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Sample Psych Notes

by: Liz Notetaker

Sample Psych Notes 1101

Liz Notetaker
Georgia Tech

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Class Notes
learning, psych, conditioning
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liz Notetaker on Wednesday July 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1101 at Georgia Institute of Technology taught by in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see in PSYCH at Georgia Institute of Technology.


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Date Created: 07/20/16
Lecture 10-Learning • Learning: ◦ Based on experience, not just classroom ◦ produces relatively permanent changes in an organism • Types: ◦ Classical conditioning organism learns to link 2 or more stimuli and anticipate events Unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that naturally elicits a response Unconditioned response: unlearned natural response to a US neutral stimulus: stimulus elicits no response before conditioning conditioned stimulus: stimulus elicits a response after association with US conditioned response: learned response to a previously neutral stimulus Pavlov’s dogs UNCONDITIONED=UNLEARNED CONDITIONED=LEARNED Principles: acquisition initial learning link between NS and US is formed MUST be presented close in time NS begins to trigger CR it becomes CS delay conditioning US and CS start at different times but end together trace conditioning US starts after CS generalization tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS extinction diminished occurrence of the CR without the CS being paired with US gradual dis-association of CS and US spontaneous recovery reappearance of weaken CR after a pause responding will not continue unless CS is followed by US discrimination conditioned responses are strengthened by characteristics: frequency of pairings timing intensity of US ◦ Operant Conditioning type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished by punishment Positive punishment: addition of an aversive stimulus to decrease likelihood of behavior positive reinforcement: addition of pleasurable stimulus to increase likelihood of behavior negative punishment: removal of something pleasurable to decrease likelihood of behavior negative reinforcement: removal of an aversive stimulus to increase likelihood of a behavior Schedules of reinforcement continuous partial 4 types ratio schedule: reinforcement is based on the # of times the behavior occurs reinforcement is given AFTER a specific # of responses Interval schedule reinforcement is based on lapsed time reinforcement is provided AFTER a specific unit of time Fixed schedule: reinforcement is provided AFTER a specific number of occurrences or a specific amount of time consistent and predictable variable schedule reinforcement provided AFTER different rates or different times average number of responses or an average of the time interval explains superstitious behavior-coincidental association of a response and reinforcement limitations over-justification evolutionary adaptation ◦ Observational learning: learning by observing others imitation vicarious learning (learn consequences by watching other being rewarded or punished) bobo doll MIRROR NEURONS frontal lobe neurons fire when performing certain actions OR when observing someone else doing so ex-same neurons fire when a monkey watches another monkey grasp an object or if it does it itself ◦ Implicit learning: takes place largely without awareness of the process or the products of info acquisition Habituation: decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to non- threatening stimuli habituate to stimuli around us airports music sensitization: increase in behavioral response after exposure to a threatening stimulus leads to heightened responsiveness ex. smell of something burning serial reaction time box lights up briefly and participants have to press a button under the light appear random but there is a pattern participants get faster when change pattern, RT slows Lecture 13-Human Development • Developmental Psychology: studies physical, cognitive and social change throughout the entire life span ◦ focuses on- nature and nurture continuity and stages stability and change • Stages of development ◦ prenatal period-conception to birth zygote to embryo to fetus zygote is not susceptible to teratogens but is susceptible to prenatal death embryo has potential for major morphological abnormalities fetus at risk for functional defects and minor morphological abnormalities teratogens: agents that damage an embryo or fetus ex. viruses and drugs Fetal alcohol syndrome spina bifida smoking-leads to SIDS ◦ infancy period-birth to 1 yr reflexes rooting sucking moro palmar grasp MOTOR Development roll over to sit to crawl to walk memory we can consciously recall things after 4 but cannot process and store info during early years as easily infantile/childhood amnesia brain affected by affection received ◦ toddler period-1 to 3 yrs ◦ preschool period-3 to 6 yrs ◦ middle childhood-6 to 12 years ◦ adolescence-12 to 18 years ◦ young adulthood-18 to 40 years ◦ middle adulthood-40 to 65 years ◦ late adulthood-65 years and older ◦ Social development (infancy/childhood) attachment: emotional tie with another person infans and caregivers do things to ensure attachment infants: cry, smile, raise arms caregiver: smile, speak in high pitched voice, exaggerate expression imprinting Strange situation test what happens attachment figure leaves then returns to room secure child-distressed when figure leaves but quickly comforted upon return avoidant child-not distressed when figure leaves but avoids attachment figure upon return anxious/ambivalent child-inconsolably upset when figure leaves and will both seek and reject caring contact disorganized-inconsistent with departure then dazed upon reuniting ◦ Cognitive development (infancy/childhood) cognition: mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating Jean Piaget stage theory of cognitive development observed his kids schemas: concept or framework that organizes and interprets info assimilation: interpreting new experiences in terms of our existing schemas accommodation: adapting our current understandings to incorporate new info ex. girl learns schema for cow sees a moose and calls it cow (assimilation) assimilating new animal into existing schema accommodates her schema for large shaggy animals and continues to modify schema to include “mommy moose” and “baby moose" PIAGETS STAGES sensorimotor (birth to 2 yrs) object permanence stranger anxiety preoperational (2 to 7 yrs) pretend play egocentrism (difficult viewing another’s point of view)\ theory of mind is achieved (can take another person’s perspective) ex. sally and the box concrete operational (7 to 11 yrs) conservation, mathematical transformations formal operational (12 yrs to adulthood) abstract logic potential for mature moral reasoning think of future systematic problem solving deductive logic Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory cognitive development is fueled by social environment interactions bw children and adults help children learn how to solve everyday challenges Zone of Proximal Development difference bw what a child can do and what they could do with help scaffolding (crayons and addition) Moral Reasoning Theories Kohlberg Preconventional actions of right and wrong determined by rewards/punishment self interest fueled conventional views of others matter;avoidance of blame; seeking approval postconventional abstract notions of justice; rights of others can override obedience to laws/rules Haidt (moral intuition ) moral judgements are made quickly and automatically somatic-marker hypothesis visceral response to real or imagined outcomes influences decisions feelings/emotions influence moral reasoning morality by gut helps explain moral intuition finds support in moral paradoxes Eriksons Psychosocial development infancy 0-2 CRISIS: trust versus mistrust solution: children learn that the world is safe and people are loving and reliable toddler 2-3 CRISIS: autonomy versus shame and doubt solution: encouraged to explore the environment, children gain feelings of independence and positive self-esteem preschool 4-6 CRISIS: initiative versus guilt SOLUTION: children develop a sense of purpose by taking on responsibilities, but also develop the capacity to feel guilty for misdeeds childhood 7-12 industry versus inferiority SOLUTION: by working successfully with others and assessing how others view them, children learn to feel competent adolescence 13-19 identity versus role confusion SOLUTION: exploring different social roles, adolescents develop a sense of identity young adulthood 20s intimacy versus isolation SOLUTION: young adults gain the ability to commit to longterm relationships middle adulthood 30s to 50s CRISIS: generativity versus stagnation adults gain a sense they are leaving a positive legacy and caring for future geenerations old age 60s and beyond integrity versus despair older adults feel a sense of satisfaction that they have lived a good life and developed wisdom Adulthood generativity: contribute to future generations through children, career, and other meaningful activities integrity: satisfied with their life physical vigor may decline decline in fertility and sexual activity decreases in visual sharpness, distance perception, light adaptation, working memory, reduced episodic memory COGNITION CHANGES WITH AGE most consistent decreases noted for: frontal lobes hippocampus Lecture 17: Personality • Personality: person’s characteristic pattern


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