Psych 101 Week 1 Notes
Psych 101 Week 1 Notes Psych 101
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Popular in Psychology
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elly Notetaker on Thursday July 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Jim in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychology 101 in Psychology at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 07/21/16
Abnormal Psychology Notes Module 65: Introduction to Psychological Disorders Psychological Disorder: A syndrome marked by clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. Interfere with day to day life Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms Extreme Inattention Hyperactivity Impulsivity Medical Model: The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital. Mental illness need to be diagnosed on the basis of its symptoms and treated through therapy. DSM-5: The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders Guides medical diagnostics and defines who is eligible for treatments. Module 66: Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Anxiety Disorders: Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. Pathological worry, often jittery, agitated, and sleep-deprived, depressed mood, high blood pressure. 2/3rds are women. The person may not be able to identify and therefore deal with its cause. Phobias: An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations. Often followed by worry over a possible next attack. 1 in 75 people. Heart palpitations, shortness of breath, trembling, or dizziness. Smokers have at least a doubled risk. Phobia: an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation. Many people accept their phobias, but some are incapacitated by their efforts to avoid the situation. Specific phobias: may focus on animals, heights, blood, or enclosed spaces. Social Anxiety Disorder: intense fear of social situations, leading to avoidance of such. Aka social phobia. Agoraphobia: Fear or avoidance of situations, such as crowds or wide-open places, where one has felt loss of control and panic. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): A disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions. Persistently interfere with everyday living and cause distress. 2-3% of people – more common among teens and young adults. Only 1 in 5 completely recovered. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience. Persistence of the trauma memory. Reported by survivors of accidents, military, disasters, and violent and sexual assault. The greater one’s emotional distress during a trauma, the higher risk for posttraumatic symptoms. A sensitive limbic system seems to increase vulnerability. Posttraumatic Growth: Positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises. Module 67: Mood Disorders Mood Disorders: Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. Major Depressive Disorder Bipolar Disorder Major Depressive Disorder: A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms, at least one of which must be either 1.) depressed mood or 2.) loss of interest or pleasure. Must have 5 of these symptoms: depressed mood most of the day, markedly diminished interest in activities, significant weight loss or gain and decrease or increase in appetite, insomnia or sleeping too much, lethargic, fatigue, feeling worthless, problems in thinking and decision making, recurrent thoughts of death and suicide. Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia): mildly depressed mood for at least two years. Mania: a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state. Bipolar Disorder: a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. During the manic phase, people are typically overtalkative, overactive, and elated, have little need for sleep, and have poor judgment. Composers, artists, poets, novelists, and entertainers seem typically prone. Elated mood either returns to normal or plunges into a depression. Genetic Influences: Risk of major depression and bipolar disorder increases if a parent or sibling is diagnosed. Heritability of major depression is 37% Rumination: Compulsive fretting; overthinking about our problems and their causes. Module 68: Schizophrenia Schizophrenia: A psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished or inappropriate emotional expression. 1 in 100 people (60% of which are men), 24 million people worldwide. Means “split mind”. Some can exhibit catatonia, may remain motionless for hours and then become agitated. Given a supportive environment and medication, over 40% of patients will have periods of normal life experience while others remain socially withdrawn and rejected their whole life. Usually acquired in young people becoming adults as a reaction to stress. Patients with positive symptoms may experience hallucinations, talk in deluded ways, and exhibit inappropriate laughter or rage. Patients with negative symptoms may have toneless voices, expressionless faced, or mute and rigid bodies. Psychosis: A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions. Delusions: False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders. Hallucination: False sensory experience, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus. Most often voices making insulting remarks or giving orders. Brain Abnormalities: Dopamine overactivity creates positive symptoms Some have abnormally low brain activity in the frontal lobes. During the hallucinations – thalamus is activated and increased activity in the amygdala. Risk factors at birth include low birth weight, maternal diabetes, older paternal age, and oxygen deprivation during delivery. Module 69: Other Disorders Somatic Symptom Disorder: A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical cause. Ex: A wife becomes dizzy and nauseated in the late afternoon – shortly before she expects her husband home. Inexplicable physical symptoms under stress. Conversion Disorder: A disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found. Also called functional neurological symptom disorder. Anxiety presumably is converted into a physical symptom. Ex: Unexplained paralysis, blindness, or an inability to swallow. Illness Anxiety Disorder: A disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease. Formerly called hypochondriasis. No amount of reassurance from a physician convinces the patient that the trivial symptoms do not reflect a serious illness. Dissociative Disorders: Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. A person appears to experience a sudden loss of memory or change in identity, often in response to an overwhelmingly stressful situation. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formally called multiple personality disorder. Each personality has its own voice and mannerisms. Typically, the original person denies any awareness of the other(s). Usually not violent, but in some cases there is a “good” and “bad” personality. Are these patients losing themselves in “roles”? All believe that the symptoms are a way of dealing with anxiety. Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 pounds or more) underweight. Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use), excessive exercise, or fasting. Binge-Eating Disorder: Significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, guilt, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa. Those with eating disorders have low self-evaluations, set perfectionist standards, fret about falling short of expectations, and are intensely concerned with how others perceive them. Researchers gave a 15-month subscription to an American teen fashion magazine. Compared to those who did not receive the magazine, vulnerable girls exhibited increased body dissatisfaction and eating disorder tendencies. Personality Disorders: Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring patterns that impair social functioning. Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which a person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even towards family and friends. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist. Sometimes called a sociopath or a psychopath. Lack of conscious becomes apparent before age 15, begins to lie, steal, and fight. Act impulsively and feel and fear very little. Fearless approach to life, little autonomic nervous system arousal. The genetics for the disorder also puts people at risk for substance use disorders. Reduced activity in the frontal lobe, an area of the cortex that helps control impulses.
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