior to Hurricane Katrina) Geographic vulnerability (on a fault line, etc.) Human use vulnerability (man made levis and other stuff) Social vulnerability o Vulnerability of populations is a function of the social systems and context in which people live o Impacts ability to prepare, respond and recover from disasters Sociocultural variables? o Income o Number of persons per household o Level of education o Available transportation o Past travel behavior o Financial resources o Political resources o Political power o Ability to navigate bureaucracy o Victim mentality/ fatalism o Ethnicity ▯ 1. Ethnicity ▯ 2. Education ▯ 3. Income ▯ (proxy variables) ▯ FINDINGS: Based on these three factors, the higher they were, the more likely they were to evacuate Past travel behavior was a huge factor on weather they left (if you had never left the state or gone on vacation) For the region, whites were close to twice as likely to indicate they had traveled “a lot” or some VS. 38% of African Americans said they traveled “very little” ▯ Implications Social vulnerability effects are magnified as the gap between marginalized and elite population widens ▯ ▯ New Orleans didn’t directly get hit by the storm, the levis broke and flooded the city, and they got some of the out skirts of the storm ▯ ▯ POINTS FROM THE LECTURE: o Advertising messages are based on either rational or emotional appeals. ▯ Rational ads appeal to your common sense; emotional ads play upon your ▯ wants and desires. ▯ o Advertising is any form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ▯ ideas, goods, and services usually paid for by an identified sponsor. ▯ o There are usually two types of advertisers: national (companies that have ▯ a national market and thus appeal to a nationwide audience) and ▯ local/retail. Increasingly, we see some products being marketed on an ▯ international basis. ▯ o Advertising performs four functions: 1) it is the communication for ▯ marketing campaigns; 2) it provides an educational function to affect ▯ consumer habits; 3) it keeps our economy moving and 4) advertising helps ▯ socialize us. ▯ o There are three main audiences: consumer, business-to-business and ▯ business-to-government. ▯ o Campaigns may be based on creating a primary demand for a product or ▯ for specific products, goods and services. For example: “Got Milk” is a ▯ primary campaign aimed at promoting milk consumption, while various ▯ firms such as Kraft or Meadow Gold may have their own campaigns to ▯ promote their brands. ▯ o Forms of advertising can be any of the traditional media (newspapers, ▯ magazines, radio, TV) but other types have also been available, including ▯ advertising specialties, billboards, transit (busses, planes, trains) and ▯ directory (Yellow Pages). ▯ o All advertising campaigns begin with choosing the demographics to which ▯ a message will be directed. Then, the creator of the ad will select the ▯ main appeal or theme, translate that theme into various types of ads, ▯ produce the ads, then buy the space or time. At the end of the campaign, ▯ the effectiveness of the ad is assessed. Advertising agencies have been ▯ built around providing these services. ▯ o Research plays a key role in advertising and public relations. Campaigns ▯ begin with formative research that helps creators develop concepts for ▯ ads. Message research involves testing the ad concepts among ▯ consumers. Tracking involves evaluation of the ad’s effectiveness. ▯ o There are four goals for advertising effectiveness: reach (how many ▯ people are exposed to the ad); frequency (how many times that exposure ▯ occurs); selectivity (how well a medium delivers the target audience) and ▯ cost (measured by an efficiency estimate called cost per thousand). ▯ o The internet has revolutionized advertising, which is highlighted by the ▯ Web’s main advantage: search functions. Such technology allows ▯ marketers to talk to customers on a one-to-one basis, touch their ▯ psychological makeup and target by location. These functions are aided ▯ by “cookies.” ▯ ▯ ▯ POINTS FROM LECTURE: o Public Relations involves researching public opinion on behalf of a client. o Public relations strategists are first good communicators able to develop ▯ strategy. ▯ o Public relations involves building relationships between clients and publics. o Public relations is actually a function of management, not marketing. ▯ o PR involves four steps: research, planning, implementation and ▯ evaluation. ▯ o There are two basic PR strategies. REACTIVE strategies attempt to ▯ control for negative publicity that could damage corporate or personal ▯ reputations, while PROACTIVE strategies attempt to establish and ▯ maintain goodwill for a client through philanthropy, positive events, etc. ▯ o Public relations attempts to get free exposure through the basic news ▯ media on behalf of a client, while advertising is paid for. Whereas a ▯ advertising agency appeals directly to consumers, the audience for a PR ▯ practitioner is really only editors and news directors. ▯ o Notable names in PR include Ivy Ledbetter Lee, who made his career and ▯ place in history by handling corporate public relations problems ▯ (Pennsylvania Railroad, Rockefeller Ludlow Coal Mines). Edward ▯ Bernays introduced research into the role of the PR practitioner, and his ▯ campaigns for various clients proved that publicity can influence society ▯ and even consumer behavior. ▯ o Research plays a key role in advertising and public relations. ▯ o Public Relations can be internal or external in business. Internal ▯ practitioners are usually in charge of employee relations. External PR ▯ involves dealing with the public, and can include almost any walk of life: ▯ politics, government, business, sports, health, crisis management, ▯ entertainment, etc. ▯ o Public relations is not to be confused with advertising. Whereas ▯ advertising is always paid for, PR messages are embedded in news. Ads ▯ are identified, but people cannot always identify PR approaches in news ▯ or in events. Advertisers generally target consumers, whereas PR ▯ professionals generally target the gatekeeps of news organizations ▯ (editors, reporters, etc.). ▯ o Risk Communication involves communi
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